GRE机考类反单词•笔考机考填空单词

英语词汇 2019-03-12 19 次浏览

机考类反单词•笔考机考填空单词

List 1 abandon----- aggregate
abandon [] vt. 放弃(to give up without intent to return)n. 放任,放纵
(类)abandon•inhibition=voluble•terse 放纵•压抑=罗嗦的•简洁的(反义)
abandon•inhibition=conscious•numbness 放任•压抑=有意识的•麻木(反义)
abandon•inhibition=tranquility•agitation 放纵•压抑=冷静•激动(反义)
abandon•inhibition=despair•hope 放纵•压抑=绝望•希望(反义)
(反)salvage ◆ abandon 救助 ◆ 放弃(to withdraw one's support or help from)
(同)chuck, desert, forsake, quit, renounce, throw over
(例)He abandoned himself to despair. 他自暴自弃。

abase [] v. 贬低降低地位、威望或尊严(to lower in rank, prestige, or esteem)
(类)abase•prestige=damp•ardor 降低•声望=抑制•热情 (动作及其相关对象)
abase•status=shorten•length 降低•地位=缩短•长度 (动作及其相关对象)
curtail•duration=abase•strength 缩减•持续时间=降低•力量 (动作及其相关对象)
(同)bemean, degrade, demean, humiliate
(记)a+base(降低)→贬低
(例)A man who betrays a friend abases himself. 叛友者实为自贬身份。

abash [] vt. 使不安,使愧疚(to destroy the self-possession沉着 or self-confidence of)
(类)unabashed•embarrassment=unheralded•announcement
不知羞耻的•局促不安=未预告的•宣告(反义)
【注:unabashed:not abashed 意思是不知羞耻的。同undisguised, unapologetic, brazen,
shameless, barefaced, blatant, brassy, brazenfaced, impudent, overbold, unblushing】
(反)embolden ◆ abash/ faze 使大胆 ◆ 使不安/ 使狼狈
(同)confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, faze
(记)bash联想:bath洗澡→在别人面前洗澡是令人害羞的
(例)Nothing can abash him. 没有什么能使他感到惭愧。

abate [] v. 减轻,减低(to reduce in degree or intensity)
(类)abate•tax=alleviate•distress 减轻•税=减轻•压力(动作与其相关对象)
abate•force=fade•loudness 减轻•力量=减弱•声音(动作与其相关对象)
abate•intensity=taper•width 减轻•强度=逐渐变细•宽(动作与其相关对象)
abate•degree=discount•price 减轻•程度=减价•价格(动作与其相关对象)
(反)intensify 强化 promote促进 augment 增加 increase in intensity 剧烈增长
(例)the storm abated slowly 暴风雨逐渐减弱。
(同)lull, moderate, relent, slacken, subside, wane
(记)ab(否定)+ ate(吃)联想:不吃是为了减轻体重。

abbreviate [] v. 缩写,缩短,(to make briefer)
(类)abridge•word=abbreviate•letter
删减•词语=简化•文字(动作及其相关对象)
abbreviation•sentence=synopsis•narrative
句子缩写•句子=叙述摘要•叙述(动作及其相关对象)
abbreviation•sentence=abridgment•essay
句子缩写•句子=文章删节•文章(动作及其相关对象)
(反)extend 扩增 protract 延长
(同)abridge, curtail, cut,retrench, slash
(例)to abbreviate the December to Dec 把December 简写为 Dec

abdicate [] v. 让位,放弃(to relinquish formally)
(类)abdicate•throne=recant•belief
让位•王位=放弃信仰•信仰(动作及其相关对象)
(反)abdicate ◆ constitute 让位 ◆ 任命
abdicate ◆ assume 放弃 ◆ 采纳
abdicate ◆ usurp 让位 ◆ 篡位
(记)ab+dic(说话,命令)+ate 联想:不再命令→退位
(同)discard, shed,slough, renounce, resign
(例)to abdicate the office 辞职

aberrant [] adj. 异常的,非常规的(deviating from the usual or natural type)
(类)aberrant•standard=digressive•topic 异常的•标准=离题的•主题
(反)aberrant ◆ normal 异常的 ◆ 正常的
(记)ab+err(=error错误)+ant→走向错误→越轨的
(同)anomalous, atypical, deviant
(例)a rocket on an aberrant course 逸出轨道的火箭

abet [] v. 帮助、支持、怂恿(to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose)
(类)abet•assistance=counsel•guidance 协助•帮助=顾问•指导(同义)
abet•encouragement=elucidate•clarity 协助•鼓励=阐明•清晰(行为及其结果)
(反)【stymie;frustrate;obstruct;thwart;impede;forestall】(阻挠)
(记)联想:因为一个赌,所以要帮助
(同)aid, assist, benefact
(例)abetted the thief in robbing the bank. 怂恿盗贼抢劫银行

abeyance [] n. 中止,暂停,搁置(temporary inactivity)
(反)abeyance ◆ continuance 暂停 ◆ 继续
abeyance ◆ fulfillment 中止 ◆ 施行
(同)doldrums,latency, quiescence, suspension
(记)obey 遵守。联想:遵守停火(暂停)协议。
(例)The law go into abeyance. 这项法律停止生效。

abhor [] vt. 憎恶,痛恨(to regard with extreme repugnance)
(类)abhorrence•dislike=adoration•fondness 厌恶•不喜欢=崇拜•爱(程度)
(反)abhor ◆ greatly admire 痛恨 ◆ 非常崇拜
(记)ab+hor(恨,怕) 参考:horrible 可怕的
(同)detest, execrate, loathe, contemn, disdain
(例)I abhor to tell lies. 我憎恶撒谎。

abiding [] adj. 永久的,持久的(to remain stable or fixed in a state)
(反)evanescent;ephemeral(短暂的)
(同)enduring, firm, steadfast, steady
(记)来自abide容忍 联想:能忍的人能够持久地做一件事
(例)an abiding love of music. 对音乐持久的爱好
an abiding friendship 永恒的友谊

abject [] adj. 卑微的;精神不振的(cast down in spirit)
(反)exultant(得意洋洋的) spirited(生气勃勃地) exciting(兴奋的)
(记)ab+ject(抛扔)→抛掉的→可怜的,精神不振的 参考:reject拒绝,丢弃;project投射
(例)He was made abject by suffering他被痛苦折磨得无精打采。

abjure [] v. 发誓放弃(renounce upon oath)
(反)affirm 肯定 espouse支持 embrace支持
【注:迷惑选项insist。Insist虽然翻译成坚持,但与汉语的坚持又有不同。汉语里的坚持其实包含了
affirm和insist的两者的意思,即除了强调态度的强硬也包含一种从理性角度的支持。如:他坚持insist
要去。他坚持affirm/espouse/embrace真理。这样insist翻译成坚持的时候很容易让我们迷惑。所以
这时候查英文字典才显得很重要。】
(记)ab+jure(发誓)→发誓不要 参考:jury 陪审团perjury 伪证adjure 发誓 conjure 恳求
(例)He abjured the errors of his former faith他发誓放弃以前信念的错误。

abnegation [] v. 放弃,自我牺牲(renunciation;self-sacrifice )
(反)abnegate ◆ reaffirm 放弃 ◆ 重新肯定
(记)neg(反对,否认)→放弃; 参考:negative(消极的)renege(背信,否认)

abolition [] n. 废除,废除奴隶制
(类)anarchist•government=abolitionist•slavery
无政府主义者反政府=废奴主义者反奴隶制
(反)abolition ◆ persist in slavery 废除奴隶制 ◆ 坚持奴隶制
(记)参考:abolish(废除) abolish ◆ establish 废除 ◆ 建立

abominate [ ] v. 憎恶(to hate or loathe intensely)
(反)abominate ◆ esteem 憎恶 ◆ 尊敬
(同)abhor, detest, execrate, loathe
(记)词根:omen 预兆 参考:ominous:adj.预兆的,恶兆的
另类记忆:bomb(炸弹)联想:人们都很憎恶炸弹。

aboveboard adj. 无欺诈的(free from all traces of deceit or duplicity)adv. 直率地,光明磊落地
(be in a straightforward manner)
(反)surreptitious ◆ barefaced/ aboveboard 暗中的 ◆ 公然的/ 无欺诈的
chicanery ◆ aboveboard action 欺诈 ◆ 光明磊落
(同)forthright, plain dealing, straight

abrade [] v. 磨损(to rub or wear away especially by friction:ERODE)
(类)abraded•friction=vaporized•heat 磨损由于摩擦=蒸发由于加热
abraded•friction=desiccated•dehydration 磨损产生于摩擦力=干燥产生于脱水
scuff•abrasion=heat•vaporization 使磨损造成磨损=加热造成汽化
lubricate•abrasion=seal•leakage 加润滑油防磨损=密封防渗漏
(反)abrade ◆ augment 磨损 ◆ 增加
(同)corrade, erode, gall, graze, rub, ruffle, wear

abridge [] v. 删减,缩短
(反)condensed ◆ unabridged 浓缩的 ◆ 未删减的
(反)amplify(扩大) extend in length;protract(延长)
(记)参考:abbreviate(缩写); brief(简报)
(例)The rights of citizens must not be abridged. 公民权利不能擅予削减。

abrogate [] v. 废除(法令等);取消(to abolish by authoritative action)
(反)embrace支持 uphold支持 institute创立
(记)ab(否定)+rog(问)+ate→不再值得过问→干脆取消;参考:interrogate(审问)
(同)discharge, dissolve, quash, vacate, void
(例)This custom was abrogated years ago. 这一惯例多年前业已废除。

abscission [] v. 切断
(反)abscission ◆ process of grafting 切断 ◆ 嫁接

abscond [] v. 潜逃(to depart secretly and hide oneself)
(类)abscond•leave=(steal/ pilfer)•take 潜逃•离开=偷•拿(偷偷与正常)
abscond•depart=secrete•store=lurk•wait 潜逃•离开=隐藏•储藏=埋伏•等待
plot•scheme=follow•shadow=leave•abscond 策划•阴谋=跟随•尾随=离开•潜逃
(记)abs(离开)+cond(隐藏) 参考:recondite(深奥的)condiment (调味品)

absolute [] v. 绝对的,无限制的(complete;totally unlimited;certain)
(反)absolute ◆ qualified 绝对的 ◆ 有限制的
(例)without absolute proof of one's guilt无确实犯罪证据

absolve [] v. 赦免;使无罪(to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt)
(类)exculpatory•absolve=motivational•stir=hortative•encourage
辩解的•赦免=激发的•煽动=劝告的•鼓励(目的)
(反)inculpate 治罪 indict起诉
(记)ab+solve(解决) 联想:问题解决→无罪赦免 参考:solvent(可溶解的)
(同)exempt, discharge, dispense, excuse, relieve
(例)They agree to absolve us from our obligation. 他们同意免除我们的责任。

abstain [] v. 主动戒绝,自我抑制 (to refrain from something by one's own choice)
(类)mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain 强制的•服从=禁止的•戒除(前者要求后者)
(记)ab(否定)+ stain(污点) 联想:不要污点→主动戒绝坏毛病
(例)abstain from traditional political rhetoric. 避开不用传统的政治修辞

abstemious [] adj. 有节制的(restraint especially in the consumption of food)
(类)reticent•talk=abstemious•gorge 沉默寡言的很少谈论=节制的不贪吃
(类)abstemious•indulge=【austere•decorate】有节制的•放纵=【简朴的•修饰】干扰选项
参考:2002/7:timeworn•novelty=convolution•simplicity反义【干扰:austere•decorate】
(反)abstemious ◆ indulgent 节制的 ◆ 放纵的

abstract [] vt. 1. 摘要,提炼, 抽象化 2. 心不在焉
(反)abstract ◆ elaborate 提炼 ◆ 使复杂
abstraction ◆ attention 心不在焉 ◆ 关注
(记)abs+tract(往外拉) 联想:摘出 参考:tractor 拖拉机 retract 撤回,收回

abstruse [] adj. 深奥的(difficult to comprehend;recondite)
(类)abstruse•comprehension=indiscernible•vision 深奥的•理解=看不见的•显现(难以)
(反)accessible(可了解的)patent(明显的)
(记)abs(不)+trus(进入,推)→不能进入→深奥的 参考:protrusion(伸出) intrusion(侵扰)
truss (支架:起到支撑,推一把的作用)
(例)Your statement is a bit too abstruse. 你的话很难理解。

abuse [] v. 辱骂,毁谤(to attack in words;revile)滥用,虐待
(类)declamation•grandiloquence=diatribe•abuse 雄辩•夸夸其谈=恶骂•辱骂(同义)
【注:grandiloquence:a pompous style in language;declaim:to speak pompously】
(类)polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive 好争论的•好争辩的=漫骂的•辱骂的(同义)
diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery 恶骂•辱骂=讽刺的嘲笑•嘲笑(同义)
(例)verbal abuse. 污言秽语
to abuse a privilege 滥用特权 to abuse a horse虐待一匹马
(记)ab(表否定)+ use(用)不怎么好好用→滥用

abysmal [] adj. 深不可测的,无底的(immeasurably low or wretched)
(类)stygian•dark=abysmal•low 极黑的•黑=极深的•低的(程度)
【注:stygian:extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding】
(记)来自:abyss(深渊)a+byss(谐音:必死)联想:一个人跳入深渊必死。

accede [] v. 同意(to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand)
(反)demur (反对)
(记)ac(表加强)+cede(放弃,割让)联想:割让就是同意放弃

accelerate [] v. 加速,促进(to move faster:gain speed)
(类)accelerate•speed=prolong•duration 加速•速度=延长•持续时间(动作及其相关对象)
expedite•process=accelerate•pace 促进•过程=加速•步调(动作及其相关对象)
(反)retard(阻碍)
(记)celer (速度)→加速 参考:celerity(敏捷,速度)

accessible [] adj. 易接近的;可理解的(easy to approach;obtainable)
(类)cache•hidden=summit•inaccessible 隐藏处是隐藏的=顶点是难以达到的(正面特征)
(反)abstruse ◆ accessible/ patent 深奥的 ◆ 容易理解的/ 明显的
(记)来自access (通路,入门)cess(走)参考:success,process

accessory [] adj.附属的(additional object;useful but not essential thing)
(反)accessory ◆ of primarily importance 附属的 ◆ 主要的
(记)刚入门(access)一般都要当下属。参考:process 过程
(例)accessory of a bicycle 自行车的附件

accidental [] adj. 意外的,偶然的(occurring unexpectedly or by chance)
(类)inventiveness•accidental=effect•casual
创造发明•意外的=必然结果•偶然的(反面特征)
【注:effect:something that inevitably follows an antecedent 必然结果】
(反)safeguard•accident=hedge•loss 安全装置•事故=篱笆•丢失(防止关系)
intentional•accidental=arrogant•humble 故意的•意外的=傲慢的•谦逊的(反义)
(记)cid(落下)→意外的 联想:苹果落下是意外的,但牛顿从中发现必然的规律。
参考:incident(事件,事变) deciduous(每年落叶的)

acclimate [] vt. 使适应气候环境(to adapt to a new climate, environment)
(反)acclimate ◆ make unfamiliar with 使适应 ◆ 使不熟悉
(记)ac+climate(气候) 联想:适应气候、环境

accolade [] n. 推崇备至,赞扬(an expression of praise)
(反)accolade ◆ cutting remark 称赞 ◆ 苛评
accolade ◆ speak ill/ derogate 称赞 ◆ 挑毛病/减损
accolade ◆ disapprobation 赞赏 ◆ 不赞成
accolade ◆ criticism 极力赞扬 ◆ 批评,评论
accolade ◆ excoriate 极力赞扬 ◆ 严厉的责难
accolade ◆ reprobate/ reproof 极力赞扬 ◆ 斥责/谴责
accolade ◆ denigration 极力赞扬 ◆ 毁誉
accolade ◆ swearword 极力赞扬 ◆ 咒骂
accolade ◆ denunciation 赞扬 ◆ 谴责
accolade ◆ castigation 称赞 ◆ 斥责
(记)cola 联想可乐,可乐产品在全球得到赞誉
(例)The play received accolades from the press. 这部戏受到报纸的称赞。

accommodate [] v. 提供方便(to provide with something desired, needed, or suited
as a helpful service, a loan, or lodgings)
(类)obliterate•remove=accommodate•supply 删除•除去=提供方便•供给(同义)
(记)参考:commodity:日用品,商品(用来提供生活上的方便)

accost [] vt. 问候,致意(greet, hail, salute)大胆靠近(to approach boldly or in a challenging
or sometimes a defensive manner)
(类)accost•approach =importune•request 大胆靠近•接近=不断要求强求•要求
(前者是后者的特殊方式)干扰:(bequest•give)(glorify•praise)
【注:importune:to beg, urge, or solicit persistently or troublesomely】
(例)We were accosted by a beggar who demanded money.
我们大着胆子靠近一个要钱的乞丐。

accretion [] v. 逐渐增长(the process of growth or enlargement by a gradual buildup)
(类)accrete•growth=erode•destruction=inch•advance
渐增是逐渐增长=腐蚀是逐渐破坏=缓慢移动是逐渐前进
强调逐渐的过程(干扰:endure•tolerance同义)
(反)accrete ◆ wear away 渐增 ◆ 销蚀
accretion ◆ reduction in substance caused by erosion 渐增 ◆ 因腐蚀减少

accumulate [] vi. 积聚,堆积(to gather or pile up especially little by little;amass)
(反)dissipate ◆ accumulate 消散,浪费 ◆ 积累

acerbic [] adj. 酸的,涩的(acid in temper, mood, or tone)
(反)acerbic ◆ sweet 酸的 ◆ 甜的
acerbity ◆ saccharin 酸 ◆ 糖精
(记)a+cer(谐音:涩)或者从形近词acid(酸的,刻薄的)角度进行记忆

achromatic [] adj. 非彩色的, 无色的(possessing no hue)
(类)achromatic•hue=extraneous•essence=transitory•permanence
无色的•色调=无关的•本质=短暂的•永久
(记)a(表示无)+chroma(色彩)→无色的

acme n.顶点,极点(the highest point or stage)
(类)acme•mountain=crest•wave 山顶•山=浪尖•海浪 (事物及其顶点)
acme•surpass=impossible•execute 顶点无法超越=不可能的无法执行
(同)apex , apogee climax, peak, pinnacle, summit zenith(这么多顶点都要记住啊)

acquiesce [] v. 勉强同意;默许(to accept tacitly or passively)
(类)intransigent•acquiesce=deferential•offend 不妥协的•默许=恭敬的•冒犯(反面特征)
(反)resist 抵制 defy 抗拒
(记)ac+quiesce(=quiet安静) 联想:保持沉默→默许
(同)assent, accede, agree, consent
(例)We acquiesced in their plan. 我们只得默认他们的计划。

acquisition [] n. 获得(the act of acquiring)
(反)divestiture ◆ acquisition 剥夺 ◆ 获得
【注:divest :v. to deprive or dispossess especially of property, authority, or title】
(记)来自acquire 获得,得到

acre [] n. 英亩
(类)ream•paper=acre•land 纸的单位•纸=亩•土地

acrid [] adj. 辛辣的,刺鼻的(sharp and harsh in taste or odor)
(类)acrid•odor=grating/ piercing•sound 刺激的•味道=刺耳的•声音(形修饰名)
acrid•gentleness=forthright•guile 辛辣的•温和的=直率的•狡诈(反面特征)
(反)acrid ◆ gentle 辛辣的 ◆ 温和的

acrimonious [] adj. 刻薄的(caustic especially in feeling, language, or manner)
(反)acrimonious ◆ harmonious 刻薄的 ◆ 和谐融洽的
(记)acri(尖,酸)→刻薄的
(例)His tendency to utter acrimonious remarks alienated his audience.
说话刻薄的习惯使他疏远了听众。

acumen [] n. 敏锐,聪明(keenness and depth of perception)
(类)alacrity•prompt=acumen•shrewd 敏捷•快速=敏锐•干练(同义)
(反)acumen ◆ unable to discerning 敏锐 ◆ 不能辨别的
(记)acu(尖)+men →敏锐 参考:acupuncture 针灸
(例)His business acumen helped him to succeed where others had failed.
他在商业上的敏锐帮他在其他人失败的地方获得成功。

acute adj. 敏锐的,锐角的;(医)急性的(having a sudden onset 发作, sharp rise, and short course)
(类)perspicacity•acute=caprice•whimsical 敏锐•敏锐的=反复无常•多变的(名形同义)
(反)acute ◆ mild 急性的 ◆ 温和的
(例)acute disease. 急性病

adage [] n. 谚语(a saying often in metaphorical form that embodies a common observation)
(同)saying, word, proverb, saw 谚语, byword 格言,谚语,笑柄
【注:谚语:民间流传的简练通俗而富有意义的语句,如“急成婚,长后悔”
格言:motto maxim含有教育意义可为准则的字句,如“谦虚诗人进步”】
(记)ad+age(时代)联想:谚语在不同时代都禁得起检验。易混淆:badge徽章

adamant [] adj. 坚硬的;固执的,不动摇的(unshakable especially in opposite)
(类)adamant•flexibility=refractory•control 坚固•柔软=难以操作的•可控制
impossible•execute=adamant•moved 不可能的•可操作的=顽固的•动容的
adamant•yield=cautious•gamble 固执的•屈服=谨慎的•孤注一掷
(反)vacillatory动摇incline to yield 容易妥协的
(记)a+dam大坝+ant 一个大坝上的蚂蚁;哈,如果不够固执和坚强,千里之堤,如何毁于蚁穴呢?
(例)He was adamant in his determination to punish the corrupt officials.
他下了决心,坚决惩治那些贪官污吏。

adapt [] vt. 修改,使适应(to bring into correspondence or make suitable)
(反)adapt 修改 ◆ remain unchanged 保持不变的
(例)a species that has adapted well to winter climes. 很适应冬天气候的物种
(记)ad+apt(灵巧的,适当的;本身就是一个词啊)

addendum [] n. 附录,补遗(a supplement to a book)
(类)addendum•document=postscript•letter 附录附属于文件=附言附属于信件
(记)由add 而来,参考另外一词:append 附加,添加

addict [] v. 沉溺,上瘾(to devote(oneself)to something habitually or obsessively强迫性地)
(类)disabuse•error=rehabilitate•addiction
打消错误念头•错误=使复原•上瘾,沉溺(动作与其相关对象)
inured•tolerance=addicted•dependency 习惯的容易忍受=上瘾的容易依赖
(记)ad+dict(要求)→不断要求→上瘾 参考:dictator独裁者

adhere [] v. 依附,粘着(to hold fast or stick by gluing or grasping)
(反)adhere ◆ detach 依附 ◆ 分离
adherent ◆ forerunner 追随者 ◆ 先行者

adjourn [] vi. 延期,休会(to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place)
(类)convoke ◆ adjourn 召集,召开会议 ◆ 休会,中止
(记)ad+journ(=journey旅行)→ 因为旅行停止开会。参考:journal 刊物 journalism新闻学
(例)The meeting will be adjourned till next Wednesday. 会议暂停,下星期三继续举行。

adjunct [] n. 附属物,附件(something added to another thing but not essentially a part of it)
(类)adjunct ◆ essential element 附属部分 ◆ 基本部分
(记)ad(增加)+junct(结合,连接) 联想:加上连接→附属物 参考:conjunct 结合的,共同的

ad-lib [] adj. 即兴的(spoken, composed, or performed without preparation)
(类)ad-lib•impromptu=side•divergent 即兴的•即兴的=偏向一侧的•偏离的(同义)

admission [] n. 许可入场,录取(the act or process of admitting)
(类)lottery•raffle= ?? 抽彩•抽彩(同义)
干扰:ticket•admission =入场券•入场(行为动作及其凭证)
【注】raffle :a lottery in which a number of persons buy chances to win a prize
此题谬种流传很长时间。lottery并无奖券的意思。这个意思的词是lots,chances。

admonish [] v. 告诫,责备 (to reprove or express warning in a gentle, earnest manner)
(类)peccadillo•sin 小罪•罪(小和正常)
不确定:admonishment•castigation =告诫•苛责(程度)
admonish•denounce=punish•pillory 告诫•公开责备=惩罚•示众(一般/ 公开关系)
pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove 伪装是一种欺骗=告诫是一种责备
alibi• exculpate=warning•admonish 用托词的方式来辩解=用警告的方式来告诫
(记)参考:monitor 班长,监视器(负责监督)
(同)reprove, chide, monish;rebuke, reprimand, reproach
(例)He admonished those frantic football fans to change their wicked ways.
他告诫那些疯狂的足球迷们改变那种捣蛋的做法。

adore [] vt. 崇拜,热爱,非常喜欢(to regard with loving admiration and devotion)
(类)adoration•affection=abhorrence•dislike=fascination•interest
崇拜•好感=痛恨•讨厌=强烈爱好•爱好(程度)
adulate•fawn=woo/ love•adore 谄媚•奉承=热爱•崇拜(程度)
(记)ad+ore说→表白崇拜之情 参考:inexorable无情的oration演说,致词

adulate [] v. 谄媚,奉承(to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly)
(类)fulminate•criticize =adulate•flatter(干扰:scorn•reject鄙斥•拒绝(褒贬))
猛烈抨击•批评=谄媚•奉承 (程度)这题NO2有一道
fulminate•criticize =adulate•flatter(干扰:relate•narrate同义)
将这两道题结合起来,不难发现adulate•flatter在ETS看来的确是程度关系。
aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration 厌恶•没兴致=谄媚•赞赏(程度)
【注:disinclination :A lack of inclination;a mild aversion or reluctance. 不愿,缺少爱好;
比较厌恶或勉强】
(反)scorn 咒骂 disdain 轻蔑蔑视 vituperate辱骂 disparage 贬损
adulation ◆ somber affection 热烈的赞扬 ◆ 低沉的感情

adulterate [] vt. 掺杂,掺假 adj. 伪造的,掺杂的
(类)stickler•approximation=purist•adulteration 一丝不苟的人•近似=纯粹主义者•掺杂
embellish•austere=adulterate•pure 装饰•朴素=掺杂•纯净 (消除关系)
adulterate•purity=enervate•vigor 掺杂•纯度=衰弱•活力(消除关系)
adulterate•pure=bolster/ brace•weak=dismantle•unity
掺杂•纯净=振作精神•虚弱=拆除•整体(消除关系)
demanding•satisfactory= closed-mind•sway【干扰:adulterate•pristine掺杂的不纯净】
苛求的•满意=死心塌地的•动摇(难以关系)
(反)tainted ◆ unadulterated 弄脏的 ◆ 没有搀杂的
adulteration ◆ purification 掺假 ◆ 净化
(例)adulterate coffee with ground acorns; 在咖啡中掺入磨碎的橡树子
(记)与adulate和adulter(成年人)一起记;成年人爱干一些阿谀奉承,掺假使坏的事情。

adumbrate [] vt. 隐约预示(to suggest or disclose partially)
(反)revelation ◆ adumbration 显示,揭露 ◆ 有保留的揭示
(记)ad+umbra(=shadow 影子)+ate 联想:事情有影子→预示 参考:umbrella 伞

adversary [] n. 敌手,对手(an opponent; an enemy)
(类)supplicant•humility=adversary•resistance 恳求者•谦卑=对手•反抗(人物正面特征)
(反)ally ◆ adversary 联盟 ◆ 敌手,对手
(记)ad+versary(=versus与…相对 简写:vs.)→对手

advert [] vi. 注意,留意 n. 广告(to turn the mind or attention)
(反)advertent ◆ inattentive 留意的 ◆ 不注意的
inadvertence ◆ careful attention 疏忽 ◆ 仔细留意
(例)advert to a problem. 注意到一个问题

advertise [] vt. 广告(to announce publicly esp. by a printed notice or a broadcast)
(类)advertising•commercial=publishing•journal 广告•电视或广播广告=出版•期刊(种属)

advocate [] vt. 主张,提倡(to plead in favor of)
(类)exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass 拥护者•拥护=民意调查家•调查
(反)advocate ◆ denounce 主张 ◆ 谴责
(记)ad(增强)+voc(声音,叫喊)+ate 联想:大声叫喊→主张;参考:revoke 废除
(例)He advocates building more schools. 他主张多建几所学校。

aerate [] v. 充气(to supply or impregnate with air)
(类)aerate•oxygen=hydrate•water 充气•氧气=使成水化合物•水
(反)aerate ◆ remove air from 充气 ◆ 放出空气
(记)aer(气:air的变形)+ate(表动作)→充气

aesthetic [] n. 美学
(类)aesthetics•beauty=epistemology•knowledge 美学•美=知识起源学•知识
gourmet•food=aesthetic•art 美食家•食物=美学•艺术
(记)esthete:词根“感觉” ;本身是一个词:美学家。参考:anaesthesia 麻醉(无感觉)

affable [] adj.易于交谈的,和蔼的(characterized by ease and friendliness)
(反)rascible易怒的 testy暴躁的
(记)参考fable(寓言,说)联想:通过寓言向人们和蔼的讲道理。参考:ineffable 不能说的
(例)an affable smile. 慈祥的微笑

affected [] adj. 假装的,做作的(assumed artificially or falsely)
(类)posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant 装腔作势的人不矫揉造作=顽固不化的人不宽容
(反)affected ◆ natural 做作的 ◆ 自然的
affected ◆ artless 做作的 ◆ 朴实的

affection [] n. 爱,情感
(类)kiss•affection=shrug•indifference 吻表达友爱=耸肩表达冷漠
swagger•bravado=caress•affection 大摇大摆出于虚张声势=爱抚出于爱情
mercurial•mood=fickle•affection 多变的情绪=善变的感情
(反)antipathy 厌恶
(记)affect (影响) 受到好的影响就充满爱(affection),受到不好的影响就学会假装(affected)

affidavit [] n. 宣过誓的书面陈述(a sworn statement in writing made esp. under oath)
(类)affidavit•statement=wedding•ceremony 宣誓过的书面陈述•陈述=婚礼•仪式
(记)fid(相信)参考:confidence 信心,保密 confide vt. 倾诉,委托 perfidy 背叛

affiliate [] v. 使成为会员,结盟(to bring or receive into close connection as a member)
(反)affiliation ◆ dissociation 结盟 ◆ 分裂
(记)fili(子女)参考:filial子女的

affinity [] n. 天然倾向或喜好(implies a susceptibility or predisposition on something)
(反)aversion厌恶 repugnance厌恶 antipathy 厌恶
(例)He have an affinity for mathematics. 他天生喜欢数学。

affluent [] adj. 丰富的, 富裕的(having a generously sufficient material possessions)
(反)needy 非常贫困的 impecunious贫困的
(记)flu(流动)+ent 联想:不断流入→富裕的

agenda [] n. 议程(a list or outline of things to be considered or done)
(类)minute•agenda=log•itinerary 会议记录•议程=航海日志•行程安排
syllabus•course=agenda•meeting=itinerary•trip=program•concert
教学大纲安排课程=议程安排会议=行程表安排旅程=节目程序安排音乐会

aggrandize [] vt. 增加,夸大(to make appear great or greater:praise highly)
(反)disparage贬低 relegate降级 efface抹掉 undermine破坏
(记)grand (大) 参考:grandiloquent 夸张的,夸大的

aggravate [] vt. 加重,恶化(to make worse, more serious, or more severe)
(反)console ◆ aggravate grief 抚慰,安慰 ◆ 加重悲伤
(反)alleviate 减轻 succor援助,减轻(to go to the aid of :RELIEVE)
(记)grav(重)→加重

aggregate [] n. 集合体 v. 集合,合计(to collect or gather into a mass or whole)
(反)disaggregate ◆ coalesce 分散 ◆ 接合
aggregate ◆ isolated units 集合体 ◆ 隔离的单位
aggregate ◆ disperse 聚集 ◆ 分散
disaggregate ◆ join together 分解 ◆ 连接,结合
(记)greg(团体) 联想:集合;参考:gregarious(社交的,群居的)

list 2 aggressive ------- arachnid
aggressive [] adj. 好斗的,侵略性的(Inclined to behave in a hostile fashion)
(反)even-tempered 性情平和的
【注:even adj. 平的,公平的,偶数的 参考even-handed 公平的】
(例)an aggressive young executive. 一个进取心很强的年轻管理人员

aggrieve [] vt. 使委屈,使苦恼(to give pain or trouble to)
(反)gratify 使满足
(同)distress,constrain, grieve, hurt

agony [] n. 苦恼,极大的痛苦(intense pain of mind or body)
(类)painful•agonizing=important•paramount
痛苦的•极大痛苦的=重要的•最重要的(程度)
agonized•distress=obsessed•concern
痛苦的•苦恼=困扰的•忧虑(形动同义)

airtight [] adj. 密闭的,不透气的(impermeable to air or nearly so)
(类)foolproof•fail=airtight•leak 极其可靠的不会出故障=密封的不会泄漏
【注:foolproof :adj. so simple or reliable as to leave no opportunity for error or failure】

alacrity [] n. 敏捷,轻快;渴望,乐意(promptness in response:cheerful readiness)
(类)alacrity•prompt=acumen•shrewd 敏捷•快速=敏锐•干练(同义)
alacrity•apathetic=temerity•timid 渴望•缺乏感情的=卤莽蛮勇的•胆怯的(名形反义)
husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate 节约•浪费=敏捷•延迟(反义)
(反)alacrity ◆ hesitance and reluctance 乐意(敏捷,欣然) ◆ 犹豫和不情愿
(反)dilatoriness 迟缓,拖延 hesitance 犹豫,踌躇
(例)He accepted the invitation with alacrity 他欣然接受了邀请。

albino [] n. 白化病 (an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation)
(类)albino•pigment=prairie•tree 白化病缺乏色素=大草原缺乏树

alchemy [] n. 炼金术(medieval chemistry)
(类)alchemy•chemistry=false drug•treatment 炼金术•化学=假药•治疗 (种属,特征"假")

alibi [] n. 托辞,借口,辩解(an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment)
(类)alibi• exculpate=warning•admonish 托词目的是辩解=警告目的是告诫
alibi•exculpate=sophism•deceive 托词目的是辩解=诡辩目的是欺骗

align [] vt排成一行,调准(to be in precise adjustment or correct relative position);结盟
(反)aligned ◆ improperly adjusted 准确调整的 ◆ 调整不当的
aligned ◆ irregular 排成一行的 ◆ 不规则的
aligned ◆ askew/ awry 排成一行的 ◆ 歪斜的
aligned ◆ warped 排成一行的 ◆ 弯曲的
(例)aligning the wheels of a truck. 调整卡车的轮子
We must align ourselves with the workers. 我们必须和工人们站在一起。
(记)a+lign(=line直线,排队)

allay [] vt., 缓解(assuage)
(反)(excite/ arouse/ foment)激化,激起 (干扰:compel 强迫)
increase the intensity of 加重 exacerbate恶化
(例)We expect a breeze to allay the heat.我们希望一阵风能够缓解热浪。
(记)all+lay谐音“累”→都累了 联想:大家都累了,需要缓解一下压力。

allegiance [] n.忠诚,拥护(devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause)
(类)renegade•allegiance=apostate•faith 背信弃义者缺乏忠诚=背教者缺乏信念
pundits•authoritativeness=partisans•allegiance 博学者权威=拥护者忠诚
(记)谐音all+legiance 全立正,表达忠诚
比较:allegation•allegiance•allergy•allege 主张/拥护/过敏/宣称

alleviate [] v.缓和,减轻to make(as suffering) more bearable
(类)alleviate•strength=dampen•ardor 减轻•强度=使沮丧•热情
alleviate•intensity=console•grief 减轻•强度=安慰•悲痛
(反)exacerbate恶化 increase intensity加强
(记)lev(轻)参考:levity(轻率)

alienate [] v. 疏远(to make unfriendly, hostile, or indifferent)
(反)unite 联合 reunite 重新联合
(同)estrance, alien, disaffect, disunify, disunite, wean

alliterate [] v. 押头韵(the repetition of initial consonant sounds)
(类)alliterate•remove=blazon•efface 押头韵难以删除=纹章难以拭除
(例) "The furrow followed free" is an example of alliteration

allowance [] n. 定量(a fixed or available amount)
(类)pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream 少量•定量=小溪•溪流 (小与正常)
(例)We were provided an allowance of time for recreation. 我们拥有定量的娱乐时间。

allude [] vi. 暗示,间接提到(to make indirect reference)
(类)intimate•communicate=allude•refer 暗中传达•传达=间接提到•提及
【注】intimate :to make known subtly and indirectly;hint 暗示
(反)allude ◆ mention explicitly 暗示,暗指 ◆ 明白的提及

ally [] n. 同盟(a sovereign or state associated with another by treaty or league)
(反)adversary / rival 敌手
(记)与alley小巷,小径易混。从读音上区分:all+ly(=lie)→都撒谎 联想:盟国之间都撒谎

aloft [] adv. 在空中(in the air;especially:in flight)
(反)founder ◆ stay aloft 沉没 ◆ 在空中
grounded ◆ aloft 着陆的 ◆ 在空中
(记) loft(阁楼)联想:空中楼阁→在空中 参考:lofty崇高的,高傲的

aloof [] adj. 孤高的, 不合群的(removed or distant either physically or emotionally)
(类)politic•offend=aloof• associate 精明的难以得罪人=孤高的难以联合
gregarious ◆ aloof 爱社交的 ◆ 孤高的
(例)the aloof composer neither worried nor cared about public opinion.
这个孤高的作曲家既不担心也不关心公众的意见。
(记)a+ loof(=roof):一个人在屋顶上,又孤又高。

alphabetical [] adj. 按字母顺序的(arranged in the order of the letters)
(类)dictionary•alphabetical=annals•chronological
字典按字母顺序排列=编年史按时间顺序排列
(记)alpha和bet 是希腊字母A和B的读音。(学数学时经常用到啊)

altruism [] n. 利他主义(devotion to the welfare of others)
(类)altruist•selflessness=connoisseur•expertise
利他主义者具有无私品格=鉴赏家具有专门技术
(反)altruism ◆ egocentric 利他主义 ◆ 利己主义 (egoism)
(记)alter(=other 其他)参考:alternate 交替的,轮流的

amalgamate [] v. 合并,混合(to merge into a single body)
(反)separate 分开 isolate 隔离

ambiguous [] adj. 含糊的,不明确的(doubtful from obscurity)
(类)equivocation•ambiguous=platitude•banal 模棱两可的话•含糊的=陈词滥调•陈腐的
ambiguous•understand=blatant•ignore 不明确的不容易被理解=明显的不容易被忽视
ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth 模棱两可•清楚=虚假的•事实
equivocation•ambiguous=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可•不明确的=矛盾修饰法•不调和的
(反)watershed◆routine 重要转折点◆日常生活
(记)ambi(二)→双重意义→含糊的

amble [] vi. 漫步,溜达(to walk slowly or leisurely;stroll)
(类)amble•walk=chat•talk=doodle •draw 漫步•步行=闲聊•谈话=乱画• 画
tint•suffuse=amble•wander 轻微着色•弥漫充满=溜达•到处溜达,漫游(程度)
(反)amble ◆ step quickly 漫步 ◆ 快走
(记)amble(=ambul 走) 参考:ambulance 急救车 ambulatory 走动的,流动的

ambrosial [] adj. 特别美味的(delicious)
(类)mellifluous•music=ambrosial•food 悦耳的音乐=美味的食物

ameliorate [] vt. 改善,改良,变好(to make better or more tolerable)
(类)ameliorate•improve=admonish•caution 改善•改进=告诫•警示(同义)
(反)ameliorate ◆ aggravate 改善 ◆ 使恶化
damper ◆ amelioration 抑制 ◆ 改进
(记)ameli 谐音:爱美丽 联想:爱美丽所以要不断改善自己。

amenable [] adj. 愿服从的,通情达理的(responsive to advice, authority;tractable)
(反)intransigent 不妥协的 inimical 敌意的
(记)a-men联想基督教祷告语阿门,再联想基督教徒是通情达理的。

amenity [] n. 适意(agreeableness),礼仪(courtesy)便利设施(convenience, facility)
(类)amenity•comfortable=honorarium•grateful 便利设施令人舒适=谢礼用以表达感谢
(记)由a-men继续联想,基督教徒是讲礼仪的。

amiable [] adj. 亲切的,和蔼可亲的(being friendly, sociable, and congenial) (反)inimical 有敌意的

amicable [] adj. 友善的,和平的 (friendly, neighborly)
(反)asperity ◆ amicableness 粗暴◆友善
(记)观察amiable;amicable两词的区别在中间的a和ca,ca谐音为客。联想amicable 为好
客的,即强调对外界人物的态度友好,而amiable强调本身的性格。

amorphous [] adj. 无定形的(having no definite form )
(类)amorphous•shape=errant•course=wandering•course=equivocal•meaning
无定形的•形状=路线不定的•路线=漫游的•路线=模棱两可的•意义
(记)a(无)+morph(形状)→无形状的

amulet [] n. 护身符(an object worn as a charm符咒 against evil or injury)
(类)amulet•evil=helmet•injury 护身符防邪恶=头盔防伤害

anaerobic [] adj. 无氧能活的(living in the absence of free oxygen)
(反)anaerobic ◆ living in oxygen 无氧能活的 ◆ 生活在氧气里的
anaerobic ◆ require oxygen 无氧能活的 ◆ 需要氧气的
(记)an(无)+ aero(空气)→无氧能活的

analgesic [] n. 镇痛剂(insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness) (类)analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation=simplify•complexity
止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉=简单化•复杂性(消除关系)
pain•analgesic=sensation•anesthetic=symptom•palliative
疼痛•止痛剂=感觉•麻醉剂=症状•缓和的(消除关系)
tonic•invigorate=analgesic•deaden 补药•使健壮=止痛剂•使麻木(药品及其作用)
soporific•alertment=analgesic•pain 安眠药•警醒=止痛药•疼痛 (药物及其消除对象)
(记)an(否定)+alg(痛)→镇痛剂 参考:algetic adj. 疼痛的 nostalgia n. 乡愁,思乡病

anarchist [] n. 无政府主义者(one who rebels against any authority or established order)
(类)anarchist•rebel=apologist•defend 无政府主义者•谋反=辩护者•辩护(人物典型特征)
(反)anarchy ◆ order 无政府状态,混乱 ◆ 次序,规则
(记)an+archy(统治)→无政府

anathema [] n. 诅咒,咒逐(one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority)
(类)anathema•curse=theocracy•state 神的诅咒•诅咒=神权国家•国家
(反)panegyric ◆ anathema 赞扬 ◆ 诅咒

ancillary [] adj. 补助的, 副的(SUBORDINATE, SUBSIDIARY)
(反)ancillary ◆ paramount 辅助的,次要的 ◆ 最主要的
(记)an+cillary 谐音:一个希拉里。联想:希拉里是克林顿的助手

anecdote [] n. 轶事,趣闻(a usually short narrative of an interesting incident)
(类)anecdote•amusement=lecture•instruction 轶闻•娱乐=演讲•教导
skit•play=anecdote•narrative 滑稽短剧•戏剧=趣闻•叙事(双重对应:短且有趣)
【注:skit (a brief burlesque) anecdote (a short interesting narrative)】

anemic [] adj. 贫血的, 乏力的(lacking force, vitality, or spirit)
(反)anemic◆strong/ hale 贫血的◆强壮的/ 健康的
(记)a+nem(血)+ia 联想:无血的疾病→贫血 比较:amnesia•anemia 健忘•贫血

anesthetic [] n. 麻醉剂,麻药(lacking awareness or sensitivity)
(类)analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation 止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉
aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs 防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
pain•analgesic=sensation•anesthetic 疼痛•止痛剂=感觉•麻醉剂
aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs 防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
(反)sensation ◆ anesthesia 感觉 ◆ 麻醉
(记)an(否定)+esthete(感觉) 联想:没有感觉→麻醉

anhydrous [] adj. 无水的(free from water)
(反)anhydrous◆wet 无水的◆潮湿的
(记)an(无)+hydr(水)→无水的 参考:hydrate与水化合

animate [  ] adj. 活的,有生气的 v. 鼓励
(反)lassitude◆vim/ animation 疲倦,疲乏◆精力/ 生气
(记) 联想animal,动物不知疲倦,有着勃勃生机。比如我们往往用“野兽”形容一个人精力旺盛

animus [] n.敌意(hostile feeling or intent)
(反)animus ◆ friendliness 敌意 ◆ 友好
(记)anim=animals动物+us我们 联想:动物与我们之间存在着深深的敌意。

annals [] n. 纪年表,年鉴,年报(a record of events arranged in yearly sequence)
(类)dictionary•alphabetical=annals•chronological
字典•依字母顺序的=年鉴•按年代顺序的(事物及其编排方式)
(记)ann(年,一年)参考:annual 每年的,一年一次的

annoy [] vt. 使苦恼,骚扰,惹恼(to disturb especially by repeated acts)
(类)testy•annoy=tractable•control 易怒的•惹恼=易于管教的•控制,管理(容易被)
patronizing•condescending=peeved•annoyed
使领情的•使领情的=气恼的•恼怒的(同义)

annul [] v. 宣告无效,取消(to declare or make legally invalid or void)
(反)annul ◆ make legal 宣告无效 ◆ 使合法
annul ◆ reaffirm 宣告无效 ◆ 重新确认
(记)an+nul(=null零)→取消 参考:nullify取消

anomalous [] adj. 不规则的,反常的(abnormal;irregular)
(类)anomaly•paradigmatic=blemish•flawless 异常的人•模范的=缺点•无缺点的
(反)anomalous ◆ typical/ conformity to norms 反常的 ◆ 典型的/ 符合规范的
(记)a(不,无)+nomal(正常的)→不正常的

anonymous [] adj. 匿名的(not named or identified)
(类)anonymous•identify=nonchalant•excite 匿名的•识别=冷淡的•使兴奋(难以)
(记)an(无)+onym(名称)+ ous 联想:没有名称的→匿名的

antagonize [] vt. 使成敌人,敌对,反对(to incur or provoke the hostility of)
(类)cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize 懦弱•胁迫=愤怒•使敌对
(反)antagonize ◆ placate/ mollify/ propitiate 引起敌意 ◆ 抚慰,消除敌意
synergic ◆ antagonistic 协作的,合作的 ◆ 敌对的
(记)ant(反)+agon(打斗,比赛) 联想:对抗

antediluvian [] adj. 上古的, 史前的(antiquated;ancient)
(类)antediluvian•age=colossal•size 古老的•年代=巨大的•尺寸
(记)ante(前面)+diluv(洪水)→洪水来临之前→上古(大禹后来开始治水)

anterior [] adj. 前面的,在前的(coming before in time or development)
(反)anterior ◆ ensuing 前面的 ◆ 后来的
(同)antecedent, former,precedent, previous, prior

anthology [] n. 诗集,文选(a collection of selected literary works of art)
(类)compendium•summary=anthology•collection 概略•概要=文选•文集(同义)
(记)antho-(前缀:花)+ log(=leg 采摘,聚集)→花的集合→文选
参考:anthomania 花痴 legion 军团,众多,大批

antic [] adj 古怪的, 滑稽可笑的(characterized by clownish absurdity)
(类)facetious•speech=antic•behavior 爱开玩笑的•谈话=滑稽的•行为(修饰关系)
(同)fantastic,bizarre,grotesque
(记)ant+ic 联想:蚂蚁也用ic卡 →可笑

antidote [] n. 解毒剂,解药(a remedy to counteract the effects of poison)
(类)antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation 解毒剂•中毒=药膏•刺激
remedy•disease=antidote•poisoning 治疗法•疾病=解毒剂•中毒
(记)anti(反)+dote(药剂) 联想:反毒的药→解毒药

apathy [] n. 漠然,冷淡(lack of feeling or emotion)
(类)ennui•enthusiastic=fervor•apathetic 倦怠•热心的=热情•缺乏感情的
(反)vehement ◆ apathetic 激烈的 ◆ 缺乏感情的
(记)a+pathy →无感情的→冷淡

aphorism [] n. 格言(pithy maxim)
(类)brevity•aphorism=distortion•caricature 简短•格言=曲解•漫画(正面特征)
euphemism•offensive=aphorism•diffusive 委婉语•令人不快的=格言•冗长的(反面特征)
pithiness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature 简洁•警语=夸张•漫画(正面特征)
(同)maxim, apothegm, axiom, gnome 注意:格言与谚语的不同

apiary [] n. 养蜂场, 蜂房
(类)apiary•bee=cage•pet 蜂房•蜜蜂=笼子•宠物
(记)api (=bee 蜂)+ ary(表场所后缀)→蜂房 参考:apiculture养蜂

apocalyptic [] adj. 启示的,预言的 (prophetic)
(类)apocalyptic•prophetic=inconsequential•illogical
启示录的•预言的=不符合逻辑的•不符合逻辑的 (同义)
(反)apocalyptic ◆ inconsequential 天启的 ◆ 不重要的

apocryphal [] n. 虚假的(untrue;made up)
(反)apocryphal ◆ authentic 假冒的 ◆ 可信的
(记)apo-远离+ cry(哭)+phal →远远地哭→虚情假意的→虚假的
(例)Wildly apocryphal rumors about starvation in Petrograd raced through Russia's trenches.
彼得格勒饿死人的杜撰谣言迅速地在俄军阵营流传开来

apophasis [] n. 表面上否认实际要说的话
例如:I will not bring up my opponent's questionable financial dealings.
我不想提我的对手令人怀疑的财政问题。(表面不想提,实际就是要说的话)
(类)apophasis•claim=oxymoron•paradox
婉转表述•表述=用词矛盾•矛盾(事物与其相关对象)
【注:oxymoron :a combination of contradictory words 例如:cruel kindness 残酷的温柔】
(记)apo-远离+phasis(= say说)→远远的绕圈子说话 参考:phrase 短语

apoplectic [] adj. 易怒的,狂怒的(greatly agitated)
(类)apoplectic•angry=emaciated•thin 狂怒的•发怒=消瘦的•瘦(褒贬)
apoplectic•calmness=callow•mature 狂怒的•平静的=幼稚•成熟(反义)
(反)apoplectic ◆ calm 易怒的 ◆ 冷静的

apostasy [] n. 背教,变节,脱党(renunciation of a religious faith)
(类)apostasy•faith=recantation•heresy 变节不再忠实=放弃(异端)论调不再异端
(反)apostasy ◆ fidelity 变节 ◆ 忠诚
(记)apo- 远 sta=state (国家) 联想:远离国家→背叛

apostrophe [] n. 书写中撇号(')(表示省略或所有格,如 I'M)
(类)apostrophes•word=ellipsis•sentence 撇号•单词=省略号•句子

apothecary [] n. 药剂师(one who prepares and sells drugs)
(类)apothecary•medicine=butcher•meat 药剂师配药出售=屠夫屠宰肉食出售

appall [] vt. 使胆寒,使惊骇(to overcome with consternation)
(反)embolden使大胆 nerve 鼓起勇气 encourage激励
(记)ap+pal=pale(苍白)→脸色变白→胆寒

apparel [] v. 装饰n.服装(clothing, especially outer garments; attire)
(类)gaudy•apparel=grandiloquent•speak 俗丽的•装饰=浮夸的•说话
tonsorial•hair=sartorial•apparel 理发师的•头发=裁缝匠的•服装
(记)ap+parel(=prepare准备)联想:准备好盛装去参加舞会。参考:apparatus设备,仪器

appeal [] vi. 请求, 呼吁, 上诉(to make an earnest request)
(类)remonstrator•dissuade=applicant•appeal
提出异议的人•劝阻=申请者•请求 (正面特征)
(记)ap+peal(=pull拉)→拉过去→吸引

appealing [] adj. 引起兴趣的,动人的(having appeal•PLEASING )
(反)noisome◆appealing 令人不快的◆引起兴趣的

appellation [] n. 名称, 称呼,命名(A name, title, or designation)
(类)foreword•introductory=appellation•designate 前言•介绍性的=命名•命名的
(记)来自appeal请求 联想:请求皇帝册封名号。

applause [] n. 鼓掌,喝彩,赞许 (approval publicly expressed)
(类)mirth•laughter=approval•applause 欢乐•笑=赞成•鼓掌(后者表达前者)
(记)参考:plausible似是而非的

apposite [] adj. 适当的,恰切的(highly pertinent or appropriate:APT)
(反)apposite ◆ extraneous 合适的 ◆ 无关的
(记) posite 联想 position 位置合适

appreciable [] adj. 可感知的,可评估的(capable of being perceived or measured)
(反)appreciable ◆ imperceptible 可感知的 ◆ 不能感知的
ponderable ◆ inappreciable 有价值的 ◆ 微不足道的
(记)参考:appreciation v. 欣赏,正确评价;感激

apprehension [] n. 忧惧(suspicion or fear especially of future evil),逮捕
(类)apprehension•terror=affection•adoration 忧惧•恐怖=好感•崇拜(程度)
(记)来自prehend抓住→抓住精神→忧惧;抓住肉体→逮捕

apprise [] v. 通知,告知(inform)
(类)apprise•information=admonish•warning 通知传达信息=告诫表达警告
(反)apprise ◆ withhold information 通知 ◆ 保留信息
(记)ap+prise学习→学习就是被告知。参考: apprentice学徒

approbation [] n. 认可,嘉许 (warmly commending acceptance or agreement)
(类)praise•approbation=demur•objection 称赞•嘉许=提出异议•反对(同义)
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible 指责•无可责难的=嘉许•应谴责的
(反)execration 咒骂
(记)由prob 联想 probe;探索精神值得称赞。

appropriate []v. 盗取, 挪用(to take use of without authority)adj. 适当的
(类)lurk•concealment=purloin•appropriation 潜伏•隐蔽=偷窃•盗取 (同义)
(同)pilfer, pinch, purloin
(记)ap+propri(自己的)→据为己有→盗取, 挪用 参考:proprietary 所有权,所有者
property 财产 proper 适当的 这个词义由自己的→固有的→恰当的;固有的当然是恰当的

apron [ ] n. 围裙
(类)dropclothing•floor=apron•clothing 地板罩单•地板=围裙•衣服(双重对应:覆盖+保护)
(记)a+pron(谐音:仆人)联想:一个仆人经常穿的东西

apropos [] adj. 适当的,相关的(with reference to;regarding)
(反)apropos ◆ irrelevant 相关的◆不切题的
(记)来自propri(自己的)参考:proper 适当的

apt [] adj. 易于的,适当的(unusually fitted or qualified )
(反)apt ◆ extremely inappropriate 适当的 ◆ 非常不适当的
apt ◆ unlikely 适当的 ◆ 不可能的
aptness ◆ unsuitability 恰当 ◆ 不适合

aquatic [] adj. 水生的,水中的(growing or living in water)
(类)aerial•air=aquatic•water=arboreal•tree
空气中生活的•空气=水栖的•水=树栖的•树
(记)aqu(水)参考 aqueduct 导水管 aquifer 含水土层

aqueduct n.导水管 (a conduit for water)
(类)aqueduct•water=pipeline•gas=vessel•blood
导水管•水=导气管•气体=脉管•血
(记)aque(水)+duct(引导)→导水管

aquifer [] n. 蓄水层(a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock)
(类)shale•lode=well•aquifer 页岩•矿脉=水源•蓄水层(发源地)
【注:well :an issue of water from the earth:a pool fed by a spring】
(记)aqui (=水)+ fer (带来)→带来水的地方→含水层 参考:confer 授予 prefer 更喜欢

arachnid [] n. 节肢动物(including the spiders,scorpions, mites)
(类)spider•arachnid=orange•fruit 蜘蛛•节肢动物=橘子•水果 (种属)

list 3 arbor----- balloon
arbor [] n. 树阴,凉亭
(类)arbor•shelter=hedgerow•fence 树荫•掩蔽处=灌木篱墙•围墙(种属)
(记)参考 Arbor Day 植树节 arboretum 植物园

arboreal [] adj. 树木的(of a tree)树栖的(inhabiting trees)
(类)arboreal•trees=sidereal•stars 树的•树=星的•星星 (形名同义)
aquatic•water=arboreal•tree 水栖的•水=树栖的•树
(记)arbor 树

archaic [] adj. 古老的 (antiquated)
(类)evanescent•permanence=archaic•currency 转瞬即逝的•永久=古老的•流行
meteoric•constancy=archaic•currency 昙花一现的•恒久不变=古老的•流行
(反)archaic◆current 古老的◆流行的
archaism◆modern diction 古语 ◆ 新语(干扰:recent dictation 最近的讲话)
(记)arch开始,远古 参考:archaeology考古学 architecture 最原初的技术→建筑学

archetype [] n. 原型(prototype;primitive pattern) 范例(paradigm ;model)
(类)harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify 预兆•预告=范例•例示
【注:harbinger a:one that pioneers in or initiates a major change:PRECURSOR 先驱
b:one that presages or foreshadows what is to come 预兆】
(记)arche(原初的)+ type(形状)→原型

archipelago [] n. 群岛(group of closely located islands)
(类)grove•trees=archipelago•islands 小树林•树木=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)
galaxy•stars=archipelago•islands 星系•恒星=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)
island•archipelago=fish•school=people •crowd 岛•群岛=鱼•鱼群=人•人群
(记)由arch(弧形) 联想群岛一般是弧形的。

archive [] n. 档案室(place where public records are kept)
(类)archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon 档案室•手稿=军械库•兵器
archive•records=museum•artifacts 档案室•记录=博物馆•史前古器物

ardor [] n. 热心,热情(heat;passion;zeal)
(类)assuage•sorrow=dampen•ardor 缓和•悲伤=使沮丧•热情(前者消减后者)
(反)torpor ◆ ardor 不活泼 ◆ 热情
(记)ard热 参考: ardent热心的,热情洋溢的

arduous [] adj. 费劲的(hard to accomplish or achieve)
(反)arduous ◆ facile 费劲的 ◆ 易做到的
(同)difficult, labored, laborious, strenuous
(记)ard热 联想:天气很热的时候学习真费劲。

argot [] n. 隐语,黑话,行话(secret vocabulary peculiar to a particular group)
(反)argot ◆ standard language/ common verbalism 隐语,暗语 ◆ 规则地语言/ 普通地言语
(同)cant, jargon, slang, vernacular
(记)注意发音:谐音阿狗。阿狗是地道的黑话。

aria [ ] n. 咏叹调(a solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment, as in an opera)
(类)opera•aria=play•monologue 歌剧•独唱曲=戏剧•独白(双重对应)
biography•nonfiction = sonnet•poem 自传•非虚构=十四行诗•诗(种属)
干扰:aria•opera 咏叹调是歌剧中的一种演唱方式,并不是歌剧的一种。
(记)来自 air 空气 因为咏叹调希望运用很足的气息。练声时a---I----a

arid [] adj. 干燥的,不毛的(excessively dry)
(类)marsh•sodden=desert•arid 沼泽•湿透的=沙漠•干燥的(正面特征)
(反)arid ◆ damp 干燥的 ◆ 潮湿的
(记)arid(=ard 热)→热造成干燥

arrest [] vt. 阻止(check),使不活跃 (to make inactive)逮捕
(反)arrest ◆ vitalize 使不活跃 ◆ 使有生气
(记)ar(=ad朝向)+ rest 静止 联想:朝向静止发展→阻止,使不活跃

arresting [] adj. 引人注目的(conspicuous;salient)
(类)blatant•arresting=odious•disgusting 炫耀的•引人注意的=可厌的•令人厌恶的
(反)arresting ◆ banal 引人注目的 ◆ 陈腐老套的

arrhythmic [] adj. 无节奏的,不规则的(lacking rhythm or regularity)
(类)arrhythmic•regularity=apathetic•concern 不规则的•规则=无动于衷的•关注(缺乏关系)
(反)arrhythmic ◆ regular 不规则的 ◆ 规则的
(记)ar(无)+rhythm(节奏) 联想:无节奏的

arrogance [] n.傲慢,自大(pride, haughtiness)
(类)mean•prodigality=meek•arrogance 吝啬的•慷慨=谦恭的•自大
confidence•arrogant=inquiry•interrogatory 自信•傲慢的=询问•质问的(褒贬)
intentional•accidental=arrogant•humble 故意的•意外的=傲慢的•谦逊的
arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir 傲慢难服从=疲倦难激起
【注:defer:to submit to another's wishes usually through deference or respect】
(记)rog问 参考:interrogate质问abrogate废除

arroyo [] n. 峡谷, 小河(a brook;a creek ;a water-carved gully or channel)
(类)grotto•cavern=arroyo•channel 小洞穴•巨洞=小河•海峡(小与大)

arsenal [] n. 兵工厂,军械库
(类)archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon 档案室•手稿=军械库•兵器
(记)英超球队阿森纳(Arsenal)绰号"兵工厂"。

artery [] n. 动脉,要道(a major route of transportation into which local routes flow)
(类)artery•plaque=channel•silt 动脉•血小板=河道•淤泥(后者阻塞前者)

articulate [] vt. 清晰说话 adj.发音清晰的
(类)ratiocination•thinking=articulation•talking 推理•思考=清晰说话•说话
articulate•clearly=shout•loudly 清晰说话•清晰地=呼喊•大声地
articulate•speech=graceful•movement 发音清晰的•说话=动作优美的•动作
articulate•unclear=elaborate•sketchy 发音清晰的•不清晰的=详尽的•概要的
(记)articu(接合) 联想:连接得当→说话清晰 参考:article 文章(由句子连接而成)
articulation 关节

artifacts [] n. 史前古器物(products of primitive culture)
(类)archive•records=museum•artifacts 档案室•记录=博物馆•史前古器物
(记)art(艺术,人工)+fact(产品,产物)→古器物 参考:artifact 人工制品
【注:古代西方的艺术是与自然相对的概念。艺术的东西即人工的,非自然的】

artifice [] n. 诡计(false or insincere behavior)
(反)artifice ◆ candor 诡计 ◆ 坦白
(记)arti(=art 艺术,人工,非自然的东西)→非自然的东西→不纯净的→诡计

artless [] adj. 朴质的;率直的(free from guile or craft:sincerely simple)
(类)blemish•impeccable=guile•artless 污点•无瑕疵的=狡猾•率直的(反面特征)
artlessness•guile=dabbler•dedication 天真者无诡计=涉猎者不投入
【注:dedication:self-sacrificing devotion 有自我牺牲精神的投入】
(反)artlessness ◆ duplicity 朴实 ◆ 口是心非
【注:duplicity:the belying of one's true intentions by deceptive words or action 】
(反)cunning/ guileful/ sly狡猾的 disingenuous虚伪的 affected做作的
artlessness ◆ objectivity 天真浪漫 ◆ 客观现实
(记)art(艺术,不自然)+less (否定后缀)→双重否定表肯定→自然,朴实的

ascendant [] n. 优势 adj.上升的,占优势的 (同ascendent)
(反)ascendant ◆ having no influence/ power 占优势的 ◆ 没有影响力的
ascendant ◆ nonentity 优势 ◆ 无足轻重
ascendent ◆ declining 上升的 ◆ 衰退中的
(同)dominant, master, overbearing, paramount, predominant
(记)a+scend(向上)→优势 参考:descend(下降) transcendent(卓越的)

ascetic [] adj. 禁欲的 n. 苦行者(austere in appearance, manner, or attitude)
(类)glutton•overindulgence=ascetic•self-denial 暴食者•放纵=苦行者•克己
ascetic•self-denial=busybody•intrusive 苦行者•克己=好管闲事的人•打扰的
【注:busybody:an officious or inquisitive person】
ascetic•luxury=teetotaler•alcohol 苦行者•奢侈=禁酒者•酒(前者反对后者)
(反)sumptuous 奢侈的 sybarite;voluptuary 酒色之徒 hedonist 享乐主义者

aseptic [] adj. 无菌的,洁净的(preventing infection)
(类)aseptic•disinfections=anesthetic•numbs 防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
(反)aseptic◆contaminated 无菌的◆感染的
(记)a(无)+sept(菌)→无菌的 参考:antiseptic防腐的,杀菌的

askew [] adj. 歪斜的(out of line:awry)
(反)aligned ◆ askew 一行的 ◆ 歪斜的

aspect [] n. 样子, 外表 (appearance to the eye or mind)
(类)transfigure•aspect=transfer•location 使变形•样子=转移•位置
(同)look(外表), mien(风度), seeming (外观)

asperity [] n. 性情粗暴(sharpness of temper)
(反)mildness of temper 脾气温和 soothingness让人宽心 amiability 和蔼可亲

aspersion n. 诽谤,中伤 (slanderous remark)
(反)glowing tribute 厚礼 flattery 谄媚
【注:tribute :a gift or service showing respect, gratitude, or affection】

aspirant [] n. 有抱负者, 有野心者(seeker after position or status)
(类)aspirant•quarry=hunter•prey 有抱负者•目标=狩猎者•猎物(前追求后)
(记)a+spir(呼吸)联想:大口呼吸,渴望呼吸到更多新鲜东西→抱负 参考:respiration(呼吸)

assay [] n/v. 化验,检验,评价
(类)encyclopedia•compendious=abstract•concise
=百科全书•扼要的=摘要•简短的(事物典型特征)
【注】assay•objective化验•客观的为干扰选项,化验的本质属性并非客观,有些人为因素会造成
主观,比如化验方法的选择等
(记)注意和essay(散文)区别。

assert [] vt. 主张,声明,断言(state strongly ,demand recognition of rights)
(类)calumny•assertion=perjury•testimony 诽谤•断言=伪证•证言(伪与正常)
assert•belabor=tend•fuss 断言•冗长的讨论=关心•过分关心(正常与过分)
【注:fuss :a show of flattering attention 例made a big fuss over his favorite niece】
(记)sert(= serere 加入)联想:加入自己的意见→主张 参考:insert 插入

assertive [  ] adj. 过分自信的,有进取心的(Inclined to bold or confident assertion;
aggressively self-assured)
(类)obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive 谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•有进取心的
【注:卑屈过头表现为谄媚,进取心过头表现为好战 褒贬程度关系】
(反)brassy ◆ unassertive 厚脸皮的 ◆ 谦逊的
【注:unassertive :not assertive:MODEST, SHY】
(同)aggressive , assertory, militant, pushful, pushing, pushy, self-assertive
(记)来自 assert 断言 联想:过于断定的→过于自信

assess [] v. 估价,评价(to determine the importance, size, or value of)
(类)assess•value=plumb•depth 评价•价值=测水深•深度(动作与其相关对象)

assiduous [] adj.勤勉的,专心的(diligent)
(类)rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity 放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•勤勉 (反面特征)
(反)remiss 玩忽职守的 desultory 散漫的 slipshod 草率的
(记)as+sid(坐)→久坐不动的→勤勉的 参考:preside(主持)

assuage [] vt. 缓和,减轻 (ease;lessen pain)
(反)gall 使生气 inflame 激怒 intensify 加强 exacerbate 恶化 incite煽动
(记)suage(= sweet)→使味道甜→使苦味得到缓和→缓和,减轻

assume [] vt. 接受(receive),承担(undertake)
(反)abdicate ◆ assume 放弃 ◆ 接受
assume ◆ refuse/ reject 接受 ◆ 拒绝
usurp ◆ assume rightfully 篡权 ◆ 正当的就职
(记)sume(拿,取)联想:拿来→接受 参考:consume消费

astounding [] adj. 令人惊骇的(causing astonishment or amazement)
(类)indelible•forget=astounding•expect 难忘的•忘记=出乎意料的•预期(难以)
astound•wonder=appall•horror 使吃惊•奇迹=使惊骇•恐怖(前果后因)
(记) as-=ex- 加强语气+tound=thunder雷声 联想:雷声使人惊骇。参考:astonish 使震惊

astringent n. 收敛剂 adj. 收敛的
(类)astringent•pucker=coagulant•congeal 收敛剂•收缩=凝结剂•凝结
astringent•contraction=anesthetic•insensibility 收敛剂•收缩=麻醉剂•无知觉
astringent•pucker=spark•ignition 收敛剂•收缩=火花•点火
(记)a(表否定)+string=绳子,延伸(to stretch out or extend)string→不伸展→收缩。

astrology n. 占星术
(类)astrology•astronomy=alchemy•chemistry 占星术•天文学=炼金术•化学(伪与正常)
(记)astro-(前缀,表示“星,天体,宇宙”)参考:astronaut 宇航员

astute [] adj. 机敏的,狡猾的(having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity)
(反)fatuous ◆ astute 愚笨的 ◆ 机敏的

asunder adv. 分离(into parts)
(反)asunder ◆ in a piece 分离 ◆ 一整片
(记)a+sunder(谐音:“散的”)→弄散→分离
(例)torn asunder撕开

asymmetrical [] adj. 不匀称的,不对称的(not of equal size or similar shape)
(类)circular•asymmetrical=protean•rigid 圆形的•不对称的=变化多端的•僵硬死板的
(记)a(表否定)+symmetrical(对称的)

asylum [] n. 收容所(place of refuge or shelter;protection)
(类)refugee•asylum 难民•避难所

atone [] v. 赎罪,补偿,弥补(make amends for;pay for, expiate)
(类)guilt•atonement=fatigue•repose 罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息(消除关系)
(记)a+tone 谐音:一桶;联想用一桶金来赎罪。

atrocious [] adj. 残忍的,极恶的(extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel)
(类)atrocious•bad=momentous•important 极恶的•恶的=极重要的•重要的(程度)
(同)outrageous, desperate, heinous, monstrous
(记)谐音:抽射;联想足球运动员凶狠的抽射。

atrophy adj. 萎缩的(wasting away)
(例) Polio victims need physiotherapy to prevent the atrophy of affected limbs.
小儿麻痹症患者需要物理疗法防止病肢萎缩。
(记)a(无)+trophy(营养,奖品)→无营养→萎缩。

attenuate [] v. 变薄,变弱,削弱(to lessen the amount,magnitude, or value of)
(类)attenuate•force=decelerate•speed=collapse•volume
减弱•力量=减速•速度=倒塌,崩溃•体积
attenuate•thickness=enervate•vitality=cool•temperature=bluntness•sharpness
使变稀薄•浓度=使虚弱•活力=冷却•温度=钝化•锐利
attenuate•force=simplify•complexity=debase•value=retrenchment•money
减弱•力量=简化•复杂=降低价值•价值=削减•开支
(记)tenu 细,薄 参考:tenuous adj. 纤细的 区别:sinuous 蜿蜒的 extenuate 减轻

audacious [] adj. 大胆的,愚勇的(intrepidly daring)
(类)audacious•trepidation=laconic•volubility 大胆的•恐惧=说话简洁的•口若悬河(反义)
audacious•caution=inedible•food 卤莽的•谨慎=不能食用的•食物(反面特征)
(反)circumspect 小心的(干扰:unscrupulous行为不检点的) timid 胆小的
(记)au 谐音(傲)+ da 谐音“大”→傲、大→骄傲自大→大胆的

audition n. 试听(a trial performance to appraise an entertainer's merits)
(类)interview•applicant=audition•actor 面试•申请者=试听•演员
(记)audit 听 参考:audible 听得见的;auditorium 大讲堂 audit 审计

augur [] n. 预言家 v. 占卜,预测(to make predictions from signs or omens)
(类)intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret=augur•predict
仲裁者•调解=翻译者•翻译=占卜者•预言
maven•experience e=luminary•eminence=pundit•opine
专家•经验=权威者•显赫=博学者•发表意见
worship•sacrifice=prediction•augury
尊崇•献祭=预言•占卜 【注:通过献祭表达尊崇;通过占卜进行预言】
(记)augur=august(八月)联想:八月天气多变→八月的天气难以预测→预言家,占卜

auspicious [] adj. 吉兆的;幸运的;顺利的(affording a favorable auspice)
(反)boding ill 不吉祥的 untoward 不幸的 unfavorable 不顺利的 ominous不吉利的
(同)favorable, benign, fortunate, propitious, lucky
(记)由spi 联想spider蜘蛛;中国传说看到蜘蛛代表吉兆。

austere [] adj. 朴素的(markedly simple or unadorned)
(类)abstemious•indulge=【austere•decorate】有节制的•放纵=【简朴的•修饰】干扰选项
参考:2002/7:timeworn•novelty=convolution•simplicity反义【干扰:austere•decorate】
laconic•speech=austere•design 简洁的•演讲=朴素的•设计(形容词修饰名词)
imperial•significant=spartan•austere 至尊的•重要的=简朴的•简朴的(同义)
(反)baroque 结构复杂的 lavish 浪费的

authentic [  ] n. 确实的,真实的(not false or imitation: real, actual)
(类)genuine•authenticity=entire•integrity 真实的•真实性=完整的•完整(形名同义)
discompose•pacific=fabricate•authentic 使不安•平静的=伪造•真实的
authenticity•fraudulent=sincerity•hypocritical 真实•欺诈的=真诚•伪善的
(反)spuriousness◆authenticity 伪造,欺骗◆真实
semblance◆authentic article 伪装◆真实的物品
authentic◆bogus 真实的◆伪造的
(记)来自author 作家,作者;过去人们认为作家的话是真实可信的;也是权威的(authority 权威)

authority [] n. 权威(power to influence thought, opinion, or behavior)
(类)authoritative•acceptance=conspicuous•attention
权威的•接受=出众的•注意力(易于)
authoritativeness•pundits=allegiance•partisans
权威性•博学者=忠诚•教徒(人物典型特征)
impostor•identity=usurper•authorization
冒名顶替者•身份=篡位者•权利 (前追求后)
contumacious•authority=conservative•novelty
不听命令的•权威=保守的•新颖(前者否定后者)
recalcitrant•authority=reactionary•change
顽抗的•权威=保守的•改变(前者否定后者)
(记)与authentic比较,两者中间一个是en 联想zhen(真)一个是or联想嘴(权威靠嘴说)

autocracy [] n. 独裁政府(government in which a person possesses unlimited power)
(类)pundit•knowledge=autocracy•power
博学者•知识=独裁者•权利(前者拥有无限的后者)
(记)auto(自己)+cracy(统治)→自己统治→独裁

autonomy n. 自治(the quality or state of being self-governing)
(反)autonomy◆dependence 自治◆独立
(记)auto(自动)+nomy(命名)自己给自己命名 联想:独立。

avarice [] n. 贪财, 贪婪(excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain)
(类)avarice•money=gluttony•food 贪婪•钱=贪吃•食物(动作及其相关对象)
stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy 冷静的难扰乱=贪婪的难满足
(反)avarice ◆ generosity 贪婪 ◆ 慷慨 (干扰:sobriety 节制)
contented ◆ avaricious 满足的 ◆ 贪婪的
(记)由avarice联想every 进一步联想:每一个都想要,够贪婪的

aver v. 断言(to declare positively)证明(to verify to be true in pleading a cause)
(反)aver◆deny 证明◆否认

aversion [] n. 嫌恶,憎恨,反感(firm dislike)
(类)aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration 厌恶•不喜欢=奉承•称赞(褒贬程度)
(反)propensity/ penchant/ inclination/ proclivity 偏好,喜欢 affinity 喜好 court 献殷勤

avid [] adj. 热切的(characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit)
(类)reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm 尊敬•尊敬=热望•热心(同义)
(反)avid◆indifferent 热切的◆冷谈的,漠然的
(记)比较arid 干燥 联想:干燥由炎热而来→热切的

avulse [] vt. 撕脱(to separate by avulsion)
(反)link 连接 suture 缝合
(记)a 分离+ vulse 撕断→斯脱

awash [] adj. 浸满水的(covered with water)
(反)awash ◆ dry 浸满水的◆干燥的
(记)联想wash(用水洗)→浸满水的

awe [] n. 敬畏(an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder )
(类)redoubtable•regard/ awe=despicable•scorn 令人敬畏的•敬畏=可鄙的•鄙视 (因果)
(反)awe ◆ Irreverence 敬畏◆不尊敬
(记)与音似的owl 猫头鹰一起记→猫头鹰让人敬畏

awkward [] adj. 笨拙的(lacking dexterity or skill)
(类)craven•admirable=【deft•awkward】疑为干扰选项
怯懦的•令人钦佩的(反面特征)灵巧的•笨拙的(反义关系)
参考:maladroit•deft=voluble•terse 笨拙的•灵巧的=冗长的•简洁的(反义)
(反)svelte ◆ paunchy and awkward 苗条的,瘦的◆大腹便便且笨拙的
(反)dexterous 灵巧的 lithe 优雅的

awl [] n. 锥子,尖钻(a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes)
(类)awl•pierce=pestle•hash 尖钻•刺穿=杵•碾碎 (后者是前者的功能)
(记)awl 变形为 law 联想:寻找法律的空隙钻进去。

awning [] n. 雨篷,遮阳篷(a rooflike structure that serves as a shelter)
(类)awning•sun=umbrella•rain 遮阳蓬•太阳=雨伞•雨

awry [] adj. 扭曲的,走样的(deviating from a straight line or direction)
(反)orderly 有序的 aligned 成一行的

axiomatic [] adj.不证自明的,公理的(self-evident truth requiring no proof)
(反)controversial 争议性的

babble [] vt. 胡说八道(to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds)
(类)babble•sense=parrot•originality 胡说八道•理性=鹦鹉学舌•创新(前缺乏后)
babble•talk=scribble•write 胡说八道•说=乱涂乱画•写(乱与正常)
(反)babble/ waffle ◆ express succinctly 闲聊,胡扯 ◆ 简洁地表达
(记)来自baby 婴儿呀呀学语;引申胡说八道。

backhanded [] adj. 间接的,含沙射影的(indirect,devious;especially•sarcastic)
(反)backhanded ◆ forthright 间接的 ◆ 直接的
(记)backhand原义反手击球,引申为间接的

bacteria [] n. 细菌,培养基
(类)bacteria•decomposition=yeast•fermentation 细菌造成腐烂=酵母造成发酵
bacterium•colony=citizen•nation 细菌•菌群=居民•国家(种属)
(反)host•parasite=medium•bacterium 寄主•寄生虫=细菌培养基•细菌

badge [] n. 徽章(a device of membership in a society)标志(a characteristic mark)
(类)chevron•badge=caisson•cart v型袖章•徽章=载炮车•大车 (种属)
【注:chevron:a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more v-shaped stripes
caisson:a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition】

badger [] vt. 不断纠缠(to harass or annoy persistently)
(类)badger•bother=belabor•mention 不断纠缠•使烦恼=啰唆的提示•提示(重复和正常)
(记)bad+ger(谐音“哥”)联想:坏哥哥不断纠缠。

badinage [] n. 打趣,揶揄(playful repartee:banter)
(反)badinage ◆ serious discourse 打趣 ◆ 严肃的谈话
badinage ◆ sincere conversation 打趣 ◆ 严肃的交谈
badinage ◆ clear reference 揶揄 ◆ 清晰的指出
(记)bad+inage=image 想象→坏想象→下流的想象→黄段子→打趣,揶揄

bait [] v. 折磨(to persist in tormenting or harassing another;badger)
(反)disarm 抚慰,使消除敌意 mollify 抚慰 (干扰:fortify 使坚强)
【注】bait implies wanton cruelty or delight in persecuting a helpless victim /baited the chained dog/
disarm :to overcome or allay the suspicion, hostility, or antagonism of
His smile disarmed us. 他的微笑消除了我们的怒气。
(记)原义:饵, 诱惑物。联想:以饵引诱(动物)→欺负,折磨(哎,动物真可怜)

balance [] n. 天平,秤 v. 平衡,权衡
(类)abacus•calculated=balance•weighted 算盘•计算=天平•称量(工具及其作用)

bale [] v. 极恶(great evil)痛苦,悲哀(woe,sorrow)
(反)bale ◆ mirth 悲哀 ◆ 高兴
(记)谐音“背”北方方言“点儿背”是遭遇不幸的意思→痛苦,灾祸

baleful [] adj. 邪恶的,有害的(deadly or pernicious in influence)
(类)baleful•menace=solicitous•concern 邪恶的•邪恶=关切的•关心(形名同义)
(反)baleful ◆ beneficent 邪恶的 ◆ 仁慈的

balk [] vt. 阻止(block)不肯前行,退缩(refuse to proceed)
(反)balk ◆ move ahead willingly 不肯前行 ◆ 欣然前行
(记)来自bar 栅栏,障碍物

balky [] adj. 不肯前行的,倔强的(refusing to proceed;restive, wrongheaded)
(反)balky ◆ tractable 倔强的 ◆ 温顺的
balky ◆ acquiesce 不听话的 ◆ 默许

ballad [] n. 民歌(a simple song)抒情民谣(a popular slow sentimental song)
(类)ballad•song=lyric•poem=comedian•actor 民谣•歌曲=抒情诗•诗歌=喜剧演员•演员
ballad•stanza=novel•chapter 民谣•诗节=小说•章节(组成)
(记)ball 舞会+lad(谐音:拉的)联想:舞会上拉的(曲子)→抒情民谣

ballast [] n. 压舱物
(类)ballast•stability=truss/ girder•support=support 压舱物•稳定=托架/ 大梁•支撑
ballast•instability=purchase•slippage 压舱物•不稳=支点•滑动(前者防止后者)
(记)ball 球 一个小常识:船上的压舱物是大铁球。

ballet [] n. 芭蕾舞
(类)instrumentalist•symphony=dancer•ballet 演奏家•交响乐=舞蹈家•芭蕾舞
(记)本身是音译词

balloon v. 膨胀(to swell or puff out)迅速增加(to increase rapidly)
(反)balloon ◆ decrease slowly 迅速增加 ◆ 缓慢减少
(记)balloon 原义气球

list 4 balm-------- byzantine
balm [] n. 香膏(an aromatic preparation)安慰剂(a soothing restorative agency)
(类)antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation 解毒•毒=安慰剂•刺激(前者消除后者)
(反)balm ◆ piquant/ irritant 香膏 ◆ 辛辣物/ 刺激物 
balmy ◆ inclement 温和的 ◆ 严酷的
balmy ◆ piquant 芬芳的 ◆ 辛辣的
【注:balmy温和的(mild);芬芳的(fragrant)】
(记)与palm(手掌)一起记;宽大的手掌抚平心头的创伤。

banal [] adj. 凡的, 陈腐的(lacking originality, freshness, or novelty•trite)
(反)banal ◆ novel/ arresting 陈腐的 ◆ 有新意的/ 引人注意的
banality ◆ freshness 陈腐 ◆ 新鲜
banality ◆ original/ original expression 陈腐 ◆ 原创
(记)与banana一起记,香蕉容易腐烂。

bane n. 祸根 (cause of ruin)
(反)bane ◆ blessing 祸根 ◆ 福根
【注:blessing福根(a thing conducive to happiness or welfare)】
(反)bane ◆ benefit 祸根 ◆ 益处
salubrious ◆ baneful 有益健康的 ◆ 非常有害的
【注:baneful 非常有害的(seriously harmful)】
(记)注意和bale灾难,痛苦区别。bane强调灾难造成的原因。

banish [] vt. 驱逐(exile;to drive away;expel)
(类)evict•residence=banish•country 逐出•住宅=驱逐出•国家
(记)ban 禁止→禁止在这个国家停留→驱逐

banister [] n. 栏杆的支柱,楼梯的扶栏(a handrail with its supporting posts)
(类)staircase•banister=garden•fence 楼梯•扶栏=花园•围墙

banquet [] n. 盛宴(a sumptuous feast)
(类)writer/ author•novel=chef•banquet 作家•小说=厨师•盛宴 (职业及其工作对象)

banter [] v. 善意的玩笑(to speak to or address in a witty and teasing manner)
(类)playful•banter=exaggerated•hyperbole 玩笑的•玩笑=夸张的•夸张(形名同义)
(记)谐音:帮他。联想:用善意的玩笑来帮助他。
(例)The students enjoyed their teacher's bantering them about their mistakes.
同学们对老师用风趣的方式讲解他们的错误很感兴趣。

barb [] n. 尖锐而严厉的批评(a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment)
(类)barb•caustic=pan•harsh 尖锐批评•尖刻的=严厉批评•严厉的
(记)barb 倒钩 联想:带钩带刺的,批评。

barbarous [] adj.野蛮的, 残暴的, 粗野的(mercilessly harsh or cruel)
(反)quiescent 安静的 civilized 文明的
(记)barbar(愚昧)+ous 联想:愚昧的→野蛮的

barefaced [] adj. 公然的,无耻的(open, unconcealed)
(反)barefaced/ aboveboard ◆ surreptitious 公然的/ 光明正大的◆暗中的

bargain [] v. 讨价还价(to negotiate over the terms of a purchase)
(类)debate•issue=bargain•price 争论•议题=讨价还价•价钱
(同)huckster(叫卖), palter(斤斤计较)

baroque [] adj. 高度装饰的,过份雕琢的(highly ornate)
(反)baroque ◆ austere 过分修饰的 ◆ 简朴的
(记)由"巴洛克"艺术而来,讲究装饰。

barrage v. 枪弹齐发(a vigorous projection of many things at once)
(类)barrage•explosives=deluge•rain 枪弹齐发•爆炸物=豪雨•雨
(例)the announcement was met with a barrage of protests这项声明遭遇了暴风骤雨般的抗议。
(记)bar(棒子)+ rage(疯狂)→棒子很疯狂→枪弹齐发

barren [] adj. 不育的,贫瘠的(lacking vegetation)
(反)barren ◆ prolific 不育的 ◆ 大量繁殖的
(记)bar=bare(光秃的)→不孕的,贫瘠的

barricade v. 阻碍 (to block off with a barricade)
(反)barricade ◆ permit passage 阻碍 ◆ 允许通过
(记)bar 栅栏,障碍

barter [] n. 物物交换(to trade by exchanging one commodity for another)
(类)jog•exercise=barter•trade 慢跑•运动=以物易物•交易
correspond•letters=barter•commodities 通信•信=以物易物•商品
(记)barter 谐音:巴特尔 著名篮球运动员 联想:巴特尔被交换到NBA

base [] adj. 卑鄙的,低级的(lacking of higher qualities of mind or spirit)
(同)virtuous 品德高尚的 noble 高贵的 sublime 崇高的 patrician 贵族的

baseboard [] n. 护壁板,脚板(a molding covering the joint of a wall)
(类)veneer•furniture=baseboard•wall 木片•家具=护壁板•墙

batch [] n. 一炉、一批一次烘烤出来的数量(an amount produced at one baking)
(类)batch•cookie 一炉•甜饼 不确定答案compound•element化合物•元素
(例)a batch of cookies. 一炉小甜饼

bathetic [] adj. 平凡的,陈腐的(exceptional commonplaceness)
(反)offbeat◆bathetic 离奇的◆平庸的
(记)bath 洗澡 联想:洗澡目的是什么,当然是洗去陈腐的东西

bawdy [] adj. 猥亵的(indecent,lewd)
(反)bawdy◆decorous 猥亵的◆有品位的
(记)谐音:body 身体。猥亵的人对女人的body 不怀好意。

bedeck [] vt. 装饰,修饰(to clothe with finery)
(反)bedeck◆strip 装饰◆剥去 
(记)deck 除甲板的意思外,还有装饰的意思。

belabor [] vt. 冗长的解释(to explain or insist on excessively)
(类)assert•belabor=tend•fuss 断言•冗长的讨论=关心•过分关心 (正常与过分)
(记)be+labor(劳作) 联想:不断劳作→过分地做或说

beleaguer [] vt. 使困扰,使烦恼(trouble,harass)围攻
(反)beleaguer ◆ delight 使烦恼 ◆ 使愉悦
(记)be+leaguer(盟员,会员)→成为会员 联想:成为坏组织的成员后让他很苦恼

belie [] v. 掩饰,证明为假(to show something to be false or wrong)
(反)belie◆affirm/ confirm/ show to be correct 证明为假◆确认/ 证明为真
(记)lie 谎言 两个方面联想:1. 不承认是谎言→掩饰 2. 想证明其是谎言→证伪

bellicose [] adj. 好战的,好斗的(inclined to start quarrels or wars)
(类)imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable 傲慢的•卑屈的=好战的•和平的
(反)bellicose◆appeasing 和平的/ inclined to make pease 和平的/ conciliatory 调和的
(记)bell(=war 战争)→好战的 参考:rebel/ rebellion(叛乱)

belligerence [] n. 交战,好战性(an aggressive attitude)
(类)obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive 谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•有进取心的(褒贬程度)
(反)belligerent◆peaceful 好战的◆爱好和平的
belligerent◆conciliatory 好战的◆调和的

bellwether n. 领导者, 群众的首领 (one that serves as a leader)
(类)bellwether•leadership=advisor•consultant 领导者•领导层=顾问•顾问
(记)bell(战争)+wether 公羊→战时的公羊→领导者

bend [] vi. 弯曲,屈服(to make submissive•subdue,compromise)
(类)bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant 弯曲•刚硬=下沉•浮起(反义)

benediction [] n. 祝福(the invocation of a blessing)
(反)curse ◆ benediction 诅咒,咒语 ◆ 祝福
(记)bene 好,善+dict 说→ 说好话→祝福

beneficent [] adj. 仁慈的,有益的(doing or producing good)
(类)beneficent•harm=tenacious•yield 有利的•伤害=顽固的•屈服
philanthropist•beneficence=comedian•humor 慈善家•仁慈=喜剧演员•幽默
(反)noxious◆beneficial 有害的◆有益的
toxic◆beneficial 有毒的◆有益的
(记)bene 好,善+fic 做→ 做好事→仁慈

benign [] adj.(病)良性的, 仁慈的(showing kindness and gentleness)
(反)benignant◆vicious 仁慈的◆恶毒的
(记)ben(=bene好)→仁慈的

bent [] n. 倾向, 爱好(a strong inclination or interest:bias)
(反)bent ◆ ineptitude 倾向 ◆ 不称职
(记)由bend 弯 引申而来 联想:弯腰本身表示一种倾向

bequest [] n. 遗产,遗赠 (something bequeathed:legacy)
(类)heirloom•ancestor=bequest•testator 传家宝•祖先=遗产•立遗嘱的人
(记)be(被)+ quest(寻求)联想:被寻求的东西→遗产

berate [] v. 严责(to scold or condemn vehemently and at length)
(反)commend/ praise 称赞
(记)rate 除了比率,估价外,还有责骂的意思。

beseech [] v. 祈求,恳求(to request earnestly•implore)
(类)supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious 恳求者•恳求=轻浮的人•轻浮的
(记)be+seech(=seek寻求)→寻求→恳求

besmirch [] v. 诽谤,玷污(sully,soil)
(反)besmirch ◆ honor 诽谤 ◆ 尊敬
(记)smirch n. 污迹 v. 弄脏

bibliography n. 参考书目(a list of the works)
(类)list•bibliography=painting•portrait 目录•书目=画•肖象画(种属)
(记)biblio(书) 参考:bibliophile 藏书家

bibliophile [] n. 爱书者,藏书家(a lover of books)
(类)bibliophile•books=gourmet•food 藏书家•书籍=美食家•食物
(记)biblio(书)+phile(爱)→爱书者

bifurcate v. 使分离(to cause to divide into two branches or parts)
(反)bifurcate◆validate/ coalesce 使分离◆使坚固/ 接合
(记)bi(两)+furc(fork叉)→分离。

bigot [] n. 盲信者,狭隘者(a person obstinately devoted to his own opinions)
(类)bigot•tolerance=turncoat•constancy 狭隘者•容忍=背叛者•一致性(前缺乏后)
bigot•tolerance=liar•honesty 狭隘者•容忍=说谎者•诚实(前缺乏后)
bigot•dedication=rage•anger 盲信者•奉献=狂怒者•愤怒(程度)
bigoted•advice=conservative•change 顽固的•忠告=保守的•变迁(前者拒绝后者)
posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant 装模作样者•不矫饰的=狭隘者•宽容的
bigot•tolerant=provincial•cosmopolitan 狭隘者•宽容的=乡下人•城市的
(同)enthusiast, bug, fanatic, fiend, maniac, zealot
(记)bigot(=by god 上帝作证)联想:什么事情都要让上帝作证→盲信者

bit [] n. 钻头(the jaws of tongs or pincers)
(类)bit•drill=blade•razor 钻头是钻的作用部分=刀刃是刮胡刀的作用部分

bland [] adj. 没有味道的,不刺激的(not irritating•soothing)
(反)tangy ◆ bland 味道刺激的 ◆ 没有味道的
(同)balmy, suave, soft,smooth, gentle
(记)bland(=blank空白的)→味道空白→没有味道的

blandishment [ ] n. 奉承,哄骗的话(something that tends to coax or cajole)
(类)blandishment•coax=medal•honor=threat•intimidate
哄骗的话语用来哄骗=奖牌代表荣誉=威胁的作用是胁迫
(反)blandishment ◆ threat 哄骗(软方法)◆ 威胁(手段强硬)
(同)flattery, adulation , allurement
(记)bland(温和)+ish(动作)→ 用温和的方法来哄骗

blasé [] adj. 厌倦享乐的,冷漠的(bored with pleasure or dissipation)
(类)miser•munificent=zealot•blasé 吝啬鬼不慷慨=狂热者不冷漠
(同)disenchanted,unconcerned

blast [] n. 一阵猛烈的强风(a violent gust of wind)
(类)blast•whiff=gush•trickle 强风吹•轻轻吹=涌出•缓缓流出(程度)

blatant [] adj. 喧哗的;非常明显的(completely obvious conspicuous, or obtrusive)
(类)ambiguous•understand=blatant•ignore 模棱两可的不容易理解=显著的不容易忽略
blatant•arresting=odious•disgusting 醒目的引人注意=讨厌的令人厌恶
(反)blatant◆inconspicuous 不明显的 unimpressive 不显眼的 subtle细微而不容易察觉的
(记)blat本身是一个词(喋喋不休)→喧哗的 参考:blatter 滔滔不绝地说

blazon [] n. 纹章;卖弄(ostentatious display)v. 刻纹章
(类)alliterate•remove=blazon•efface 头韵难以被删除=纹章难以被拭除
blazon•adorn=pillar•support 纹章用来装饰=柱子用来支持
(反)blazon◆efface 刻纹章◆抹掉
diffidence◆blazonness 缺乏自信而保守◆卖弄的显示

blemish [] v. 损害n. 缺点(to spoil by a flaw)
(类)blemish•impeccable=guile•artless 缺点•没有缺点的=狡诈•朴实的
anomaly•paradigmatic=blemish•flawless 异常•典范的=缺点•无缺点的
unequivocable•ambiguous=spotless•blemish 不含糊的•模糊的=无污点的•污点
(同)harm, hurt, spoil, vitiate, damage
(记)blem(损伤) 与problem一起记;有问题也就是有缺点。

blight [blaIt] vt. 破坏,使枯萎;vi.枯萎
(反)blight ◆ flourish 枯萎 ◆ 茂盛(干扰:cause to energetic使精力旺盛)
【注:blight做枯萎意思时指植物,没有引申指人萎靡不振,而茂盛可指植物】
blighted ◆ hale/sound/ robust 枯萎的 ◆ 强壮的,健壮的
blighted ◆ unblemished 毁坏的,枯萎的 ◆ 无损坏的
(记)b(不的音)+light → 没有阳光就枯萎了

bliss [] n. 极度快乐(complete happiness)
(类)dislike•loathing=pleasure•bliss 不喜欢•非常厌恶=快乐•极度快乐(程度)
(同)happiness, beatitude, blessedness
(记)bliss(发音为"不理事") → 不用做事很快乐

blithe [] adj. 愉快的(of a happy lighthearted character or disposition)
(反)blithe◆grave 愉快的◆沉重的

blueprint n. 蓝图,设计图,计划(a detailed plan or program of action)
(类)wood• carpenter=blueprint• architect 木头•木匠(设计图•建筑师人物及其工作对象)
(记)blue + print 印

blunder [] n.大错(a gross error or mistake)v. 犯大错
(类)protocol•blunder=bumper•damage 礼节防止犯大错=保险杆防止损坏
【注:bumper:保险杠a usually metal bar at either end of an automobile】
(同)boner, bungle, lapse, mistake, slip
(记)和plunder(抢劫)一起记。抢劫是大错。

blunt [] vt. 使变钝(to make less sharp or definite)
(类)attenuation•strength=bluntness•sharpness 使浓度变稀薄=使锐利的变迟钝]
(反)blunt◆whet 使变钝◆磨快
(同)disedge, obtund, dull

blur [] v. 使模糊(to make indistinct and hazy in outline or appearance;obscure)
(类)blur•definition=subjugate•independence 使模糊以消除清晰度=使屈服以消除独立性
(同)besmirch, discolor, smudge, stain, tarnish

blurb [] n. 简短的公告a short publicity notice (as on a book jacket)
(类)blurb•notice=gloss•explanation=cameo•appearance
简短公告•公告=简短解释•解释=简短表演•表演(前者是后者的简化版)
【注:gloss• a brief explanation ;cameo:Broadly:any brief appearance】

blurt [] vt. 突然说出,冲动的说出(to utter abruptly and impulsively, usually used with out)
(类)flit•move=blurt•utter 迅速飞过•移动=突然说出•出声(快•正常)
(同)exclaim, ejaculate

blush [] v. n. 脸红(a reddening of the face especially from shame, modesty, or confusion)
(类)blush•embarrassment=smile•pleasure 因困窘而脸红=因高兴而微笑

bluster [] v.吵闹;狂妄自大地说或做(to be windy and boisterous)
(类)blustering•speak=swaggering•walk 狂妄的说话•说话=大摇大摆的走路•走路(种属)
bluster•loud=pontificate•pompous=drawl•slow= prate•aimless
吵闹•高声的=装模做样地说话•华而不实的=懒洋洋的说话•缓慢的=闲聊•无目的的
(同)roar, bawl,bellow, clamor, rout

boast [] n. v. 自夸(the act or an instance of boasting)
(同)blowhard•boastful=toady•obsequious 吹牛的人•自夸的=拍马屁的人•谄媚的
boast•pride=complain•discontent 夸耀•骄傲=抱怨•不满(前者表达后者)

boding [] n.前兆,特别是凶兆(an omen, prediction, or presentiment)
(类)auspicious ◆ boding ill 吉祥的 ◆ 凶兆的
(同)ominous, ill-omened, inauspicious, unpropitious
(记)bode(预示)+ing → 前兆,凶兆

bodyguard [] n. 警卫(a usually armed attendant whose duty is to protect a person)
(类)bodyguard•person=soldier•country 警卫保护人=士兵保卫国家
(记)body(身体)+guard(受到保护)→ 警卫

boggle v. 因为怀疑,恐惧而犹豫(to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples)
(类)boggle ◆ embolden 犹豫 ◆ 使大胆
(同)balk, demur, scruple, stumble

boisterous adj. 吵闹的(noisily turbulent)
(类)boisterous ◆ quiet 吵闹的 ◆ 安静的
(同)vociferous, blatant, clamorous
(记)boister(吵闹的)+ ous → 吵闹的

bolster [] 支持(a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support)
(类)bolster•support=tackle•hoist 支撑物用来支撑=吊索用来提升(事物及其作用)
adulterate•pure=(bolster/brace)•weak 掺杂的•纯净=支持•虚弱(消除关系)
(反)thwart ◆ foment/ foster/ bolster 阻挠 ◆ 煽动/鼓励/支持
bolster ◆ decrease support of 支持 ◆ 减少支持
bolster ◆ undermine 支持 ◆ 破坏
(同)support, brace, buttress, prop, uphold

bombast [] n. 夸大的言辞(pretentious inflated speech or writing)
(类)nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast 荒谬的•胡言乱语=夸大的•夸大的言辞
bombast•pompous=tirade•critical 夸大的话•夸大的=长篇攻击性的演说•批评的
(反)bombast ◆ down to earth language 夸大的言辞 ◆ 实事求是的话
bombastic ◆ understated 夸大的 ◆ 不夸张的,朴素的
bombastic ◆ unpretentious 夸大的 ◆ 谦逊的
(同)fustian, rodomontade, rant, rhapsody, rhetoric
(记)bomb+ast→说话像炸弹,很夸张

bonhomie [] n.温和,和蔼(good-natured easy friendliness)
(类)genial•bonhomie=diplomatic•tact 温和的•温和 =老练的•老练(形名同义)
(记)bon(好的)→ 温和的

bonus [] n. 奖金,红利
(类)bonus•employee=decoration•soldier 奖金•雇员=勋章•战士(奖励关系)

boo [] v. 嘘(表示不满或嘲笑)(express contempt, scorn, or disapproval of by booing)
(反)snare ◆ boo 诱捕,诱惑 ◆ 嘘,轰赶
【注:诱惑是往里面拉;嘘是往外头赶】

boon [] n. 恩惠, 福利(benefit,favor)
(反)boon ◆ misfortune 恩惠 ◆ 灾祸
(同)gift, benevolence, largess

boor [] n.迟钝的人, 粗野的人(a rude or insensitive person)
(类)insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp 迟钝的•迟钝的人=淘气的•顽童
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton 迟钝的人不敏感=笨蛋不聪明
(反)boor ◆ civil person 粗人 ◆ 有修养的人
(记)boo(被嘲笑)→ 迟钝的人被嘲笑
(同)chuff, churl, clodhopper

bootless [] adj. 无用的 (useless,unprofitable)
(类)bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence 无用的•无用的=辉煌的• 辉煌的
interesting•intriguing=bootless•futile 有趣的•有趣的=无用的•无用的
bootless•futility=void•empty 无用的•无用的=空的•空的
(记)参考:boot(靴子)
(同)futile, ineffective, useless, vain

bore [] vt.钻孔,厌倦 (to make a hole by or as if by boring)
(类)die • shaping=drill • boring 冲模用来整形=钻孔机用来打洞
food • hunger=stimulation • boredom 食物消除饥饿=刺激物消除厌倦
(反)entrance ◆ disappoint/ disgust/ repel/ repulse/ bore
使人入神的 ◆ 使失望/使厌恶/抵制/憎恶/使烦扰
(同)ennui, pall, tire, weary

bound [] n. 限制(to confine, restrain, or restrict as if with bonds)
(类)boundless•limit=impeccable•flaw 无限制的•限制=没缺点的•缺点
boundless•extensive=interminable•lengthy 无限的•宽广的=无限的•冗长的(程度)
(反)boundless ◆ limited 没有限制的 ◆ 有限制的
boundary ◆ unrestrainedness 界限 ◆ 无限制

bouquet [] n. 花束
(类)bouquet•flowers=woodpile•logs 花束•花=木料堆•圆木 (组成)
bouquet•flowers=constellation•star 花束•花=星座•星星 (组成)

boycott [] vt. 联合抵制
(反)boycott ◆ patronize 抵制 ◆ 资助

bracing [] n.支持;adj.令人振奋的(giving strength, vigor, or freshness)
(反)bracing ◆ vapid 令人振奋的 ◆ 乏味的
denounce ◆ bracing 指责 ◆ 支持
(记)brace(支撑)+ing → 支持
(同)exhilarating, stimulating,tonic, vitalizing, animating

bracket [] n. 支架, 托架
(类)buttress•wall=bracket•shelf 扶壁用来支持墙壁=支架用来支撑架子

braid [breId] v.编织(made by intertwining three or more strands)
(类)grooved•striated=braided•stranded 开槽的•有条纹的=编织成的•梳成辫子的(同义)

brake [] n.刹车(to retard or stop by a brake)
(类)divert•shunt=retard•brake 转移•使转轨=减速•刹车(行为及其特定目的)
brake•decelerate=clamp•compression 刹车•减速=夹钳•压缩(行为及其后果)
【注:clamp :Any of various devices used to join, grip, support, or compress mechanical or
structural parts. 某种设备用来连接、抓住、支持或压缩结构性的部件】
(同)hinder, bar, block, impede, obstruct

brash [] adj 轻率的,仓促的(done in haste without regard for consequences)
(类)frivolous•gravity=brash•discretion 琐碎的•重大=轻率的•慎重周到
candor•subterfuge=brash•deliberate 坦白•托词=仓促的•深思熟虑的
(同)rash, hasty, incautious, inconsiderate, reckless, thoughtless

brassy [] adj. 厚脸皮的 ,不知羞耻的(being shamelessly bold)
(反)diffident 羞怯的 furtive 秘密的 humble 谦逊的unassertive 谦逊的
(记)brass(铜的)+y → 铜的皮很厚→ 厚脸皮
(同)shameless, barefaced, brazen, brazenfaced, impudent, unabashed

brattish [] adj. 淘气的,无礼的(ill-mannered annoying)
(类)tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous
吝啬的•吝啬的=淘气的•恶作剧的(同义)
(记)brat(小子)+tish → 小朋友比较淘气

bravado [  ] n, 假装勇敢,虚张声势
(类)courageous•bravado=complimentary•fulsomeness
勇敢的•虚张声势=称赞的•不真诚的称赞(褒贬)
【注:fulsome:offensively flattering or insincere. 令人不快地恭维的或不真诚的
例:He was too fulsome in his praise. 他的赞美太虚假。】

bravura [] n. 出色的表演(a show of daring or brilliance)
(类)bravura•performance=resplendent•appearance 出色的表演•表演=华丽的外表•外表

brazen [] adj.厚颜无耻的(marked by contemptuous boldness)
(类)impudence•brazen=deadpan•impassive 厚颜无耻•厚颜无耻的=无表情的脸•冷漠的
(反)brazen ◆ modest 厚颜无耻的 ◆ 谦虚的
brazen ◆ self effacing 厚颜无耻的 ◆ 害羞的
brazen ◆ diffident 厚颜无耻的 ◆ 缺乏自信的
(记)brass(厚脸皮的)+en → 厚颜无耻的
(同)shameless, barefaced,brazenfaced, impudent, unabashed

breach [] v. 使破裂, 破坏(to make a breach in)
(类)breach•continuity=disturb•repose 破坏连续性 =扰乱休息(动宾关系)
(反)breach ◆ solder 破裂 ◆ 焊合
(同)break, fissure, fracture, rupture

breezeway [] n. 有屋顶的通路
(类)breezeway•building=stairway•floor 有屋顶的通路•建筑物=楼梯•楼层(事物及相关对象)

brevity [] n.简短,简洁(shortness or conciseness of expression)
(类)brevity•aphorism=distortion•caricature 格言比较简短=滑稽模仿比较歪曲
exaggeration•caricature=brevity•epigram 讽刺画通常比较夸张=箴言通常比较简短
(反)brevity ◆ lengthiness 简短 ◆ 冗长
(记)bret(短的)+ ity → 简短
(同)conciseness, shortness

bribe [] v. & n. 贿赂,收买(to induce or influence by or as if by bribery)
(类)bribe•incorruptible=affect•insensible 不腐败的的不会行贿=无知觉的的不会感动

bridle [] v. 限制(to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle)
(类)bridled ◆ without restraint 受限制的 ◆ 没有限制的

brisk [] adj. 活泼的(keenly alert)
(反)brisk ◆ ponderous 活泼的 ◆ 沉闷的
【注:ponderous :lacking grace or fluency 缺乏优雅和连贯,沉闷的】
(记)b+risk(冒险)→ 敢冒险的比较活泼
(同)agile, active, lively, sprightly, spry

bristle [] v.怒发冲冠(to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance)
(类)bristle•anger=vacillate•unresolution 怒发冲冠•愤怒=忧郁不定•不坚决(动名同义)
干扰:(condone•mercy)(condemn•warning)
(反)bristle ◆ cower 怒发冲冠 ◆ 畏缩
(同)anger, boil, burn, fume, rage, seethe
(记)bristle 原义鬃毛,因发怒鬃毛直立,被称作怒发冲冠。

brittle [] adj. 易碎的,脆弱的,易坏的(easily broken, cracked, or snapped)
(类)manifest•perceive=brittle•break 明显的容易认识到=易碎的容易破碎
(同)crisp, crumbly, crunchy, friable
(记)与bottle(瓶子)一起记,瓶子是容易碎的。

broach [] v.开启;开矿;论文开题(open up)
(反)broach ◆ close off 开启 ◆ 关闭
(记)与breach(缺口;突破)一起记,打开缺口。

bromide [] n.陈腐的意见(a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion)
(类)equivocation•misleading=bromide•hackneyed
模棱两可的话•易引起误解的=陈腐的意见•陈腐的(事物典型特征)
(反)bromide ◆ unhackneyed 陈腐的 ◆ 新奇的
(同)commonplace, banality, platitude, tag

brook [] n. 容忍(to stand for ;tolerate)
(反)brook ◆ refuse to tolerate 容忍 ◆ 拒绝忍受

browbeat [] vt. 威吓(to intimidate by a stern manner or arrogant speech)
(类)instigator•incite=bully•browbeat 煽动者善于煽动=欺凌弱小者善于威吓
(记)brow(眉毛)+beat(打架)→ 皱起眉毛进行恐吓
(同)intimidate, bluster, bully, cow

bruit [] vt. 散播(to noise abroad)
(反)bruit ◆ keep secret 散播 ◆ 保持秘密
(同)declare, announce, annunciate, broadcast, proclaim, promulgate

buck [] v. 反对(to refuse assent;balk)
(反)buck ◆ assent to 反对 ◆ 赞成
(同)oppose, resist, dispute, repel, traverse

bucolic [] adj. 乡村的,田园的(relating to or typical of rural life)
(类)hovel•palatial=city•bucolic 小屋•宏伟的=城市•乡村的
palatial•hovel=bucolic•metropolis 宏伟的•小屋=乡村的•大都市
(反)bucolic ◆ urban 乡村的 ◆ 都市的
bucolic ◆ sophisticated 乡土的 ◆ 世故的
(记)buc(牛)+olic(养)→ 养牛的→乡村
(同)rural, countrified, outland, pastoral, rustic

budge [] vi. 移动(move;shift)退让 (to give way;yield)
(类)palter•candor=diehard•budge 敷衍不会坦白=顽固分子不会退让
vagary•predict=diehard•budge 奇特行为是难以预知的=顽固的人是难以退让的

buffoon [] n.小丑(a ludicrous figure;clown)
(类)ludicrous•buffoon=dissolute•libertine=humorous•wag
滑稽的•小丑=放纵的•放荡的人=幽默的•搞笑者
inexperience•neophyte=ludicrous•buffoon 缺乏经验•新手 =滑稽•小丑
(记)谐音“布冯” 意大利守门员,这次世界杯的表演象小丑一样。

bulge [] n. 凸出部分(a protuberant or swollen part or place)
(反)bulge ◆ depressed region 凸出部分 ◆ 凹陷部分

bully [] n. 欺凌弱小者(one habitually cruel to others who are weaker)
(类)instigator•incite=bully•browbeat 煽动者善于煽动=欺凌弱小者善于威吓
bully•intimidate=stupid•gullibility 欺凌弱小者善于威吓=笨人容易上当
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation 破坏•颠覆=暴力•威吓(前是后的手段)
【注:bull n.公牛 v.暴力行事(to act on with violence)】
(反)underdog ◆ bully 被欺负的人 ◆ 欺凌弱小者
(同)browbeater, harrier, hector, intimidator

bumptious [] adj. 傲慢的,自夸的(presumptuously, noisily self-assertive)
(类)impetuous•vacillation=dour•geniality=bumptious•humbleness
冲动的人不会犹豫=严厉的人不亲切=傲慢的人不谦逊
bumptious•assertive=garish•colourful自大的•非常自信的=炫耀的•华丽的(褒贬程度)
干扰:(compendious•succinct 同义)(exuberant•happy同义)
exuberant :full of unrestrained enthusiasm or joy 喜悦充溢的

bungle [] vt.vi. 办糟,失败(to act or work clumsily and awkwardly)
(反)bungle ◆ bring off 失败 ◆ 成功
(同)blunder, boner, lapse, mistake, slip

buoy [] vt.支撑 (support;uplift)
(反)buoyed ◆ unsupported 支撑的 ◆ 没有支持的
(同)support, bolster, prop, sustain, uphold

buoyant [] adj.有浮力的(capable of floating),快乐的(cheerful,gay) (类)bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant 坚硬的不会弯曲=有浮力的不会沉
buoyant•sink=insoluble•dissolve 有浮力的不会下沉=不溶的不会溶解
buoyant•float=heavy•drop 有浮力的•漂浮=重的•落下(前者容易实现后者)
(反)buoyant ◆ hangdog /aggrieved 快乐的 ◆ 垂头丧气的/ 痛苦的
buoyant ◆ leaden 轻快的 ◆ 沉重的
(同)bouncy, effervescent, resilient, volatile

burgeon [] v. 萌芽(to send forth new growth);迅速成长(to grow rapidly)
(类)grow•burgeon=beat•palpitate 成长•生长=跳动•跳动(同义)
(反)wither,subside,subdue,wane,waste away 衰退
(同)increase, augment, expand, heighten, multiply,
(记)bur(谐音:播)+ geon(=germ 种子,萌芽,细菌)→播种子→萌芽,迅速生长
参考:the germ of a project. 计划的雏形

burlesque [] n. 讽刺的嘲笑(mockery usually by caricature)滑稽戏
(类)diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery 恶骂•辱骂=讽刺的嘲笑•嘲笑(同义)
doggerel•verse=burlesque•play 打油诗•诗=滑稽的戏剧•戏剧(种属)
burra[ wool ] 源自 burra[ 模糊的

burnish [] v. 擦亮,磨光(to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing)
(类)numb•insensible=burnish•lustrous 失去知觉•无知觉的=磨光•有光泽的
burnish•dull=mar•flawless 磨光•暗淡的=损坏•无缺点的(前者消除后者)
(记)burn(烧)+ish → 烧热了会发亮
(同)polish, furbish, gloss, rub, shine

burrow [] n. (兔子等)动物所掘的洞(hole)
(类)ditch•canyon=burrow•cavern 沟•峡谷=地洞•大洞(程度)
(记)bu(谐音:扒)+ row(排)→一排一排的扒→兔子扒的洞

butter [] n. 黄油
(类)butter•margarine=sugar•saccharin 黄油•人造黄油=糖•糖精(天然•人造)

buttress [] n. 扶墙 vt. 支持
(类)strut•wing=buttress•wall 支杆用来支持机翼=扶墙用来支持墙壁
buttress•edifice=splint•limb 扶墙用来支持大厦=夹板用来支持四肢
(反)contravene ◆ buttress 反对 ◆ 支持
challenge ◆ buttress 质疑 ◆ 支持
【注:challenge :to take exception to; call into question; dispute:表示异议;质疑;争议】
(同)support, bolster, brace, prop, sustain, uphold
(记)butt=bout 原义抵抗。后发展为两个方向 1、bout较量,回合 2、支持,支撑

byline [] n. 标题下的署名
(类)article•byline=movie•credits 文章•作者署名=电影•演员署名
【注:credits:recognition by name of a person contributing to a performance as a film】
(记)by(=bi 第二)+line(行)→ 第二行写人名

byzantine [] n. 诡计多端的(characterized by a devious manner of operation)
(反)byzantine ◆ straightforward 诡计多端的 ◆ 坦率的
(记)byzantine(拜占庭)→拜占庭人诡计多端

list 5 cabal-------- chagrin
cabal [] n. 阴谋小集团(small group secretly united to promote their own interests)
(类)cast•actor=cabal•conspirator 剧团•演员=阴谋集团•阴谋家(组成)
cabal•association=plot•plan 阴谋小集团•协会=阴谋•计划(秘密与正常)
cabal•association=spat•quarrel 阴谋小集团•协会=小争吵•吵架(小与正常)
(同)plot , conspiracy, intrigue, machination, scheme

cache [] n.隐藏处所(a hiding place used especially for storing provisions)
(类)cache•hoard=summit•inaccessible 隐藏处•储藏=顶峰•难以接近(后者是前者的特点)
(记)cache(电脑缓存)电脑缓存专门储藏信息

cacophony [] n. 刺耳的声音(harsh or discordant sound)
(类)cacophony•sound=malodor•scent 刺耳的声音•声音=恶臭•气味
cacophony•voice=gaucherie•skill 刺耳的声音•语音=笨拙的•技能
cacophony•sound=glare•light 刺耳的声音•声音=耀眼的光•光
(反)cacophonous ◆ dulcet/ euphonious 刺耳的 ◆ 悦耳的/悦耳的
(记)caco(坏)+phony(声音)→声音不好

cadge [] v.行乞,乞求(beg,sponge)
(反)cadge ◆ earn 乞求 ◆ 赚得

cajole [] v.哄骗(to persuade with flattery especially when reluctance)
(类)blandishment•cajole=obstacle•impede 甜言蜜语•哄骗=障碍•阻止(同义)
wheedle•cajolery=extort•coercion 用甜言蜜语骗•诱骗=敲诈•强迫 (同义)
(同)coax, blandish, blarney, wheedle

calcify [] vi. 钙化(to make inflexible or unchangeable)
(类)calcium•mineral=sugar•carbohydrate 钙•矿物质=糖•碳水化合物 (种属)
calcify ◆ make malleable /make pliant/ make more flexible 使钙化 ◆ 使柔顺,灵活
(记)calc(钙)+ify(化)→钙化

calibrate [] vt. 测量,校准(to rectify,mark the graduations of)
(类)measure•dimensions•calibrate•diameter=gauge•pressure=plumb•depth
量•尺寸=确定口径•直径=测定•压力=测量深度•深度
(反)calibrated ◆ unstandardized 校准的 ◆ 不标准的
calibrated ◆ unsubstantialized 校准的 ◆ 不标准的

calligraphy [] n. 书法(artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering)
(类)calligraphy•scribble=sonnet•doggerel 书法•乱写=十四行诗•打油诗 (正常•乱)
(记)cali(=kalli 美丽)+graphy

callous [] adj.无情的, 冷漠的(feeling no sympathy for others)
(类)callous•impassive=dupe•duplicity 冷漠的•冷漠的=欺骗•不诚实 (同义)
(反)callous ◆ sympathetic 无情的 ◆ 有同情心的
(同)coldhearted, heartless, obdurate, stony, uncompassionate, unemotional,
(记)callo 谐音“开了”+us 联想:老板动不动就开了我们→冷酷的,无情的

callow [] adj.未成熟的(lacking adult sophistication)
(类)frank•secretiveness=callow•maturity 坦白的•隐匿=未成熟的•成熟
apoplectic•calm=callow•mature 狂怒的•平静的=未成熟的•成熟
callow ◆ behaving with adult sophistication 年轻而无经验的 ◆ 行为富于经验的
(同)inexperienced, fresh, green, raw, unversed, young

callus [] n. 皮肤的硬结,老茧(a thickening of area on skin)
(类)gully•erosion=callus•friction 小峡谷由冲蚀产生=老茧由摩擦产生
(记)call 传呼+us 联想:呼我们已经非常老土了,现在都用手机了→老土→老茧

calorie [] n. 卡路里,热量单位
(类)watt•power =calorie•heat=decibel•sound=volt•electricity
瓦•功率=卡路里•热量=分贝•声音=伏•电流(事物及其度量单位)
heat•calories=liquid•gallons=distance•odometer
热量•卡路里=液体•加仑=距离•里程表

calumniate [] v. 诽谤,中伤 (to utter maliciously false statements about)
(类)corroborate•evidence=calumniate•falsehood 用证据证明=用谎言诽谤
calumny•representation=perjury•testimony 中伤•陈述 =伪证•证词(假•正常)
(反)calumniate ◆ vindicate 诽谤 ◆ 辩护
calumnious ◆ flattering 中伤的 ◆ 谄媚的
calumny ◆ approbation 诽谤 ◆ 嘉许
(同)malign, defame, denigrate, slander, vilify

camaraderie [] n. 友情(a spirit of friendly good-fellowship)
(反)camaraderie ◆ enmity 友情 ◆ 敌意
(记)来自camarade 同志

cameo [] n. 小雕塑,特写
(类)peccadillo•offense=cameo•sculpture 轻罪•犯罪=小雕塑•雕塑(小•正常)

camouflage [] n. 伪装(behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide)
(类)camouflage•deception=flattery•ingratiating 伪装为了欺骗=奉承为了逢迎
malinger•duty=camouflage•detection 装病以逃避工作责任=伪装防止被发现

canard [  ] n. 谣传,误传
(类)aspersion•discredit=canard•deceive 诽谤•玷辱=谣言•欺骗(行为与目的)
(记)can(能)+ (nard 谐音:拿)联想:GRE考1800分“能拿”奖学金是“谣言”

candor [] n. 坦白,直率,诚挚(unreserved, honest, or sincere expression)
(类)palter•candor=diehard•budge 敷衍不会坦白=顽固分子不会退让
candor•subterfuge=brash•deliberate 坦白•托词=仓促•深思熟虑
(反)artifice ◆ candor计谋 ◆ 直率
mendacity ◆ candor谎言 ◆ 诚挚的话
(记)cand(白)+or(状态)→ 白的状态→坦白

canon [] n. 圣典(a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council)
(类)religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy 信仰要求虔诚=圣典要求正统
(反)canonical ◆ heterodox / nontraditional 正统的 ◆ 非正统的/非传统的
canon ◆ apocrypha 正典 ◆ 伪经
canonical ◆ nontraditional 传统的 ◆ 不符合传统的
(同)law, decree, ordinance, precept, regulation, rule, statute
(记)日本佳能公司的商标名。与cannon 大炮区别。

canopy [] n.蚊帐, 遮篷(a protective covering;awning, marquee)
(类)canopy•cover=tag•identify 遮篷用以遮盖=标签用以识别
(记)由cannon(大炮)联想歇后语:大炮打蚊子——大材小用。

canvas [] n. 帆布,画布(a piece of cloth framed as a surface for a painting)
(类)canvas•painter=marble•sculptor 画布•油画家=大理石•雕塑家(前是后的工作用具)
easel•canvas=tripod•camera 画架支撑画布=三角架支撑照相机(前者支撑后者)

canvass [] v. 细查(scrutinize; check over),游说,拉票(to seek votes:solicit)
(类)exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass 拥护者•支持=民意调查者•细查

canyon [] n. 峡谷(a deep narrow valley with steep sides)
(类)ditch•canyon=burrow•cavern 沟渠•峡谷=小山洞•大山洞 (小和大)

capitulate [] v. 投降(surrender) 不再抵制(to cease resisting•acquiesce) (反)capitulate ◆ resist / oppose 不再抵制 ◆ 抵制 / 反对
(同)yield, cave, defer, submit, succumb

caprice [] n.反复无常,善变(a sudden, impulsive notion or action)
(类)caprice•whimsical=stealth•furtive=discontent•unsatisfied
反复无常• 反复无常的=秘密行动•偷偷摸摸的=不满•不满意的(名形同义)
impromptu•rehearsal=apophasis•claim=caprice•deliberate
即席演出•排练=故抑其词•断言=反复无常•深思熟虑 (反义)
capricious•whim=objective•fact 善变•善变的=客观的•事实的(同义)
caprice•whimsical=insight•discerning 善变•善变的=洞察力•有洞察力的 (同义)
caprice•whimsical=insight/foresight•prudent 任性•反复无常的=洞察力•明智的
(反)caprice ◆ confirmation 善变 ◆ 确认
(反)steadfast /constant 固定不变的 pertinacious 固执的 resolute 坚决的
(同)crank, freak, vagary, whim, whimsy
(记)根据price联想,价格的变化是反复无常的。

captivate [] vt.着迷(to influence by special charm with an irresistible appeal) (反)captivate ◆ repulse 着迷 ◆ 厌恶
(记)captive(俘虏)+ate →被俘虏了→着迷
(同)attract, allure, charm, enchant, fascinate, magnetize

careworn [] adj. 伤心的(showing the effect of grief or anxiety;worn)
(反)careworn ◆ lighthearted 伤心的 ◆ 心情愉快的
(记)care(心)+worn(疲倦)→心都疲倦了→ 伤心

caret [] n. 插字符号^(文章中插字使用)
(类)caret•insertion=comma•pause 插字符号代表插入=逗号代表停顿(符号代表意义)

cardinal [] adj. 主要的(of basic importance • main, chief, primary)
(反)cardinal ◆ minor 主要的 ◆ 次要的
(记)card(心脏)→心脏是最主要的。参考:cardiologist(心脏病专家)

caricature [] n.漫画,滑稽模仿(exaggeration by means of ludicrous distortion)
(类)brevity•aphorism=distortion•caricature 格言比较简短=滑稽模仿比较歪曲
aphorism • pithiness= caricature• exaggeration 格言比较精炼=讽刺画比较夸张
caricaturist•illustrator=satirist•essayist 漫画家属于插图家=讽刺作家属于评论家
(同)mockery, farce, mock,burlesque, parody

carnal [] adj. 肉体的,物质的(bodily, corporeal)
(反)carnal ◆ spiritual 物质的 ◆ 精神的
(同)corporal, fleshly, physical, somatic
(记)carn(肉) 参考:carnivore 食肉动物 carnation 肉色康乃馨

carouse [] vi. 畅饮,狂欢作乐(to drink liquor deeply or freely )
(类)roisterer•carouse=recluse•withdraw 喝酒喧哗者•畅饮=隐士•隐退
(记)中间加h变成car+house;车房俱备,值得狂欢庆祝一下。

carp [] n.鲤鱼 vi. 吹毛求疵,挑剔(to find fault or complain querulously)
(类)caviler•carping=libertine•licentious 吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=浪荡者•放肆的
complain•carp=drink•guzzle 抱怨•吹毛求疵=喝•狂饮 (程度对比)
(同)nag, fuss, henpeck
(记)carp原义鲤鱼。鲤鱼刺多,吃的时候要多多挑刺。引申为挑剔。

carpentry [  ] n. 木工
(类)trade•carpentry=clothing•outfit 职业•木工=服装•整套服装(种属)
【注:trade :an occupation, especially one requiring skilled labor: 职业,尤指需要技术的】
【注:outfit:a set of clothing, often with accessories.】
(例)The football team were wearing orange outfits.
这个足球队的队员穿着清一色的橘黄色运动服。

cartographer [] n. 地图绘制者(one that makes maps)
(类)cartographer•map=tailor•clothing=lexicographer•dictionary
绘制地图者•地图=裁缝•衣服=词典编纂者•词典 (后者是前者的工作对象)
(记)cart(图表)+graph(写)+er(人)→画地图的人

carve [] v. 切(to cut into pieces or slices)雕刻(to shape by cutting)
(类)carve•turkey=slice•cake 切火鸡=切蛋糕

cast [] n. 演员,演员阵容 vt. 选派(演员)
(类)appoint•official=cast•actor 任命•官员=选派•演员(动作及其相关对象)
letter•signature=playbill•cast 信•签名=节目单•演员阵容(后者是前者的一部分)

castigate [] v.强烈反对,苛责(to subject to severe punishment, reproof)
(类)castigation•disapproval=crime•misbehave=blasphemy•irreverence
强烈反对•反对=犯罪•举止不当=亵渎:不敬(程度)
castigation•reproof=denunciation•denial=loathing•dislike=soaking•damp
强烈谴责•谴责=指责•否定 =讨厌•不喜欢=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation
小过失•罪过=警告•强烈谴责(程度)
(反)castigation ◆ approbation认可accolade 称赞extol赞美
(同)lambaste, excoriate, scathe, scorch, scourge, slash

catalyze [] vt. 促进,催化(bring about, inspire)
(类)supervisor•oversight=catalyst•initiate管理者•监督=催化剂•催化
【注:catalyst:agent that brings about a chemical change while it remains unchanged】
enzyme•catalyst=bacterium•microbe 酶属于催化剂=细菌属于微生物
(反)catalyze ◆ retard 阻挠 prevent 阻止 inhibit抑制
(反)inhibitor ◆ catalyst 抑制剂 ◆ 催化剂
(同)goad, incentive, incitement, motivation, spur, stimulant

catastrophe [] n. 大灾难(a momentous tragic event)
(类)catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment 大灾难•不幸=羞耻•尴尬(程度)
oxymoron•contradictory=mishap•catastrophic 矛盾修饰法•矛盾的=不幸•灾难的
(同)disaster, calamity, cataclysm, misadventure

categorical [] adj. 无条件的,绝对的 (absolute, unqualified)
(类)categorical•qualified/conditional 受限制的/ 有条件的
(同)ultimate, explicit, definite, unambiguous

catholic [] adj.普遍的(comprehensive)包容的(broad in sympathies, interests)
(反)catholic ◆ narrow 包容的 ◆ 狭隘的
(记)Catholic(天主教)→ 范围广泛
(同)universal, cosmic, cosmopolitan, ecumenical, global, worldwide

caustic [] adj.腐蚀性的,刻薄的(marked by incisive sarcasm)
(类)barb•caustic=pan•harsh 尖刻的言论•刻薄的=严厉的批评•严厉的
caustic•eat away=desiccant•dry 腐蚀的•腐蚀=干燥剂的•干燥
caustic•burn=solvent•dissolve 腐蚀性的•灼烧=可溶解的•溶解(因果关系)
(反)palliating 减缓的 genial 亲切的 smooth 安详的 kind 仁慈的 innocuous亲切的
(同)sarcastic, acerb, acerbic, corrosive

caveat [] n.警告; 告诫(a warning enjoining one from certain acts)
(类)overture/preamble•introductory=caveat•warning/ cautionary
序曲•介绍性的=告诫•警告的
(同)warning, caution, forewarning, monition

cavern [] n. 大洞,洞窟 (one cave of large or indefinite extent)
(类)cavern•spelunker=ocean•diver 洞穴• 探洞者=海洋•潜水者(后探索前)
cavern•spelunker=star•astronomer 洞穴• 探洞者=星•天文学家(后研究前)
(记)来自cave
(同)cave, grotto, subterranean

cavil [] v.挑剔,吹毛求疵(to raise trivial and frivolous objection)
(类)cavil•criticize=probe•investigate 吹毛求疵•批评=仔细探察•调查(程度)
nitpick•criticize=cavil•object 吹毛求疵•批评=吹毛求疵•反对(程度)
caviler•carping=libertine•licentious 吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=浪荡子•放肆的
faultfinding•criticize=quibble•cavil 挑毛病:批评=挑剔:吹毛求疵(同义)
encomiast•eulogize=nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
赞美者•赞颂=吹毛求疵的人•批评=传教士•传道=挑剔者•吹毛求疵
【注:quibble:v. 1.to evade the point of an argument by caviling about words 2.cavil,carp】

cavort [] vi. 欢跃(to walk or move in a spirited manner)
(类)dodder•unsteady=cavort•sprightly 摇摆的不稳定=欢跃的很轻快
(反)cavort ◆ trudge 欢跃 ◆ 艰苦跋涉
(同)gambol, caper, frisk, frolic, rollick

cede [] vt. 放弃(to yield or grant typically by treaty)
(反)cede ◆ possess 放弃 ◆ 拥有
(同)relinquish, abandon, resign, surrender, waive, yield

celebrity [] n. 名人(a celebrated person)
(反)celebrity ◆ obscurity 名人 ◆ 无名小辈(one that is obscure)
(记)celeb(名人)参考:celebrated 著名的

cement [] n.水泥 v. 巩固(to unite or make firm by or as if by cement)
(反)cement ◆ fracture 巩固 ◆ 破裂
(记)水泥过去被称为音译为水门汀。

censor [] vt. 审查(to examine to suppress anything considered objectionable)
(类)censorship•communication/information=preservative•decay=sanitation•disease
审查•信息 =防腐剂•腐烂=公共卫生•疾病 (前者防止后者)
vendor•purvey=censor•expurgate 卖主•供应=审查员•删除(人物的典型动作)
(同)expurgate, screen

censorious [] adj. 挑剔的(critical)
(类)pliable•influence=ticklish•offend/ annoy 易受影响的•影响 =易触怒的•冒犯/骚扰
【干扰:censorious•condemn 挑剔的容易去谴责别人,是正面主动非被动】
(反)censorious ◆ eulogistic 挑剔的 ◆ 赞美的
(同)carping, caviling, hypercritical, overcritical,faultfinding
(例)censorious people delight in casting blame. 挑剔之人乐于责备。

censure [] v. 责难,谴责(to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy)
(类)lamentable•pity=reprehensible•censure 可悲的•可怜=应该谴责的•谴责
remonstrance•dissuade= reprehension•censure 反对•劝阻=斥责•责难(同义)
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible 责难•无可指责的=认可•应斥责的
(反)exonerate 免除责备 extol赞美 commend赞美
(同)criticize, blame, condemn, denounce, denunciate, reprobate

census [] n. 户口普查 (a count of the population)
(类)census•population=inventory•merchandise=inventory•stock
户口普查•人口=存货清单•商品=存货清单•存货 (前者为后者的清单)

cessation [  ] n. 终止,暂停(a temporary or final ceasing;stop)
(反)cessation ◆ commencement 开始 start 开始 continuation 继续

chaff [] n. 谷壳,糠
(类)winnow•chaff=filter•impurities 扬谷为了去除糠=过滤为了去除杂质
chaff•wheat=shell•pecan 糠•小麦=果壳•核桃 (果子及其壳)
dross•metal=chaff•grain 金属屑•金属=谷糠•谷物

chagrin [] n . 懊恼(distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure)
(类)chagrin•mind=grimace•face 懊恼•情绪=痛苦的表情•脸(行为及其产生部位)
(反)elated 兴高采烈的 cheerful 高兴的 proud satisfaction 非常满足 delight 快乐

list 6 chameleon ------complaisance
chameleon [] n. 变色龙,善变的人
(类)salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist 鲑鱼•鱼类学家=变色龙•爬虫学家

champion [] vt. 拥护,保卫(to act as militant supporter of)
(反)disparage 蔑视 impugn 打击 oppose 反对
(同)support, advocate, backstop, uphold

chaotic [] adj.混乱的, 无序的(in utter disorder)
(类)chaos•predictability=pallor•color 无序的不可预言=苍白没有颜色
(反)strictly structured 构造严谨的 strictly featured 特征严谨的

charade [] n. 看手势猜字谜游戏;装模作样
(类)charade•word=mime•story 用手势表示的字谜•字=哑剧•故事(前者用后者来表达)
charade•dissimulate=void•emptiness 装模作样•假装=空洞•空(同义)

charlatan [] n. 江湖郎中(pretender to knowledge)骗子(quack)
(类)juggernaut•crush=charlatan•deceive 压倒一切的力量•压服=骗子•行骗
(例)the medical establishment called him a charlatan 医疗界把他叫做江湖郎中。
(记)谐音:杀了他。联想:对骗子恨不得杀了他。

chary [] adj. 谨慎的(discreetly cautious)
(类)chary•caution=imperturbable•composure 谨慎的:谨慎=冷静的:沉着
(反)rash卤莽的 bold大胆的
(同)cautious, circumspect, considerate, discreet, gingerly, wary
(记)char 谐音—察。联想:明察秋毫—>谨慎的

chasm [] n. 深渊,断裂带(a deep cleft in the surface of a planet)
(类)cleft•chasm=cut•gash 裂缝• 断裂带=小切口•大伤口

chauvinistic [] adj. 沙文主义的,爱国主义的
(类)patriotic•chauvinistic=receptive•gullible
爱国主义的•爱国主义的=易受骗的•易受骗的(同义)

check [] n. 阻止(to block the progress of)
(类)jolt•move=check•stop 晃动•移动=阻止•停止(同义)
(反)propagate 传播 goad 唆使 hasten 促进
(同)arrest, buck, foil, thwart, frustrate

chef [] n. 厨师(a skilled cook who manages the kitchen)
(类)author•novel=chef•banquet 作家•小说=厨师•宴会(后者是前者的工作作品)
chef•kitchen=chemist•laboratory 厨师•厨房=化学家•实验室(后者是前者的工作场所)
(记)chef 谐音车夫。联想:车夫和厨师都是有技术的劳动人民。

cherubic [ ] adj. 天使的,可爱的(innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy)
(反)cherubic ◆ somber  天使般可爱的>阴郁的
(记)cherub(小天使)+ic→天使的,可爱的

chevron [] n. v形臂章
(类)chevron•badge=caisson•cart v形臂章•徽章=载炮车•大车(种属)

chiaroscuro [] n. 明暗对照法
(类)chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy 明暗对照法特点是对照=金银丝工艺特点是精美

chicanery [] n.诡计多端,欺骗 (deception by artful subterfuge)
(类)chicanery•clever=tactlessness•truthful 诡计多端的•机灵的=不圆滑的•真诚的
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的容易被欺骗=易屈服的容易被控制
(反)aboveboard action正大光明的honest dealing诚实forthrightness坦白
(记)chic(聪明)→ 耍聪明→ 诡计多端
(同)deception, chicane, dishonesty, fraud, highbinding, trickery

chide [] v. 责备 (to reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner)
(类)chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle 责备•示众=迁就•纵容(程度)
(反)chide ◆ praise 责备 ◆ 称赞
(同)reprove, admonish, monish, rebuke, reprimand, reproach

choleric [] adj. 易怒的,暴躁的(hot-tempered)
(类)cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize 懦弱会被胁迫=愤怒会产生敌对
choleric•rile=volatile•rouse(干扰:partial•bias 偏爱的•偏爱)
易怒的容易被惹怒=易变化的容易被激起(rouse :to excite,as to anger or action;stir up)
(反)choleric ◆ difficult to provoke 难以被激怒的pacific平静的
(同)choleric, crabbed, cranky, irascible, irritable

choir [] n. 唱诗班(an organized company of singers)
(类)choir•singer=cast•actor=bouquet •flower
唱诗班•唱诗者=演员表•演员=花束•花(组成)

chord [] n.和弦(three or more musical tones sounded simultaneously)
(类)constellation•star=chord•note=grove•tree (干扰:queue•person 行列•人)
星座•星星=和弦•音符=小树林•树木
参考:colonnade•pillar=queue•person 强调整齐一致

choreography [] n. 舞蹈编排(the arrangement of dances),舞蹈(art of dancing)
(类)choreography•dance=plot•story 舞蹈编排•舞蹈=小说情节•小说
choreographer•movement=architect•building 舞蹈编排者•舞蹈动作=建筑师•建筑
【注:sculptor•statue 雕塑家•雕像为干扰选项;舞蹈编排者和建筑师管设计不管施工,
雕塑家既设计又施工】

chorus [] n. 合唱队(a body of singers who perform choral compositions)
(类)troupe•perform=chorus•sing 剧团•表演=合唱队•演唱 (团体及其典型行为)

chromatic [] adj. 彩色的
(反)chromatic ◆ colorless 色的 ◆ 无色的

chronic [] adj. 长期的,慢性的(long established, as a disease)
(反)chronic ◆ sporadic 长期的 ◆ 偶然的
(记)chron(时间)参考:chronological(按年代顺序的)chronicle(编年史)
(同)usual, accustomed, habitual, routine, wonted

chuckle [] n. 偷着乐(to laugh inwardly or quietly)
(类)chuckle•laughing=whisper•speaking 偷着乐•笑=耳语•说话 (小:正常)

churlish [] adj. 粗野的 (lack of civility or graciousness;boorish; rude)
(类)uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家
cacophony•melody=genteel•churl 刺耳的音调•悦耳的音调=文雅的•粗野的人
(反)complaisance ◆ churlishness  彬彬有礼的 ◆ 粗野的
genteel ◆ churlish 文雅的 ◆ 粗野的
(同)surly, clownish, coarse, loutish, uncultured, unpolished

cineast [] n. 电影迷(a film or movie enthusiast)
(类)cineast•film=gourmand•food 电影迷•电影=美食家•食物(前者追求后者)
(干扰:sharpshooter•target 射手•目标)
(记)和cinema(电影)一起记。

cipher [] n. 密码(a method of transforming a text to conceal its meaning)
(类)cipher•cryptic=precis•concise 密码•秘密的=大纲•简要的
(记)参考:decipher 破译

circuitous [] adj. 迂回的(not being forthright or direct in language or action)
(类)immaterial•relevance=circuitous•directness 不重要的•重要=迂回的•直接(反义)
circuitous•directness=irresolute•decision 迂回的•直接=犹豫不决的•决定(反义)
(反)circuity ◆ straightforwardness 迂回 ◆ 坦率
(同)indirect, circular, oblique, roundabout

circular [] adj. 圆形的(having the form of a circle;round)
(类)circular•asymmetrical=protean•rigid 圆形的:不均匀的=多变的:刻板的 (反义)

circumference [] n. 圆周(the perimeter of a circle)
(类)circumference•circle=perimeter•rectangle 圆周•圆=周界•矩形 (图形及其边界)
border•country=circumference•circle 国界•国家=圆周•圆(事物及其边界)

circumlocution [] n. 说话绕圈子;迂回(indirect or roundabout expression)
(反)circumlocution ◆ pithy utters/ straightforword utter 绕圈子 ◆ 简练直接的话
circumlocution ◆ direct encounter  绕圈子 ◆ 直接面对
circumlocutory ◆ straightforward 迂回的 ◆ 直接的
circumlocution ◆ express succinctly 说话绕圈子 ◆ 表达简练

circumscribe [] vt. 限制(limit; confine)
(反)circumscribed ◆ unlimited 限制的 ◆ 无限的
(同)limit, confine, delimitate, prelimit, restrict
(例)our activities were often circumscribed. 我们的行为经常被限制。

circumspect [] adj.慎重的;小心的(careful to consider all circumstances
(类)rash•circumspective=imperious•servile 轻率的• 慎重的=专横的•卑屈的(反义)
circumspect•prudency=urbane•polish 慎重的:慎重=彬彬有礼的:优雅 (同义)
(反)circumspect ◆ audacious/ reckless 小心的 ◆ 大胆的/鲁莽的
temerity ◆ circumspection 蛮勇 ◆ 慎重
rash ◆ circumspective 鲁莽的 ◆ 谨慎的
(同)prudent, chary, considerate, discreet, gingerly,
(例)We should be circumspect and always investigate before acting,.
我们应该仔细慎重,做事之前要调查一番。
(记)circum 四周+spect 看→四周看看→谨慎的 参考:spectator 观众

circumvent [] vt. 绕行,智取(to manage to get around especially by stratagem)
(反)circumvent ◆ confront /direct encounter  绕行 ◆ 直接面对
(同)skirt, bypass, circumnavigate, detour
(记)circum周围+vent(=vend) 走→沿着周围走→绕行,智取 vendor 沿街走的小贩

cistern [] n. 贮水器,水箱
(类)cistern•liquids=landfill•refuse 水箱•液体=垃圾填埋场•垃圾(放置场所)
(记)音近字:system 联想:水箱是一种处理水的系统

civility [] n. 礼貌(courtesy, politeness)
(反)civility ◆ rudeness 礼貌 ◆ 无礼

claim [] n. v. 要求 n. 权利(a right to something)
(类)claim•legitimated=hypothesis•confirmed 要求是需要合法化的=假设是需要证实的
lien•claim=subpoena•command 扣押权是一项权利=传票是一种命令
(反)claim ◆ renounce 要求 ◆ 放弃

clairvoyant [] adj. 透视的, 有洞察力的(unusually perceptive;discerning)
(类)dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict 灵巧的•熟练操作=预见性的•预言
(记)clair(清楚)+voy(看)→看的清楚→有洞察力的

clandestine [] adj. 秘密的(secret ;surreptitious)
(类)clandestine•secretly=overt•openly 秘密的•秘密地=公开的•公开地
clandestine•secrecy=harmony•congruity 秘密的•秘密=一致的•一致
(反)clandestine ◆ open 秘密的 ◆ 公开的
(同)secret, covert, furtive, stealthy, surreptitious
(记)clan 部落,小集团+ destine 命运→小集团的行动和命运是神密的→秘密的

clarion [  ] adj. 清澈响亮的(loud and clear)
(反)clarion ◆ soft and undistinct  清澈响亮的 ◆ 低声不可辨的

clarity [] n. 清楚, 透明 (the quality or state of being clear;lucidity)
(类)ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth 不明确的不清楚=虚假的不真实
consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion 一致同意•党派争执=清楚•混淆(反义)
equivocation•clarity=prevarication•truth 含糊的话•清楚=搪塞的话•真实(反义)
misunderstood•clarify=erroneous•retract 误会的•澄清=错误的•撤消(后者消除前者)
ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity 摇摇欲坠的•坚固=混淆的•清楚(反义)
(反)equivocation 模棱两可 muddy 浑浊的 opaque 不透明的
(同)clearness, limpidity, lucidity, perspicuity, plainness

clasp [] n. 扣子(a device for holding objects or parts together)
(类)lathe•shape=clasp•fasten 车床用来成形=扣子用来扣紧

cleft [] n. 裂缝 (a usually V-shaped indented formation)
(类)cleft•chasm=cut•gash 裂缝• 断裂带=小切口•大伤口(程度)
(同)arroyo, chasm, clove, gap, gulch

clement [] adj.仁慈的,温和的(inclined to be merciful;lenient)
(反)clement ◆ pitiless 仁慈的 ◆ 无情的
clemency ◆ ruthlessness 仁慈的 ◆ 无情的
(同)forbearing, charitable, merciful, tolerant

cliche [] adj. 陈腐的 a trite phrase or expression
(类)hodgepodge•uniformity=cliche•original 混合物•一致=陈腐的•原创 (反义)
equivocate•misleading=cliched•hackneyed
模棱两可的:易误解的=陈腐的:陈腐的(同义)
(例)compositions are often marred by such cliches as "strong as an ox."
文章经常被诸如“强壮如牛”这样的陈腐的表达方式破坏。

clique [] n. 小团体(a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons)
(类)clique•intimates=flock•sheep  小团体•密友=羊群•羊 (组成)
(同)cabal, camp, clan, coterie, mafia

clog [] n. 障碍, 阻塞 something that shackles or impedes
(类)clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations  阻塞•排泄=僵局•谈判 (后者消除前者)
(同)encumbrance, hindrance, impedance, impediment

clot [] n. 凝块,群 v.(使)凝结(a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood)
(类)clot•dissolved=crowd•dispersed 凝块•溶解的=人群•散开的 (后者由前者发生)
solvent•dissolve=coagulant•clot 溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•凝结 (物品作用)
freeze•water=clot•blood 使结冰•水=使凝结•血 (后者为前者动作对象)

cloture [] n. 表决程序(一项议会程序,辩论结束后立即就所辩问题进行投票表决)
(类)voting•roll call=termination•cloture
选举•点名程序=结果•表决程序(点名程序后可以选举=表决程序后可以出结果)
【注:termination:结果(outcome, result)】
(记)来自closure 关闭,使终止

cloudburst [] n. 倾盆大雨 a sudden copious rainfall
(类)gust•wind=cloudburst•rainfall 狂风•风=倾盆大雨•雨 
(记)cloud(云)+burst(爆炸)→要下大雨了

clout [] n. 权力,影响力(great influence,especially political or social)
(反)impuissance 无权,无能 impotence 无力,衰弱  
(记)来自cloth;工业革命时期,布匹的生产中心具有最高的影响力,如曼彻斯特
(例)All the evidence showed that Russia does not have that kind of clout in the Far East any more
所有证据都表明在远东地区俄罗斯不再具有那样的影响

cloying [] adj. 甜得发腻的(excessively sweet or sentimental )
(类)garrulous•talkative=cloying•sweet 饶舌的•健谈的=甜得发腻的•甜的(过度•正常)

clumsy [] adj. 笨拙的(lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace)
(反)clumsy ◆ adept 笨拙的 ◆ 灵巧的
(同)awkward, gawky, lumbering, ungainly

coagulant [] n. 凝结剂(something that produces coagulation)
(类)astringent•pucker=coagulant•congeal 收缩剂使收缩=凝结剂使凝结(药剂作用)
(反)coagulate 凝结 ◆ liquefy溶解 dissolve溶解 thin变稀薄

coalesce [] v.合并,融合(to unite into a whole;fuse)
(反)disaggregate 分解 polarize 两极分化 break apart 分开
(同)join, bracket, combine,relate, unite, wed

coax [] vt. 用巧言诱哄(to influence or persuade by artful ingratiation)
(类)equivocation•coax=explanation•enlighten=threat•intimidate
含糊的话为了诱哄=解释为了开导=威胁为了胁迫
(类)blandishment•coax =medal•honor=prevarication•deceive
哄诱的话用来诱哄=奖章用来给以荣誉=搪塞的话用来欺骗
(同)blandish, cajole, wheedle

coda [] n. 终结句,乐章结尾(a concluding musical section)
(类)dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata
餐后甜点•餐食 =收场白•戏剧=乐章结尾•奏鸣曲 (事物及其尾部)
(反)overture前奏 prelude序曲
(记)与coma 昏睡一起记。听交响乐时,许多人到乐章结尾时早已昏睡过去。

coerce [] vt. 强制, 强迫(to bring about by force or threat)
(类)wheedle•cajolery=extort•coercion 用甜言蜜语骗•诱骗=强取•强迫 (同义)
squander•expend=coercion•intimidate 浪费•花费=威压•胁迫(过分与正常)
(反)voluntary ◆ coercion 自愿的 ◆ 强迫的 (use of force to get someone to object)
(同)force, compel, concuss, constrain, oblige
(记)co 共同 erce 谐音:饿死→共同饿死→因为被强制

coeval [] adj. 同时代的(of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration) (类)congruent•dimension=coeval•age 全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代 
(记)co(共同)+eval(时代)→ 同时代

cogent [] adj. 使人信服的(appealing forcibly to the mind or reason)
(类)cogent•convince=repugnant•repel
有说服力的•令人信服的=让人讨厌的•令人厌恶的(同义) 
(反)cogent ◆ unconvincing 有说服力的 ◆ 不令人信服的
(同)valid, convincing, satisfying, sound

cognizant [] adj. 认知的(knowledgeable of something through personal experience)
(类)incognizance•knowledgeable=penury•wealthy 不认知的•有知识的=穷困•富裕的
(反)cognizant ◆ oblivious/ unaware  认知的 ◆ 遗忘的
(记)cogn(知道)+izant→认知的
(同)aware, apprehensive, conscious, sensible, sentient

colander [] n. 滤器(a perforated utensil for washing or draining food)
(类)centrifuge•separate=colander•drain 离心分离机•分离=漏勺•排水(物品及其作用)
  
collapse [] vi. 倒塌(to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely)
(类)collapse•implode=divide•sunder 倒塌•向内倒塌=分开•切开(因果关系)
collapse•volume=attenuate•thickness 减弱音量=削薄厚度
(记)col(全部)+lapse(倒)→倒塌
(同)break, cave, crumple, yield

collude [] v. 串通,勾结(conspire,plot)
(类)collude•cooperate=smuggle•convey 串通•合作=走私•运送(非法和正常)
collude•cooperate=stalk•follow 串通•合作=暗中追踪•跟随 (非法和正常)
collude•cooperate=eavesdrop•listen 串通•合作=偷听•听(非法和正常)
collusion•conspirators=cooperation•partners 勾结•同谋=合作•合作者
(记)col(共同)+lude(引诱)→勾结
(同)plot, cogitate, connive, conspire, contrive, intrigue

colonnade [] n. 柱廊(a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof structure)
(类)colonnade•pillar=queue•person 柱廊•柱子=队列•人员(事物及其链状排列)

colossal [] adj. 巨大的(of a bulk, extent, power, or effect approaching or suggesting the stupendous or incredible)
(类)antediluvian•age=colossal•size 古老的•年龄=巨大的•尺寸 (事物及其修饰)
colossus•figurine=boulder•pebble 巨像•小雕像=大石头•小石头(大•小)
(同)huge, elephantine, gargantuan, gigantic, titanic, vast

coltish [] adj. 轻佻的(not subjected to discipline)
(类)coltish•discipline=loutish•grace 轻佻的缺乏纪律=粗野的缺乏优雅性 (反义)
(记)colt 小马,无经验的年轻人

coma [] n. 昏迷(a state of profound unconsciousness)
(类)coma•unconsciousness=delirium•confusion 昏迷•无意识=精神错乱•混乱(种属)
(同)faint, blackout, swoon, syncope

combustible [] adj. 易燃的(capable of combustion)
(类)impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不会受损害的•脆弱的=不可燃的•易燃的
(记)com+bust(烧)→易燃的

comely [] n. 美丽的(having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain)
(反)comeliness ◆ unattractiveness 美丽的 ◆ 不吸引人的
(同)beautiful, attractive, bonny, pretty, pulchritudinous
(记)与homely比较 联想:媳妇都是别人的好:家里的人是平凡的;外来的是美丽的

comity [] n. 礼让, 礼仪(friendly social atmosphere•social harmony)
(反)comity ◆ enmity 礼仪 ◆ 敌意
(同)goodwill, amity, benevolence, friendliness, kindliness

commencement [] n. 开始 (an act, instance, or time of beginning)
(反)cessation ◆ commencement  停止 ◆ 开始
cease ◆ inaugurate/commencement  停止 ◆ 开辟/开始
(同)beginning, alpha, dawning, genesis, outset,

commencement [] n. 开始,毕业典礼(the ceremonies for conferring degrees)
(反)commencement ◆ matriculation  毕业典礼 ◆ 入学考试
(记)美国人认为毕业典礼是一个人即将开始新的人生,与我们的思维“学业结束”不一样

commend [] vt. 委托给,推荐(to mention with approbation)嘉奖(praise)
(反)berate 严厉指责 deplore 指责
(反)execrable ◆ commendable/laudable 可憎恨的 ◆ 值得表扬的/值得称赞的
(记)com(都)+mend(相信)→值得嘉奖的

commensurate [] adj. 同样大小的,相当的(equal in measure or extent;coextensive)
(反)preponderant ◆ commensurate 占有优势的 ◆ 相当的
tantamount ◆ incommensurate  等价的 ◆ 不相称的
parity ◆ uncommensurateness 平等 ◆ 不平衡
(记)com(共同)+mensure(尺寸)→尺寸相同的

commercial [] n. 商业广告(an advertisement broadcast on radio or television)
(类)advertising•commercial=publishing•journal 
广告的•广告=出版的•定期出版物(种属)

commingle [] v. 混合(to combine into a common fund or stock)
(反)commingle ◆ separate 混合 ◆ 分离
(同)mix, commix, compound, intermingle, mingle

commitment [] n. 许诺,义务(an engagement to assume a financial obligation)
(类)crime•misdemeanor=commitment•decision
罪行•轻罪=许诺•决定(程度关系)
dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequence
业余爱好者•义务=无足轻重者•重要性
disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment/ conviction
不满的•满意=不确定的•义务/ 确信(反义) 
(反)ambivalent ◆ commitment  不定的 ◆ 确定的
noncommittal ◆ confirm 不定的 ◆ 确定

committed [] adj. 受约束的(obligate, bind)
(类)profligate•solvent=mercurial•committed
挥霍的•有偿付能力的=多变的•受束缚的(反义)

commodious [  ] adj. 宽敞的(comfortably or conveniently spacious;roomy)
(类)taut•commodious=extraordinary•purlieu 紧张的不宽敞=非凡的不常有(反义)
(反)commodious ◆ constricted/cramped  宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的/狭促的
commodious ◆ constringed 宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的
(记)比较accommodate 留宿,容纳 联想:什么条件下能留宿——当然是房子宽敞的时候
(同)spacious, ample, capacious, roomy, wide

commonsense adj.具有常识的(sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment)
(反)preposterous ◆ commonsensical 荒谬的 ◆ 符合常识的
(记)common(共同)+sense(认知)→常识

commotion [] n. 骚乱(an agitated disturbance)
(类)squall•commotion=flash•illumination 小骚乱•骚动=闪光•照明(程度关系)
(反)commotion ◆ tranquility 骚动 ◆ 宁静
(记)com(一起)+mot(动)→一起动→乱了 参考:motile 能动的

compendium [] n. 纲要(a brief summary of a larger work)
(类)compendium•summary=anthology•collection
纲要•摘要=文选•选集(种属)
encyclopedia•compendious=abstract•concise
百科全书•摘要的=摘要•简短的(事物典型特征)
【注:干扰选项:assay•objective 化验•客观的】
(同)digest, pandect, sketch, survey, syllabus

complacency [] n. 满足(self-satisfaction)
(反)complacency ◆ anxiety 满足 ◆ 渴望(但无法满足)
(记)com(自己)+ place(满意)→满足了
(同)conceitedness, consequence, narcissism, pride

complaisance [] n. 彬彬有礼,柔顺(disposition to please or comply;affability)(类)(类)complaisance•intractable=adeptness•maladroit 柔顺•难处理的=熟练•笨拙的
(反)complaisance ◆ obstinacy  柔顺 ◆ 固执
complaisance ◆ churlishness  彬彬有礼 ◆ 粗野
list 7 compliant -------corona
compliant [] adj. 顺从的(ready or disposed to comply;submissive)
(类)compliant•servile=trusting•gullible 顺从的•奴性的=信赖的•轻信的(褒贬程度)
obsequious•fawn=compliant•yield 奉承的•奉承=顺从的•顺从(形容词和动词同义)
(记)com+pliant(柔顺)→顺从

compliment [] vt. 称赞expressing or containing a compliment
(类)apologize•contrite=compliment•impressed 因为后悔而道歉=因为有好印象而称赞
compliment•flattery=deference•subservience 赞美•谄媚=顺从•屈从(褒贬)
(反)vituperative ◆ complimentary  责骂的 ◆ 称赞的
(同)complacence, conceitedness, consequence, narcissism, pride

comply [] vi. 顺从,答应(to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity)
(类)mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain 强制的•答应=禁止的•禁绝(主被动关系) 
(同)obey, conform, follow, keep, mind, observe

composed [] adj. 镇静的,使安定 freefrom agitation;calm
(反)composed ◆ distraught 镇静的 ◆ 发狂的
discombobulate ◆ compose 使混乱 ◆ 使安定
restless ◆ composure 不平静的 ◆ 镇静

compound [] v.混和 adj.复合的
(类)soldier•army=element•compound 士兵•军队=元素•混合物(前者组成后者)
(反)compound ◆ separate 混和 ◆ 分开
compound ◆ elemental  复合的 ◆ 基础的

compress [] vt. 压缩(to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing)
(类)constrict•diameter=compress•size 收缩•直径 = 压缩 •尺寸(减少关系)
(反)increase in volume 数量增加 distention 膨胀

compromise [] n. 妥协,折衷(to come to agreement by mutual concession)
(类)mediation•compromise=prosecution•conviction 调停•折衷=起诉•定罪(目的关系)
implacable•compromise=honest•swindle 不缓和的•妥协=诚实的•诈骗
(反)intransigent ◆ open to compromise  顽固的 ◆ 乐于妥协
polemical ◆ compromising 好争论的 ◆ 妥协的
temporize ◆ unwilling to compromise 见风使舵 ◆ 不愿意妥协
(记)com(互相)+promise(承诺)→互相承诺→妥协

compunction [] n. 后悔(anxiety arising from awareness of guilt)
(反)compunction ◆ absence of misgiving 后悔 ◆ 没有疑虑
(记)com+punc(刺)→不断被刺痛→后悔

concatenate [] v. 连结(to link together in a series or chain;articulate)
(反)concatenate ◆ separate 连结 ◆ 分开

concave adj. 凹的(hollowed or rounded inward like the inside of a bowl)
(类)scoop•concave=spatula•flat 勺子•凹的=瓦刀•平的
(记)cave n. 洞穴 v. 凹陷

conceal v. 隐藏(to prevent disclosure or recognition of)
(反)unearth ◆ conceal 挖出 ◆ 隐藏
(同)hide,bury, cache, cover

concede [] v. 承认(to grant as a right or privilege)
(反)concede ◆ refuse to grant  承认 ◆ 拒绝承认
concession ◆ aggress 让步 ◆ 侵犯
(同)admit, acknowledge, avow, confess, grant

concentrate [] v. 集中(focus),浓缩(to make less dilute)
(反)concentrate ◆ dilute solution 浓缩 ◆ 稀释溶液
deploy ◆ concentrate 展开 ◆ 集中
(记)con(共同)+centra(中心)→一起到中心来→集中

concerted [] adj. 商议定的(mutually agreed on)共同完成的(performed in unison)
(反)concerted ◆ meant to obstruct 商定的,同意的 ◆ 意图阻碍的
concerted ◆ individually devised  共同完成的 ◆ 个人设计的

conciliate [] v. 安抚,调和(to overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease)
(类)sop•conciliatory=subsidy•supportive 安抚物•安抚的=补助金•支援性的 
(反)conciliate安抚 ◆ vex 使恼怒 nettle 激怒 rile 激怒
discontent ◆ conciliate 不满 ◆ 调和
contentious ◆ conciliatory  好争吵的 ◆ 调和的
belligerent ◆ conciliatory 好战的 ◆ 调和的
(同)appease, assuage, mollify, placate, propitiate

concise [] adj. 简洁的(brief and compact)
(类)synopsis•conciseness=distillate•purity 大纲通常比较简明=蒸馏物通常比较纯净
conciseness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature 简明•格言=夸张•漫画(正面特征)
(记)con+sice(切)→把多余的部分切除→简洁
(同)brief, compendious, curt, laconic, succinct, terse

concord [] n.一致,和睦 (a state of agreement;harmony)
(类)inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap 不一致的•一致=分散•重叠(反义)
(反)dissension纠纷 dissonance不一致 schism分裂 enmity敌意 rancor怨恨
(记)con+cord(绑在一起)→一致

concur [] vi. 意见相同,一致(to act together to a common end or single effect)
(反)naysay 反对 dissent 不同意
(同)coincide, concert, concur, harmonize

condescending [] adj. 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的
(类)condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn 叫人领情的•以恩人自居=奉承的•奉承
patronize•condescension=deride•mockery 以恩人自居•叫人领情的=嘲笑•嘲弄的
patronizing•condescending=peeved•annoyed 资助的•使领情的=气恼的•恼怒的
【注】以上三组都是同义关系

condign [] adj. 应得的,恰当的(deserved, appropriate)
(反)condign ◆ undeserved/unmerited  应得的 ◆ 不应得的/ 不配的
(同)just, appropriate, deserved, merited, requisite
(记)con(加强)+dign(= dignity尊严,高贵)→做事情非常有尊严的→恰当的

condole [] vi. 表达同情或悲伤(to express sympathetic sorrow)
(类)condolence•sympathy/compassion=gibe•derision 表示同情•同情=嘲笑•嘲笑
(记)con(一样)+dole(悲哀)→一样悲哀→表达同情 参考:doleful / dolesome悲哀的
区别:condole 不及物:表达慰问之情 I condoled with him in his loss. 我对他的损失表示同情
console 及物:安慰,慰问某人console a friend in grief 安慰一个正处悲伤的朋友

condone [] vt. 宽恕(to pardon or overlook voluntarily)
(类)bristle•anger=vacillate•unresolution 发怒•愤怒=忧郁不定•不坚决(动名同义)
干扰:(condone•mercy)(condemn•warning)
(反)denounce 谴责exact 强求
(同)excuse, pardon, forgive

conducive [] adj. 有益的,有促进的(tending to promote or assist)
(类)conducive•foment=tonic•invigorate 促进的•促进=激励的•鼓舞(形动同义)
【注】foment :to promote the growth of; incite. 促进…的发展;激励

conductor [  ] n. 领导者,指挥(one who directs an orchestra or other such group)
(类)conductor•instrumentalist=director•actor 指挥•演奏者=导演•演员(前者指挥后者)

confident [] adj. 有信心的,自信的(self-reliant)
(类)confident•timid=open•shy 有信心的•胆小的=外向的•害羞的 (反义)
confidence•arrogant=inquiry•interrogatory 自信•傲慢的=调查•质问的 (褒贬)
(记)con(加强)+fide(相信)→完全相信→有信心 参考:perfidious背信弃义的
(同)assured, sanguine, secure, undoubtful

confine [] vt. 禁闭 (something that restrains)
(类)loose•confinement=disabuse•misconception 解放解除禁闭=使省悟消除错误观念
(记)con+fine(限制)→禁闭 finite有限的
(同)limit, ircumscribe,delimitate, prelimit, restrict

confluence [] n.汇合(a coming or flowing together, meeting, or gathering at one point)
(类)confluence•streams=junction•roads 汇合•溪流=交叉•道路(事物及其相关对象)
(反)confluence ◆ divergence 汇合 ◆ 分歧
(记)con(共同)+flu(流)→流到一起→汇合
(同)concourse, concursion, gathering, junction

confront [] vt. 使面对,对抗 (to face especially in challenge;oppose)
(类)craven•confront=honest•deceive 怯懦的•对抗=诚实的•欺骗(反面特征)
(反)circumvent ◆ confront 包围 ◆ 正面对抗
(记)con+front(面对)→对抗
(同)affront, encounter, face, meet

confound [] v. 混淆(to fail to discern differences between)
(反)confound ◆ discriminate between 混淆 ◆ 区分
(例)confound fiction and fact. 把事实与假设混为一谈

congeal [] v. 凝固(to make viscid or curdled;coagulate)
(反)congeal ◆ melt/disintegrate 凝固 ◆ 熔化/分解
congeal ◆ fail to solidify 凝固 ◆ 不能凝固
(记)con+geal(冻结)→凝固 参考:gel胶
(同)coagulate, clot, gel, gelate

congenial [] adj. 温和的(sociable,genial)
(反)dour ◆ congenial/genial 严厉的 ◆ 温和的

congruent [] adj.和谐一致的,全等的(being in agreement, harmony, or correspondence)
(类)congruent•dimension=coeval•age 全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代(前者修饰后者)
incongruent•conform=recalcitrant•obey 不协调的难以使一致=反抗的难以服从
clandestine•secrecy=harmony•congruity 秘密的•秘密=一致的•一致 (同义)
(反)variance ◆ congruity 不一致 ◆ 一致
congruent ◆ disagreeable 和谐一致的 ◆ 不合意的
(同)harmonious , corresponding

conjecture [] n./ v.推测,猜测(inference from defective or presumptive evidence)
(反)conjecture ◆ restrain from the speculation 推测 ◆ 不准猜测
conjecture ◆ fact 猜测 ◆ 事实
(记)con+ject(推,抛)→全部推测 参考:project设计,方案,作业;发射
(同)guess, presume, pretend, suppose, surmise, think

connive [] vi. 暗中合作, 密谋(to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding)
(类)connive•cooperate=pry•watch 暗中合作•合作=窥探•注视(秘密与正常)
uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家(正面特征)
(同)plot, cogitate, collude, conspire, machinate,

connoisseur [] n. 鉴赏家 (expert who is competent to act as a critical judge)
(类)connoisseur•art=gourmet•cuisine
鉴识家•艺术=美食家•烹饪(人及其鉴赏对象)
selflessness•altruist=expertise•connoisseur
无私•利他主义者=专门技术•鉴赏家(正面特征)
【注】expertise :skill or knowledge in a particular area
(同)aesthete, cognoscente, dilettante

conquest [] n. 征服(the act or process of conquering)
(类)inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest 不为所动的无法劝阻=不屈服的无法征服
【注】inexorable :not capable of being persuaded by entreaty

conscientious [] adj. 有责任心的,负责的(thorough and assiduous)
(反)conscientious ◆ careless 负责的 ◆ 粗心的
conscientious ◆ remiss 负责的 ◆ 疏忽的
(同)honorable, just, right, scrupulous, true

consensus [] n. 一致,团结(group solidarity in sentiment and belief)
(类)law•criminality=consensus•factionalism 法律•犯罪=团结•党派之争 (防止关系)
(干扰:lesson•falsehood 教训•谎言)
consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion 团结•党派之争=清晰•混乱 (反义)
expedition•foot dragging=consensus•factionalism 迅速•缓慢=团结•党派之争(反义)
schism•consensus=interruption•continuity 分裂的没有一致意见=中断的不具有连续性
(记)con+sens(感觉)→感觉一样→一致
(同)consent , unison , accord , agreement

conservative [] adj. 保守的 n.保守的人(tradiyional)
(类)contumacious•authority=reactionary•change 顽固的•权威=反动的•变化(事物反面特征)
bigoted•advice=conservative•change 固执己见的:忠告=保守的:变化(前者拒绝后者) hidebound•conservative=manic•excited 死板的•保守的=疯狂的•激动的(程度)
【注:peeved•annoyed 是干扰选项,这两个词是同义不是程度关系】
(反)conserve ◆ exhaust 保存(能量) ◆ 耗尽
(同)orthodox, reactionary, tory, traditionalistic

conservatory [] n.温室,音乐学院(a school specializing in one of the fine arts)
(类)conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院•音乐=神学院•神学=天文台•天文学 (场所及其研究学科)

conserve [] vt. 保存,保全 (to keep in a safe or sound state)
(反)conserve ◆ waste/squander/exhaust 保存 ◆ 浪费/ 挥霍/ 耗尽
(同)preserve , save ,maintain

considerable [] adj. 值得考虑的,重要的(worth consideration;significant)
(类)restive•calmness=piddling•considerable 不安静的•平静=琐屑的•重要的 (反义)
(反)consider ◆ table考虑 ◆ 搁置
(同)important,consequential,material,momentous
(记)区别:considerate考虑周到的 记法:considerable有able→有能力的当然是重要的

console [] vt. 安慰,藉慰(to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of)
(类)embarrass•shame=console•comfort
使困窘•使羞愧=藉慰•安慰 (同义)
disturb•serenity = console•grief
扰乱•平静=安慰•悲伤 (消除关系)
alleviate•intensity=console•grief
减轻强度=安抚悲痛 (前者减轻后者)
(反)console ◆ aggravate grief 安慰 ◆ 加重伤心
(同)comfort, solace, upraise

consolidate [] vt. 使联合,统一,巩固 (to join together into one whole;unite)
(反)consolidation ◆ fragmentation 统一 ◆ 分裂
consolidate ◆ dissolve 使联合 ◆ 解散
(记)con+solid(结实)→统一,巩固
(同)compact, concentrate, integrate

consonance [] n. 一致,调和(harmony or agreement among components)
(类)inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap 不协调的•一致=分散的•重叠(反义)
(反)consonant ◆ dissonant调和 ◆ 不协调
consonant ◆ discrepant一致 ◆ 不一致的
inconsonant ◆ in agreement 不一致 ◆ 一致
(同)harmony, agreement, chime, concord, tune

conspicuous [] adj.显著的,显而易见的(obvious to the eye or mind)
(类)conspicuous•see=transparent•understand 明显的容易被看到=显然的容易被了解
hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous 隐居处•隐蔽的=路标•明显的
(反)blatant ◆ inconspicuous 明显的 ◆ 不明显的
nondescript ◆ conspicuous 莫可名状的 ◆ 显而易见的
salient ◆ unconspicuous 显著的 ◆ 不显著的
prominent ◆ inconspicuous 卓越的 ◆ 不显眼的
(记)con(都)+spic(看)→都看的到的→显著
(同)noticeable, arresting, prominent, remarkable, salient, striking

conspiracy [] n. 共谋, 阴谋(treacherous plot)
(类)uncouth•churl=conspiratorial•conniver 粗俗的•粗野的人=阴谋的•阴谋家
infiltrate•enter=conspire•plan 秘密潜入•进入=阴谋•计划
spy•watch=conspire•cooperate 侦察•观看=阴谋•合作
(记)con+spire(呼吸)→共同呼吸→搞阴谋
(同)plot, cabal, intrigue, machination, scheme

constitute [] vt. 构成,任命(to appoint to an office, function, or dignity)
(反)abdicate ◆ constitute 退位 ◆ 任命
(记)con(一起)+stitute(建立)→组成
(同)create, establish, institute, organize

constrained [] adj. 束缚的,节制
(反)constrain ◆ release 束缚 ◆ 释放
intemperate ◆ constrained 不节制的 ◆ 节制的
(记)con+strain(拉紧)→束缚的
(同)reserved, noncommittal, restrained

constringe [] vt. 压缩(to cause to contract; constrict)
(反)commodious ◆ constringed 宽敞的 ◆ 压缩的

construct [] v. 建造(to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements)
(类)construct•remodel=compose•edit 建造•改造=创作•修改(原创和修改)
(记)con+struct(建立)→建造

consummate [] adj. 完美的(complete in every detail; of the highest degree)
(反)consummate ◆ amateurish 完善的 ◆ 业余的,不专业的
(同)accomplished, finished, perfected, ripe, virtuosic

contagious [] adj. 传染性的,会传播的(communicable by contact;catching)
(类)sprain•injure=cold•contagion 扭伤•伤=感冒•传染病 (种属)
(反)contagious ◆ incommunicable 会传播的 ◆ 不能传达的
(记)con(互相)+tag(接触)→互相接触→传染 参考:contact接触intact完整无缺的
(同) infectious, catching, communicable

contaminate [] vt. 染污(to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact)
(类)hedge•loss=quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident
两面下注以减小损失=检疫以防止污染=安全措施防止事故发生(防止关系)
(反)contaminate ◆ purify 污染 ◆ 净化
(同)defile, pollute, soil, taint

content [] adj. 满足的(manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions)
(类)disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment/conviction
不满的•满足=可疑的•负责/确信
gripe•discontent=praise•admiration
抱怨•不满=赞美•钦佩 (动作及表示情感)
disaffected•contentment=anxious•serenity
不满意的•满意=担忧的•平静
(反)disaffected ◆ content 不满 ◆ 满足
restiveness ◆ contentment 难以驾御 ◆ 容易满足
contented ◆ avaricious 满足 ◆ 贪婪
(同)satisfied , pleased, contented, complacent
(记)比较:contend contentious contention attentive abstention contented tentative

contentious [] adj.好辩的,喜争吵的(exhibiting an often perverse tendency to quarrels)
(类)meddlesome•pry=contentious•argue 多管闲事的•探察=好争吵的•争吵
(反)contentious ◆ conciliatory 喜争吵的 ◆ 安抚的
contention ◆ agreement 争论 ◆ 同意
(记)con+tent(拉)→互相拉→争论
(同)belligerent, bellicose, combative, gladiatorial, militant, truculent

contiguous [] adj. 紧邻的,接壤的(being in actual contact)
(类)contiguous•abut=simultaneous•coincide
紧邻的•毗邻=同时发生的•同时发生(形名同义)
【注】coincide :to happen at the same time or during the same period. 同时发生

contort [] v. 扭弯,曲解(to twist into a strained shape or expression)
(类)contortion•body=grimace•face 扭弯•身体=面部扭曲•脸部(行为及其相关部位)
(同)deform, distort, misshape, torture, warp
(记)参考:tortuous 蜿蜒的distort 歪曲torture 折磨

contract [] v. 收缩(to reduce to smaller size by squeezing or forcing together)
(类)contract•implode=descend•plummet 收缩•内爆=下降•快速下落(程度)
(记)con(互相)+tract(拉)→收缩

contravene [] v. 违反,反驳,反对(to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT)
(反)contravene ◆ support 支持 buttress 支持
(记)contra(反)→vene(走)→反着走→违反 参考:convene召集,集合
(同)violate, break, infringe, offend, transgress

contrite [] adj. 后悔的,痛悔的(grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming)
(类)apologize•contrite=compliment•impressed
道歉•后悔的=称赞•被打动的(动作表示感情)
(反)impenitent ◆ contrite 不悔悟的 ◆ 后悔的
(同)remorseful, apologetic, compunctious, penitent, regretful

control [] n. 在对照实验中被用作对照标准的一个或一组物体
(反)control ◆ group experimented on 对照组 ◆ 试验组

contumacious [] adj. 不服从的(stubbornly disobedient•REBELLIOUS)
(类)contumacious•authority=hidebound•novelty 不服从的•权威=死板的•革新(反义)
(反)contumacious ◆ obedient 不服从的 ◆ 服从的
(同)insubordinate, insurgent, mutinous, rebellious

conundrum [] n.难题(a riddle whose answer is or involves a pun)
(类)conundrum•solve=tangle•unrave l解决难题=解开混乱状态 (消除关系)

convalesce [] vi. 渐渐康复,渐愈(to recover health gradually after sickness)
(类)recidivism•relapse=rehabilitation•convalesce 累犯•故态复萌=复原•渐愈(同义)
(同)recuperate, ameliorate, gain, mend,

convenience [] n.便利的(something conducive to comfort or ease)
(类)opportune•convenience=impermanent•transience 适当的•方便=暂时的•暂时(同义)
(反)opportune ◆ inconvenient 适当的 ◆ 不便的
(同)amenity, comfort, facility

convention [] n. 大会,惯例(usage or custom especially in social matters)
(类)indiscretion•convention=overdose•prescription
行为不检点•规矩习俗=过量用药•药方(前者违背后者)
【注】indiscretion:an act at variance with the accepted morality of a society 行为不检点
(反)ossify ◆ transcend conventions 死板 ◆ 超越常规
(同)contract, agreement, compact, covenant, transaction

convergent [] adj. 收敛的,聚合(tending to move toward one point;confluent)
(反)convergent ◆ moving apart 收敛的 ◆ 散开
discrepancy ◆ convergence 分散 ◆ 聚合
converge ◆ spread out 聚合 ◆ 展开

conversant [] adj. 熟悉的,亲近的(having frequent or familiar association)
(反)conversant ◆ unfamiliarity 熟悉的 ◆ 不熟悉
conversance ◆ lack of familiarity 熟悉的 ◆ 不熟悉
conversant ◆ ignorant 熟悉的 ◆ 不知道的
(同)familiar, versant

convert [] vt. 使改变信仰(to persuade or induce to adopt a particular religion, faith, or belief)
(类)veer•direction=convert•belief
转向•方向=使改变信仰•信仰(行为及其相关对象)
hunter•quarry=proselytizer•convert
猎人•狩猎=劝服改宗者•使改变信仰(人物典型行为)
proselytizer•convert=mediator•reconcile(干扰:educator•promote)
劝服改宗• 使改变信仰=调停者•调停(行为及其目的)
【注:mediate :interpose between parties in order to reconcile them】
four-poster•bed=convertible•automobile 四足床•床=敞篷车•车(种属)
(同)ransform, change, metamorphose, transmute
(例)Many Africans were converted to Christianity. 许多非洲人都改信基督教。

convex [] adj. 凸起的,凸面的(curving outward)
(类)convex ◆ dent 凸起 ◆ 凹陷
(记)参考:concave 凹的,凹面的

convey [] vt. 传达(to communicate;impart)运输,转移
(类)smuggle•convey=collude•cooperate 走私•运输=串通•合作(正常与非法)
duct•convey=splint•immobilize 管道•运输=夹板•使固定(物品及其功能)

conviction [] n. 深信,确信(a strong belief) n. 定罪
(类)dubious•conviction=disaffected•contentment 可疑的•确信=不满足的•满足
prosecution•conviction=mediation•compromise 起诉•定罪=调解•和解(目的)
(反)cogent ◆ unconvincing 有说服力的 ◆ 不令人信服的
(记)vict(征服);与victory一同记,深信自己一定胜利。参考:invincible
(例)Nothing could shake his conviction that she was innocent.
他深信她是无辜的,没有什么能够动摇他的这一看法。

convoke [] v. 召集会议(to call together to a meeting;assemble)
(反)convoke ◆ adjourn 召集会议 ◆ 休会
(记)voke(叫喊) 参考:provoke(激起),invoke(唤起)
(例)Congress was convoked at the outbreak of the emergency.
危机出现的时候,议会立刻召集开会。

convoluted [] adj.复杂的,费解的(complicated; intricately)
(类)convoluted•complexity=ephemeral•transience=transient•evanescence
费解的•复杂=短暂的•顷刻=短暂的•瞬息(形名同义)
(反)convoluted ◆ straightforward 复杂费解的 ◆ 直截了当的
(同)complex , winding , intricate, complicated
(记)volut(旋转)。联想:转的太多,令人费解的。参考:revolutionary

convulsion [] n. 痉挛(violent, involuntary muscular contractions)骚乱
(类)convulsion•contraction=frenzy•emotion 痉挛是猛烈的收缩=狂暴是猛烈的情感

coop [ku•p] n. 小屋,鸡笼(a cage or small enclosure for poultry)
(类)corral•horses=coop•chickens 畜栏•马=鸡笼•小鸡 (动物及其饲养场所)

copious []adj.丰富的(abundant; plentiful)
(反)sparse稀少的 dearth贫乏的
(记)由copy联想,不断的非法copy,令盗版软件很丰富。

coquette [ ] n.风骚的女人,玩弄男人的女人(a woman who flirt insincerely)
(类)supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious恳求者•恳求的=风骚女人•轻浮的

cord [] n.木料计量单位;绳索,束缚
(类)cord•wood = ream•paper 木料计量单位•木材=令•纸
(记)木料是圆形的,过去都是用绳子绕一周来丈量。

cordon [] n. 警戒线(extended line of police to prevent access or egress)
(类)levee•river=cordon•crowd 大堤•河=警戒线•群众
(记)cord(绳子) 联想:用绳子隔离出警戒线。

cornucopia [] n.象征丰收的羊角(羊角装饰器内装满瓜果、谷物代表丰收)
(类)cornucopia•abundance=mace•authority 羊角象征丰收=权杖象征权威
(反)lack缺乏pittance 少量,微薄
(记)corn(角)+copia(丰饶)参考:copious 丰富的

corona [] n. 冠壮物,光环,日冕
(类)corona•sun=atmosphere•planet 日冕环绕太阳=大气环绕行星
(记)可能来自crown(王冠),发音很相似。
list 8 coronation-------deference
coronation [] n. 加冕,加冕礼(the act or occasion of crowning)
(类)coronation•reign=wedding•marriage 加冕礼•执政=婚礼•结婚 (前者是后者的仪式)
(记)参考 corona

corporeal [] adj. 肉体的,有形的,物质的,非精神的
(反)intangible无形的disembodied无形的 spiritual 精神的immaterial非实质的
(记)corp(身体)参考:corporation 公司,法人,实体 corpulent 肥胖的

corroborate [] vt. 使坚固,确证(confirm)
(类)corroborate•evidence=calumniate•falsehood 确证依靠证据=诽谤依靠谎言
(反)lessening of certainty可信度降低 controvert 辩驳 deny否认
(记)robor(强壮) 谐音:萝卜使人强壮。

corrosive [] adj. 腐蚀的,侵蚀的 n.腐蚀剂
(类)etch•corrosive=glue•adhesive 蚀刻•腐蚀剂=粘贴•粘合剂(前者靠后者实现)
【注】etch :to cut into the surface of (glass, for example) by the action of acid
(记)参考 erosive 腐蚀性的

corrugated adj. 满是皱纹的(wrinkled; ridged)
(反)corrugated ◆ smooth 满是皱纹的 ◆ 光滑的
(记)参考:ruga 本身是一个词:皱纹。
(例)She wished she could smooth away the wrinkles from his corrugated brow.
她希望将皱纹从额头上除掉。

cosmopolitan [] adj. 世界性的(pertinent or common to the whole world)
(类)provincial•cosmopolitan=【bigot•tolerant】地方的•世界性的=狭隘者•宽容的
【注】对应不整齐,前者是反义关系,后者是反面特征
(反)insular ◆ cosmopolitan 狭隘的,孤立的 ◆ 世界性的
insularity ◆ cosmopolitanism 偏狭,孤立 ◆ 世界大同主义
(同)catholic, cosmic, ecumenical, global, planetary, worldwide
(记)参考:cosmos 宇宙

cosset [] v. 宠爱,娇养(to treat as a pet:coddle; pamper)
(反)cosset ◆ slight 宠爱 ◆ 轻蔑
cosseted ◆ unspoiled 宠爱的 ◆ 未宠坏的

coterie [] n.小团体,小圈子(group that meets socially;select circle)
(同)clique, cabal, circle, clan, mob, ring
(记)参考:cottage 小屋

countenance [] v.赞成,容忍(approve; tolerate) n. 面容,表情
(类)countenance•toleration= demur•objection 赞成•容忍=抗议•反对(同义)
(反)countenance ◆ condemn支持 ◆ 谴责
countenance ◆ regard with disfavor支持 ◆ 不感兴趣
(记)与下面的countermand一同记。 counter 反对

counterfeit [] n. 赝品,伪造品(something counterfeit : FORGERY)
(类)counterfeit•money=sophism•reasoning 赝品假钱•钱=诡辩•推理(假与正常)
(同)imposture, deceit, deception, fake, fraud, hoax

countermand vt. 取消,撤销(cancel; revoke)
(类)countermand•order=revoke•license 撤销•命令=撤销•执照
(例)The general countermand the orders issued in his absence.
将军撤销了他不在时所发布的命令。

court [] n/vt. 求爱;献殷勤 n.法院,法庭;庭院
(反)aversion 厌恶spurn 摒弃repel intentionally故意抵制 snub 冷落怠慢
(记)谐音“夸她”。联想夸她为了献殷勤。参考:courtesy 礼貌,谦恭

coven [] n. (尤指十三个)女巫的集会(an assembly or band of usually 13 witches)
(类)witch•coven=retainer•retinue 女巫•女巫的集会=家臣•随行人员(组成关系)

covert []adj.隐蔽的,偷偷摸摸的 n.掩蔽处, 隐藏处
(反)covert ◆ open 隐蔽的 ◆ 公开的
(同)surreptitious ,secret,clandestine,furtive,stealthy
(记)来自cover 覆盖 参考:overt明显的

covetous [] adj. 贪婪的,渴求的(marked by extreme desire to acquire or possess)
(类)covetous•desire=prodigal•spend 贪求的•要求=浪费的•花费
paltry•covet=despicable•admire 无价值的•贪求=卑劣的•钦佩
covetous•rapacious=troubled•distraught=enthusiastic •mania
贪心的•强夺贪婪的=不平静的•心烦意乱发狂的=热情的•极端狂热的(程度)
(同)acquisitive, desirous, grabby, grasping, greedy
(例)the covetous eye of an avid collector.一个狂热收藏家渴求的目光

cow [] v. 恐吓,威胁(to destroy the resolve or courage of)
(反)cow ◆ embolden 威胁 ◆ 使大胆
cowed ◆ undaunted 被吓倒的 ◆ 大无畏的
(同)intimidate,bluster, bully, strong-arm

cowardice [] n. 懦弱(lack of courage or resolution)
(类)cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize 懦弱易遭胁迫=愤怒易遭敌对
(反)cowardice ◆ pluck懦弱 ◆ 勇气
(例)A treacherous coward who betrayed his friends to save his own skin
一个背信弃义的懦夫为了自己的利益背叛了他的朋友。

cower [] vi. 畏缩,退缩(to shrink away or crouch from something that menaces) (类)cower•fear=rant•anger 畏缩•害怕=咆哮•愤怒(动作表达情感)
(反)brazenly confront 勇敢地面对 bristle发怒
(同)fawn, cringe, grovel, toady

cozen [] v. 欺骗,瞒(to cheat; deceive)
(类)credulous•cozen=tractable•control 轻信的易被欺骗=驯良的易被控制
(反)cozen ◆ deal with forthrightly 欺骗 ◆ 直率的处理
(同)cheat, defraud, swindle

cramped [] n. 狭促的(confined, incommodious)
(反)commodious 宽敞的

crass [] adj. 粗俗的;粗厚的;愚钝的(without refinement or sensitivity)
(反)refined 精细的
(同)coarse, crude, gross, uncouth, vulgar

craven [] adj. 懦弱的(timid)n.懦夫 (coward, dastard)
(类)craven•admirable=【deft•awkward】疑为干扰选项
怯懦的不令人钦佩的(反面特征)灵巧的•笨拙的(反义关系)
craven•confront=honest•deceive 懦弱的•对抗=诚实的•欺骗(反面特征)
craven•hero=parsimonious•spendthrift 懦弱的•英雄=节俭的•挥霍者(反面特征)
【注】parsimonious :excessively sparing or frugal. 不仅有吝啬的意思,还有节俭的意思
craven•heroic=volatile•constant 懦弱的•英勇的=不稳定的•稳定的
(反)valorous 勇敢的 记法:谐音:沃勒尔—德国足球队教练,以勇猛著称。
(记)和brave一起记。b倒下变成c,勇士变懦夫。

crave [] v. 渴望(to yearn for)恳求(to ask for earnestly)
(类)craving•desire=terror•fear 渴望•愿望=恐怖•害怕(程度)
crave•longing=exult•satisfaction 渴望•渴望=得意洋洋•满意(动名同义)
(反)spurn摒弃

crease [] n. 折痕(a line or ridge made by folding a pliable substance)v. 折,弄皱
(类)crease•folding=hole•perforating 折痕•折叠的=洞•穿孔的(前者由后者造成)

credence [] n.信任(belief,credit,faith)
(反)skeptic怀疑 doubt 怀疑
(记)cred(相信) 参考:credit信用 credible 可靠的 creed 信条,教义

credulous [] adj. 轻信的,易受骗的(willing to believe or trust too readily)
(类)credulous•cozen=tractable•control 轻信的•欺骗=驯良的•控制
skeptic•credulous=penitent•obdurate 怀疑者•轻信的=悔过者•顽固的
(反)credulity ◆ skepticism轻信 ◆ 怀疑
(同)unsuspecting, unsuspicious, unwary
(例)deceiving the credulous young girls 欺骗这个轻信的女孩

creek [] n. 小溪,小河
(类)creek•river=hill•mountain=pebble•rock 小溪•河流=小山•山脉=小石块•石头(小和正常)

creep [] vi. 爬,缓慢地行进(to move slowly on hands and knees)
(反)creep ◆ move swiftly/quick movement 缓慢地行进 ◆ 快速移动

crescendo [] n&v.(声音)渐强(a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage)
(类)crescendo•sound=acceleration•tempo 声音渐强•声音=速度加快•速率
(反)crescendo ◆ decrease in volume 声音渐强 ◆ 声音减弱
(记)和下面crest一起记 向顶峰进发→渐强

crest [] n.鸡冠,顶部,顶峰(the highest or culminating point; the peak)
(类)crest•wave=(acme/summit/peak)•mountain 波峰•波=山顶•山(事物及其顶点)
(同)apex, crown, peak,summit, vertex, acme, apogee, climax, culmination, pinnacle

crestfallen [] adj.垂头丧气的,挫败的,失望的(dejected; discouraged)
(反)crestfallen ◆ exultant 垂头丧气的 ◆ 欢悦的

cronyism [ ] n. 任人唯亲,对好朋友的偏袒
(类)cronyism•friend=nepotism•relative 对好朋友的偏袒•朋友=裙带关系•亲戚

croon [] v. 低声歌唱 ,低吟(to sing or hum in a soft ,soothing voice)
(类)croon•sing=murmur•speak 低声歌唱•歌唱=低语•说
(记)联想 crown 丢了皇冠,只能低唱。

crouch [] v. 蹲伏、弯腰(to stoop, especially with the knees bent)
(类)crouch•spring= hover•plunge 蹲伏•跳起=翱翔•俯冲(反义)

crucial [] adj. 严重的;极重要的 (of vital importance)
(类)relevant•crucial=perceptible•obvious 相关的•重要的=看的见的•明显的(程度)
(反)crucial ◆ inconsequential 重要的 ◆ 不重要的
(同)decisive,significant,acute,critical, desperate, dire
(记)cru十字 联想:到了十字路口,这时的选择很重要。参考:crux 中心,关键

crumple [] v. 弄皱;崩溃,垮台
(类)fold•crumple=defeat•overwhelm 折叠•弄皱=击败•征服(前者导致后者)
(例)crumple a piece of paper 弄皱了一张纸。

crutch [] n. 拐杖,支撑(a support to assist a lame person in walking)
(类)crutch•walk=glasses•see 拐杖•行走=眼镜•看(前者辅助后者)

crux [] n. 中心,关键(the central or pivotal point);难题
(类)crux ◆ peripheral element 关键 ◆ 周边因素

cryptic [] adj. 秘密的,神秘的(mysterious);含义模糊的(puzzling)
(类)cipher•cryptic=précis•concise 暗号•秘密的=摘要•简洁的
(反)cryptic ◆ self explain/self explanatory 含义模糊的 ◆ 能自我解释的
(同)hidden, secret,dark, enigmatic
(记)来自crypt 秘密的,隐藏的

cuisine [] n. 烹调法,烹饪(a characteristic manner or style of preparing food)
(类)gourmet•cuisine=connoisseur•art 美食家•烹调=鉴赏家•艺术(前者鉴定后者)

culpable [] adj. 该受谴责的(deserving blame or censure);有罪的
(类)culpable•blame=exemplary•imitation 该受谴责的•谴责=可模仿的•模仿
confession•culpability=testimonial•appreciation 招供因有罪=推荐信因欣赏
(反)culpable ◆ innocent/above reproach 有罪的 ◆ 无罪的
(同)amiss,blamable,censurable,guilty, reprehensible, sinful
(记)culp 罪。参考:exculpate无罪释放 inculpate 使有罪,控告

cultivate [] v.培养,栽培(to foster the growth of)
(反)cultivate ◆ cause to wither 栽植 ◆ 使枯萎
cultivated ◆ feral 栽植的 ◆ 野生的
(记)cult(培养) 参考:culture 文化 cultured 有修养的

cumbersome [] adj. 笨拙的,累赘的(unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk)
(反)cumbersome ◆ easy to handle 笨拙的 ◆ 容易对付的
(记)cumber (躺,障碍)recumbent 靠着的,斜倚的

cunning [] adj. 狡猾的(characterized by wiliness and trickery)
(类)cunning•gulled=watchful•waylaid 狡猾的•被骗=警惕的•伏击(前者防范后者)
(反)artless朴实的 ingenuous纯真的
(同)sly, artful, astute, crafty, foxy, guileful, insidious, tricky, wily

curator [] n. (博物馆、图书馆等的) 馆长,主持
(类)curator•art=archivist•documents 馆长•艺术品=案卷保管人•档案
curator•museum=ranger•forest 馆长•博物馆=护林员•森林
curators•paintings=librarians•books馆长•绘画=图书馆员•图书
(记)来自care 关心 馆长关心图书。

curmudgeon [] n. 脾气坏的(老)人(a crusty, ill-tempered, and usually old man)
(反)curmudgeon ◆ agreeable person 脾气坏的人 ◆ 令人愉快的人
(记)谐音"出麻疹"。联想"出麻疹让人脾气变得很坏。"

curriculum [] n.课程表(a set of courses constituting an area of specialization)
(类)curriculum•course=menu•dish 课程表•课程=菜单•盘装菜
【注】manifest:cargo, agenda:meeting为干扰选项

cursory [] adj.匆忙的,草率的(rapidly and often superficially performed or produced)
(反)fastidious苛求的painstakingly thorough认真的slow and thorough慢而仔细的
exam cursorily ◆ pinpoint 粗略地检查 ◆ 精确查明
(同)superficial, shallow, sketchy, uncritical
(记)cur (跑) 参考:cursive 草书的

curt [] adj. 简略的(rudely brief in speech or abrupt in manner)
(类)curt•words=parsimonious•resource 简略的•言词=节省的•资源
(同)brief, compendiary, compendious, laconic, succinct, summary

curtail [] vt.截短,缩短;削减(to cut short;reduce)
(类)curtail•duration=abase•strength 缩减•持续时间=降低•力量
curtail•period=enervate•energy 缩短•周期=使衰弱•活力
(反)protract / prolong延长
(记)cur+tail谐音"割尾巴";联想"截短,缩短"

cynic [] n. 犬儒主义者(a person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness)
(类)ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness清纯少女•世故=愤世嫉俗者•相信
【注:犬儒主义者认为人们行为的出发点是自私,因此他们对人采取怀疑的态度。】

dabbler [] vi. 涉猎者,浅尝辙止者(one not deeply engaged in something)
(类)dabbler•dedication=martinet•leniency 浅尝辙止者•致力=严格的人•宽大
(反)dabbler ◆ specialist 浅尝辙止者 ◆ 专家
dabble ◆ dedicate/devote/specialize 浅尝辙止 ◆ 致力/投入/专门研究
(记)参考double(双);联想三心二意。三心二意的人容易浅尝辄止。

daft [] adj. 傻的,愚蠢的(silly, foolish)
(反)daft ◆ judicious 傻的 ◆ 明智的
(记)由deft转意而来

daguerreotype [] n.早期银板照相法
(类)daguerreotype•photograph=musket•firearm 早期银板照相法•照相=早期火枪•火枪

dais [ ] n. 讲台,主席台(a raised platform, as in a lecture hall, for speakers or honored guests)
(类)dais•honor=stadium•compete 主席台能够给客人礼遇=运动场能够竞赛
【注:honor:to regard or treat with honor or respect 礼遇;给予客人礼遇】

dally [] vi. 闲逛,虚度时光(to waste time ;loiter)
(类)dally•times=quander•money 虚度•时间=浪费•金钱 (前者浪费后者)
(记)谐音"大理"。联想"在旅游胜地云南大理闲逛。"

damper [] n.抑制因素,泼冷水(a dulling or deadening influence)
(反)damper ◆ ameliorator 抑制因素 ◆ 改进物
(记)来自damp(打湿,抑制)

dandy [] n.纨绔子弟,好打扮的人(a man who affects extreme elegance in clothes; a fop)
(类)dandy•preen=miser•hoard 纨绔子弟•打扮=吝啬鬼•储藏

dank [] adj. 阴湿的(unpleasantly moist or wet)
(类)dank•moisture=dappled•spot 阴湿的•潮湿=有斑点的•斑点(同义)
(记)与sank一起记,沉入水中把自己弄湿了。

dapper [] adj. 衣冠楚楚的;干净的(neat ,trim or smart in dress or demeanor)
(类)slovenly•dapper =indulgent•adherent
不修边幅的•衣冠楚楚的=放纵的•信徒的(反面特征)
(反)dapper ◆ frowsy/unkempt/slovenly 干净的 ◆ 肮脏的/不整洁的/邋遢的

dappled [] adj. 有斑点的,花的
(类)dappled•spot=striated•groove有斑点的•小点=有条纹的•刻痕

daredevil [] n. 大胆的人,鲁莽的人(a recklessly bold person)
(类)daredevil•audacity=malcontent•dissatisfaction 大胆的人•大胆=不满者•不满意
prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 审慎•鲁莽的人=聪慧•笨蛋
(记)dare+devil(恶人) 大胆的恶人。

dart [] vi. 疾驰,飞奔 n.标枪
(类)dart•missile=skiff•boat 标枪•发射物=小划艇•船(种属)
move•dart=descend•plummet 移动•疾驰=下降•飞速下坠
(记)谐音"打他";联想"用标枪打他。"

daunt [] vt. 使胆怯,使畏缩 (to overcome with fear; intimidate)
(类)fearless•daunt=impassive•perturb 无畏的不会胆怯=冷漠的不会被打扰
dauntless•intimidate=irrepressible•restrain 大胆的•使害怕=抑制不住的•抑制
dauntless•trepidation=footloose•attachment 大胆的•害怕=自由的•附着 (反义)
(反)daunt ◆ embolden/make resolute/hearten 使胆怯 ◆ 使大胆/使坚定/鼓舞
dauntless ◆ craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous/meek/trepid/timorous
大胆的 ◆ 胆小的/容易气馁的/胆怯的/温和的/惊恐的/胆小的
undaunted ◆ cowed 无畏的 ◆ 胆怯的
(同)dismay, appall, horrify, shake

dawdle [] v.n. 游手好闲,虚度光阴(to waste by trifling;idle)
(反)hie ◆ dawdle 匆忙 ◆ 游手好闲
(同)lazy, loaf, loiter, loll, lounge

deadpan [] adj.无表情的,冷漠的(wooden; impassive)
(类)deadpan•impassive=impudent•brazen=insightful•discerning
无表情的•冷漠的=厚颜无耻的•厚颜无耻的=富有洞察力的•有鉴别力的(同义)
(同)blank, empty, inexpressive, unexpressive, vacant

dearth [] n. 缺乏,粮食不足,饥谨(an inadequate supply)
(反)dearth ◆ plethora/spate/copiousness 缺乏 ◆ 过剩/大量/丰富

debacle [ ] n.崩溃,溃败(breaking up; downfall)
(反)debacle ◆ complete success/éclat 溃败 ◆ 大成功

debark [] vt.使下船登陆, 卸载(to unload, as from a ship or an airplane)
(类)debark•ship=unload•truck 从船上卸载=从卡车上卸货

debase [] v.贬低,贬损(to reduce in quality value, or dignity)
(类)debase•status=chill•temperature 降低•地位=使变冷•温度
debase•value=constrict•diameter 贬低•价值=压缩•直径
(反)debased ◆ ennobled 出身低微的 ◆ 出身高贵的
debasement ◆ deification 贬低 ◆ 神化
(例)Vulgarly outrageous movies debase the taste of the people
庸俗的暴力电影,降低了人们的欣赏品位。

debilitate [] vt. 使衰弱(to make weak;enfeeble)
(类)debilitate•strength=attenuate•thickness 使衰弱•力量=拉薄•厚度
(反)debilitate ◆ invigorate/fortify 使衰弱 ◆ 鼓舞/加强
(同)weaken, attenuate, blunt, cripple, disable, sap
(记)bility(能力) 参考:ability 能力

debris [] n.碎片,残骸(the remains of something broken down or destroyed)
(类)debris•destroy=ash•burn残骸•破坏=灰烬•烧(前者由后者造成)

debunk [] v. 揭穿真面目,暴露(to expose the sham or falseness of)
(反)debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham/unexposure 揭穿真面目 ◆ 永远的伪装/隐藏
(记)bunk=bank 联想:使银行的真相暴露出来。

debut [] n.初次登场亮相 (a first public appearance)
(类)debut•career=embark•journey 初次登场是职业生涯的开始=上船是旅行的开始
(反)debut ◆ farewell performance 初次登场 ◆ 告别演出

decadence [] n. 衰落,颓废(the act or process of falling into decay)
(反)decadence ◆ wholesomeness 衰落 ◆ 健康
(记)参考decade 十年;联想经济规律"经济增长十年就会进入衰退。"

decant [] vt. 轻轻倒出(to pour liquor gently so as not to disturb the sediment)
(类)decantation•pour=subterfuge•deceive 倾注•灌注=托词•欺骗(后者程度强)
(记)can 罐头盒 联想"由罐头盒中轻轻倒出。"

decibel [] n. 分贝(音量单位)
(类)decibel•loudness=light-year•distance 分贝•响度=光年•距离(事物及其衡量单位)

decipher [] vt.破解,解释(to decode ,as something written in cipher)
(类)decipher•hieroglyph=separate•component=break•code
破解•象形文字=分离•组分=破解•密码

decode [] vt. 解码,译解
(类)indecipherable•decoded=unmanageable•controlled 不可解的•破解的=难管的•可控的
encoded•decode=tacit•infer 加密的需解码=暗示的需推断
(同)break, crack, cryptanalyze, decipher, decrypt

decorum [] n.礼仪(propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance)
(类)gaffe•decorum=miscalculation•judgment 失态•礼仪=错误的判断•裁判
(反)decorum ◆ impropriety 礼仪 ◆ 不适当
decorous ◆ mangy/unseemly 有礼貌的 ◆ 低贱的/不体面的
indecorous ◆ proper 不合礼节的 ◆ 适当的
(记)谐音:待客人 联想:待客人当然要有礼貌。

decrepit [] adj. 衰老的,破旧的(weakened by old age; worn out by long use)
(反)vigorous健壮的sturdy健壮的sound健康的robust健壮的hale强壮的
(同)weak, feeble, fragile, frail, infirm, insubstantial, unsound

default [] n. & v. 拖欠(failure to act in meeting financial obligations)
(类)default•pay=yield•resist 拖欠•支付=屈服•坚持(反义)
(反)default ◆ fullfill an obligation/pay one's debt 违约拖欠 ◆ 履行义务/偿还债务

defer v.推迟,延期,听从
(类)arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir 傲慢•听从=疲乏•激起(难以关系)
(反)exigent ◆ deferrable 紧急的 ◆ 可延期的

deference [] n. 敬意,尊重(respectful regard)
(类)deference•authority=emulation•exemplar 尊重•权威=效法•榜样
reverent•deference=exemplary•imitation 虔诚的•尊重=可仿效的•模仿(因果)
defer•leader=admire•hero 尊重•领导=赞美•英雄(动宾)
deferential•offend=scornful•respect 尊重的不会冒犯=轻蔑的不会尊敬
deferential•sycophant=frugal•penurious 尊重的•奉承的=节俭的•吝啬的(褒贬)
(反)deferential ◆ imperious/impudent 尊重的 ◆ 专横的/无礼的
deference ◆ contempt 尊重 ◆ 轻视
(同)honor, homage, obeisance, reverence

list 9 deficiency--------dilute
deficiency [] n. 缺乏,不足(insufficiency, an amount that is lacking or inadequate)
(反)deficiency ◆ surfeit 缺乏 ◆ 过度
(同)deficit, inadequacy, insufficience, insufficiency, scantiness, shortage

defile [] n.(山间)小道 v. 弄污,弄脏
(类)defile•narrowness=precipice•steepness 小道•狭窄=悬崖•陡峭(正面特征)

defoliant [] n. 脱叶剂, 落叶剂
(类)defoliants•leave=insecticide•insect 落叶剂•树叶=杀虫剂•虫
(记)参考foliage 树叶,植物

deforest [] vt.采伐森林,清除树林
(类)deforestation•tree=insecticide•insect 采伐森林•树木=除虫•虫

deft [] adj. 灵巧的,熟练的,敏捷的(skillful ,nimble ,facile)
(类)maladroit•deft=voluble•terse 笨拙的•灵巧的=滔滔不绝的•简短的
(反)deft ◆ awkward/maladroit/ham-handed 灵巧的 ◆ 笨拙的/笨拙的/笨手笨脚的
(同)dexterous, adroit, clever, handy, neat-handed
(记)daft“愚蠢的” 变体。

defuse [] vt.抚慰,减轻(to make less dangerous or tense);去掉…的雷管
(反)defuse ◆ foment 抚慰 ◆ 煽动
(记)fuse 雷管,保险丝。De+fuse 去掉雷管

defy [] vt.公然反抗,违抗to resist boldly or openly
(反)defy ◆ acquiesce/obey 违抗 ◆ 勉强同意/尊从
(同)brave, challenge, dare, front, venture

dehydrate [] vt. (使)脱水,(使)干燥(to remove water from)
(类)desiccated•dehydration=abraded•friction 脱水的•脱水=摩擦的•摩擦
dehydrate•water=fade•brightening= detoxify•poison
脱水•水=褪色•明亮=解毒•毒性(消除关系)
dehydration•moisture=descent•altitude=desertification•vegetation
脱水•潮湿=降落•高度=沙漠化•植被(消除关系)
(反)dehydrate ◆ reconstitute/sature with water 脱水 ◆ 复原/饱和水
(同)dry, desiccate, exsiccate, parch, sear

deify [] v.神化(to worship or revere as a god)
(反)deification ◆ debasement 神化 ◆ 贬低
deify ◆ watch with contempt 神化 ◆ 蔑视

deject [] vt. 使沮丧,使灰心(to make gloomy in spirits)adj.沮丧的
(类)hearten•dejection=mollify•anger 振作•沮丧=平息•生气(消除关系)
(反)deject ◆ gladden 使沮丧 ◆ 使高兴
dejected ◆ exultant 沮丧的 ◆ 欢跃的
(同)demoralize, dishearten, disparage, dispirit

deleterious [] adj.有害的,有毒的(injurious to healthy ;harmful)
(反)beneficial/ salutary/ salubrious/ wholesome有益的/有益健康的
(同)damaging, injurious, mischievous, prejudicious
(记)来自delete 联想"要被删除的当然是有害的。

deliberate [] adj.深思熟虑的(to think about decisions carefully)
(类)brash•deliberation=candor•subterfuge 仓促•深思熟虑=直率•托词(反义)
caprice•deliberation=impromptu•rehearsal 善变•深思熟虑=即席演出•排练(反义)
(反)hasty ◆ characterized by deliberation草率的 ◆ 深思熟虑的
impetuous ◆ deliberate冲动的 ◆ 审慎的
(同)advised, considered, designed, premeditated, studied, studious

delicacy [] n.精致(fineness);令人愉悦的事情(something delightful or pleasing)
(类)chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy 明暗配合•对比=复杂金银细丝工艺品•精致
(反)delicacy ◆ crudity 精致 ◆ 粗制
husky ◆ delicate 粗糙的 ◆ 精致的

delirium [] n.精神错乱,发狂(a mental disturbance)
(类)delirium•confusion=coma•unconsciousness 精神错乱•混乱=昏迷•无意识(同义)
(例)in a delirium of patriotic feeling 处于一种狂热的爱国激情

delusion [] n.错觉(an abnormal mental state)
(类)delusion•thought=hallucination•perception 错觉•想法=幻觉•感觉(前者是后者的异常)
(反)transparent ◆ delusive 容易理解的 ◆ 迷惑的

deluge [] n.大洪水;豪雨(a great flood, inundation)
(类)droplet•deluge=pebble•landslide 小水滴•大洪水=小圆石•山崩
rain•deluge=wind•hurricane 雨•豪雨=风•飓风
(反)deluge ◆ drizzle 豪雨 ◆ 毛毛雨
(记)参考:dilute 稀释,变淡

delve [] vt.&vi. 探究,查考(to make a careful or detailed search for information)
(类)delve•skim=scrutinize•gloss=quaff•sip 探究•浏览=细看•简短注释=痛饮•啜吸(程度)

demagogue [] n. 煽动者,蛊惑民心的政客
(类)demagogue•instruct=shirk•malinger 煽动者•指示=逃避者•逃避工作(人物典型动作)
(记)dem 人民 参考:democracy 民主 demography 人口统计学demotic 大众的

demanding [] adj. 过分要求的,苛求的(making difficult or excessive demands)
(类)demanding•satisfactory= closed-mind•sway【干扰:adulterate•pristine掺杂的不纯净】
苛求的•满意=死心塌地的•动摇(难以关系)
(同)burdensome, exacting, exigent, grievous, oppressive, taxing

demolition [] n. 破坏,毁坏;毁坏之遗迹
(类)rehabilitate•demolition=recycle•disposal 复原•破坏=再利用•处理(反义)
(记)moli谐音"毛利";联想"毛利人的文明被殖民者所破坏。"

demonstrate [] v.论证,证明(to prove or make clear by reasoning or evidence)
(反)demonstrable ◆ unable to prove 可论证的 ◆ 不能证明的

demoralize [] vt. 使道德颓废;使堕落;挫折锐气
(反)demoralize ◆ invigorate/ cheer 士气受挫 ◆ 鼓舞(干扰:ameliorate 改善)
(记)moral 道德
(同)chill, deject, dishearten, disparage, dispirit

demotic [] adj.通俗的,大众化的(popular)
(反)demotic ◆ profound 通俗的 ◆ 深刻的

demur [] v.表示异议,反对(to make objection ,esp. on the grounds of scruples)
(类)demur•objection=praise•approbation 提出异议•反对=赞美•嘉许
demur•qualms=waver•irresoluteness 表示异议•疑虑=踌躇•犹豫不决
(反)demur ◆ accept/accede 表示异议 ◆ 接受/同意
(同)balk, boggle, scruple,stickle, stumble

denigrate [] vt.玷污,诋毁(to cast aspersions on•disparage)
(反)denigrate ◆ honor 诋毁 ◆ 尊敬
(记)nigr(黑)参考:Nigro 黑人
(同)malign, asperse, calumniate, defame, slander, vilify

denouement [] n.(小说的)结尾,结局
(类)joke•punch line=plot•denouement 笑话•妙语=情节•结局
【注:punch line•the statement (as in a joke) that makes the point.
就是相声或笑话中抖响包袱的那句话,和小说结局一样使悬念解开。】

denounce [] v. 公开指责,揭发(to condemn or censure openly or publicly)
(类)admonish•denounce=punish•pillory 警告•公开指责=惩罚•公开嘲弄(正常•公开)
denunciation•denial=castigation•reproof 驳斥•否定=苛责•谴责
(反)denounce ◆ brace/condone 指责 ◆ 支持/宽恕
denunciation ◆ accolade/eulogy/panegyric 谴责 ◆ 赞扬/赞词/赞扬
(同)criticize, blame, censure, condemn, denunciate, reprehend, reprobate

dent [] n.凹,凹痕 (a depression made by pressure)
(反)dent ◆ convex 凹陷 ◆ 凸起

denture [] n.假牙
(类)denture•teeth=toupee•hair 假牙•牙齿=假发•头发

denude [] v.脱去,剥蚀,剥夺(to strip of all covering or surface layers; bare)
(反)denude ◆ cover 脱去 ◆ 遮蔽
(同)strip, disrobe, unclothe, undress

despise [] vt.轻视(to regard with contempt or aversion;scorn)厌恶(to hate)
(反)despise ◆ venerate 蔑视 ◆ 尊敬
(同)abhor, contemn, disdain, scorn, scout

deplete [] vt. 耗尽,使衰竭(to lessen markedly in content, power, or value)
(反)enrich ◆ deplete 使富有 ◆ 耗尽
(记)plete 满 参考:complete 完成 replete 充满的
(同)bankrupt, drain, draw, exhaust, impoverish, use up
(例)an epidemic which depletes an army of manpower一场流行病耗尽了军队的有生力量。

deplore [] vt.深表遗憾(regret);反对(to consider deserving of deprecation)
(反)accolade/extol/laud/commend/applaud赞美
(例)Although I deplore the vulgarity of your language, I defend your right to express yourself freely.虽然我对你粗俗的言语深表遗憾,但是我维护你说话的权利。
(记)参考 Implore 恳求,哀求

deploy []v.展开(有策略性的);调度(to spread out strategically)
(反)deploy ◆ concentrate 展开 ◆ 集中
(记)ploy 用 参考:employ 雇用

deportation [] n. 驱逐,放逐(the removal from a country of an alien)
(类)deportation•country=eviction•dwelling=expel•school
驱逐•国家=逐出•住处=开除•学校
(记)port 运 参考:import 进口 portable便携的 deport /comport举止,风度

depose [] vt.作证(to testify to under oath or by affidavit);免职
(反)perjure ◆ depose 作伪证 ◆ 作证
(同)affirm, aver, constate, declare, predicate, protest

deposit [] vt.沉淀 n.沉淀,押金(to put or set down; place)
(反)deposit ◆ process of eroding 沉淀 ◆ 腐蚀过程

depravity [] n. 堕落,腐败,邪恶(a corrupt act or practice)
(类)doldrums•energy=depravity•virtue 消沉•精力=堕落•品德(前者缺乏后者)
(同)vice, corruption, immorality, wickedness

deprecate [] vt. 不赞成,贬低(to express earnest disapproval of)
(类)deprecate•value=restrict•diameter 贬低•价值=限定•直径
(反)extol 赞美vaunt 自夸endorse 赞成
(同)disaprove, discommend, discountenance, disesteem, disfavor, object

depreciate [] v. 贬低,贬值(to lower the price or estimated value of)
(类)self depreciate•swagger=fawn•hauteur(imperiousness) 自贬•吹嘘=奉承•傲慢
depreciation•valuable=ossification•flexible 贬值•有价值的=僵化•灵活的
(同)cheapen, devalorize, devaluate;decry,belittle, discount

depressed adj. 沮丧的(low in spirits:sad;especially:affected by psychological depression)
(类)despondent• depressed=expert• skilled 意气消沉的•沮丧的 = 熟练的•熟练的(同义)

deprivation n. 剥夺(the state of being deprived)损失,匮乏(loss)
(反)deprivation ◆ fecundity/surfeit 损失,匮乏 ◆ 丰饶/过量
(记)de(使失去)+ privat(=private私有的)→使私有财产失去→剥夺

deracinate [] vt. 根除,灭绝 (uproot)
(反)deracinate ◆ plant 根除 ◆ 种植
(记)de(使…离开)+race(=root根)→根除 参考:radical 根本的

derelict [] adj. 玩忽职守的 n.被遗弃的人
(类)stickler•derelict=poseur•unaffected一丝不苟者•玩忽职守的=装模做样者•自然的
(反)derelict ◆ extremely careful 玩忽职守的 ◆ 特别仔细的
derelict ◆ pillar of society 被遗弃的人 ◆ 国之栋梁
(记)de(使)+ relict(残余物)→使成残余物→遗弃→被遗弃的人;另外→弃之不管→玩忽职守
参考:relic 残迹 relinquish放弃

deride [] vt. 嘲弄,嘲笑(to laugh at in scorn or contempt; mock)
(类)deride•mockery=patronize•condescension 嘲笑•嘲笑=屈尊俯就•屈尊俯就(同义)
scoff•derisive=pontificate•pompous=drawl•slow=bluster•loud=prate•aimless
嘲笑•嘲笑的=装模作样的说话•傲慢的=慢吞吞的说•慢的=咆哮•高声的=空谈•无目的的
sneer•derision=smirk•smugness 讥笑•嘲笑=假笑•装模做样(前者表达后者)
gibe•derision=condolence•sympathy(compassion)=apologize•regret
嘲笑•嘲笑=哀悼•同情=道歉•忏悔(前者表达后者)
(反)deride ◆ praise 嘲笑 ◆ 赞美
derision ◆ veneration 嘲笑 ◆ 尊敬
(同)ridicule, lout, mock, razz, scout, taunt

derivative [] adj. 派生的,无创意的(lacking originality•banal)
(反)derivative ◆ original/precursory/innovative 无创意的 ◆ 原创的/先驱的/创新的

descend [] v. 降落 (to pass from a higher place or level to a lower one)
(类)descend•altitude=dehydrate•moisture 降落•高度=脱水•潮湿 (前者消除后者)

descendant [] n.后代,后裔(one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype)
(反)descendants ◆ forbears 后代 ◆ 祖先
(同)offspring, brood, children, posterity, progeny, scions

desecrate [] vt.亵渎,污辱(to treat with sacrilege;profane)
(反)desecrate ◆ sanctify/revere/hallow 亵渎 ◆ 尊敬/尊敬/视为神圣

desiccate [] vt. 使干,干贮(to preserve(a food)by drying•dehydrate)
(类)desiccant•dry=caustic•eat away 使干燥的•干燥=腐蚀性的•侵蚀
desiccant•moisture=cleanser•dirt=deceleration•velocity
干燥剂•潮湿=清洁剂•脏=减速•速度(前者消除后者)
(反)desiccate ◆ add water to加水drench湿透 hydrate与水化合

designate [] vt.任命,命名(entitle)
(类)appellation•designate= foreword•introductory 称呼用来命名=前言用来介绍

despicable [] adj. 可鄙的,卑劣的
(类)despicable•contempt=reprehensible•censure 可鄙的•鄙视=应受斥责的•斥责
despicable•scorn=venerable•reverence 可鄙的•轻视=值得尊敬的•尊敬
despicable•valuable=mulish•flexible 卑劣的•有价值的=顽固的•灵活的(反义)
(同)contemptible, cheap, despisable, mean, pitiable, scurvy, shabby

despotic [] adj.专制的,暴虐的
(类)despotic•tyranny=generous•liberality 暴虐的•暴政=慷慨的•慷慨大方
(同)arbitrary, autocratic, monocratic, tyrannical, tyrannous

dessert [] n. 餐后甜点
(类)dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata 餐后甜点•一餐=收场白•戏剧=尾声•奏鸣曲

desultory [] adj.散漫的,不连贯的,断断续续的(lacking in consistency or order)
(类)desultory•plan=languid•energy=facile•profundity
散漫的•计划=疲倦的•精力=容易的•深刻(前者缺乏后者)
(反)carefully planned 精心计划的 strictly methodical 有系统的assiduous 勤勉的
(同)random, aimless, casual, haphazard, indiscriminate, unconsidered, unplanned

detach [] vt. 分离(unfasten or separate);派遣(to sent on a special mission)
(反)tether ◆ detach 束缚 ◆ 分离

detain [] v. 拘留(to keep under restraint);阻止(to keep from processing)
(反)detain ◆ manumit 拘留 ◆ 释放

deter vt. 制止,威慑
(类)intrepid•deter=rapt•distract 无畏的难以威慑=全神贯注的难以分心
(反)deter ◆ spur 制止 ◆ 激励
deterrent ◆ inducement/incentive 制止 ◆ 引诱/刺激

deterioration [] n.恶化;堕落
(类)deterioration ◆ improvement/amelioration 恶化 ◆ 改进/改善

detour [] vi.绕路而行(to avoid by going around ;bypass)
(类)detour•route=digress•topic 绕路而行•路线=偏题•主题

detoxification [] n. 解毒
(类)detoxification•poison=neutralization•acid 解毒•毒性=中和•酸性

detract [] v. 减去,贬低(to take away a part ,as from value or reputation)
(反)detract ◆ extol 谴责 ◆ 赞美
(同)decry, belittle, depreciate, diminish, discount, disparage, dispraise

detritus [] n. 废品(a product of disintegration, destruction);废墟
(反)detritus ◆ valuable product 废品 ◆ 有用的物品

devoted [] adj. 投入的,深爱的,忠诚的
(类)devoted•zealous=careful•fastidious 深爱的•热情的=细心的•仔细注意的 ()
fanatic•devoted=prude•proper 极端的狂热者•投入的=过分正经的•合乎礼教(程度)
devotional•reverence=elegiac•sorrow 虔诚的•尊敬=挽歌的•悲痛(同义)

devout [] adj. 虔诚的(devoted to religion)
(类)religion•devout=canon•orthodoxy 宗教•虔诚的=正典•正统的(后者尊崇前者)
(反)impiety ◆ devoutness 不虔诚 ◆ 虔诚
(同)godly, holy, pious, prayerful, religious

dew [] n. 露水
(类)dew•condensation=rust•corrosion 露水•冷凝=锈•腐蚀(前者由后者形成)

dexterous [] adj.心灵手巧的(skillful and competent with the hands)
(类)dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict 灵巧的•灵巧的操作=预见性的•预言
(同)adroit, clever, deft, handy, neat-handed, nimble

diabolic [] adj.恶魔一般的(devilish; fiendish)
(反)diabolic ◆ benefic 魔鬼一般的 ◆ 慈善的
diabolical ◆ seraphic 魔鬼一般的 ◆ 天使一般的

diaphanous [] adj.精致的,几乎透明的(very sheer and light, nearly transparent)
(反)diaphanous ◆ opaque/substantial/impermeable of light
几乎透明的 ◆ 不透明的/实质的/不透光的
(同)filmy, gauzy, gossamer, sheer, transparent

diatribe [] n.抨击性演说 (a abusive denunciation ,criticism or writing )
(类)diatribe•abuse= declamation•grandiloquence 抨击•辱骂=雄辨•豪言壮语(后是前的特征)
diatribe•discourse=lullaby•song 抨击性演说•演说=摇篮曲•歌曲(种属)
(反)diatribe ◆ encomium/ laudatory piece of writing 抨击 ◆ 赞美/赞赏作品

didactic [] adj.教诲的、说教的(intended for instruction ;moralizing or preaching)
(类)didactic•teach=hortatory•urge=comic•amuse=fantastic•amaze(干扰:generous•liberality)
教诲的•教育=激励的•激励=喜剧的•使发笑=奇异古怪的•使惊异(目的)
(同)moral, moralizing, preachy, schoolmasterish, teachy
(例)His speech to the new freshmen was painfully didactic.
他的演说对于新人来说是一种痛苦的说教。

die [] v.模具
(类)die•shaping=drill•boring =reel•winding 模具•成形=钻子•钻孔=线轴•缠绕

diehard [] n.死硬分子(person who vigorously resists change)
(类)diehard•budge=vagary•predict 死硬分子•动摇=奇特行为•预知(难以关系)

diffident [] adj. 不自信的,羞怯的(hesitant through lack of self-confidence)
(反)brassy/ brazen 厚颜无耻的nervy 勇敢的bold 大胆的 expansive健谈的
(同)shy, bashful, coy, demure, modest, self-effacing, timid, unassertive, unassured
(记)dif(表否定)+ fid (相信)→不相信自己的,羞怯的 参考:confidence 自信,秘密

diffuse [] adj.罗嗦的,冗长的(being at once verbose and ill-organized)
(类)aphorism•diffuse=euphemism•offensive 箴言•罗嗦的=委婉•冒犯性的
(反)diffuse ◆ succinct 罗嗦的 ◆ 简洁的
(同)redundant, verbose, windy , wordy,long-winded, prolix

digit [] n. 手指或脚趾(a human finger or toe)数字
(类)finger•digit=fang•tooth 手指•手指或脚趾=尖牙•牙(前者属于后者)
(记)美国人数学差,掰着手指和脚趾数数字

digress [] v. 离题(to turn aside especially from the main subject)
(类)digress•excursive=reiterate•redundant 离题•离题的=重申•累赘的
digressive•topic=stray•group=random•pattern =aberrant•standardt=circuitous•route
离题的•主题=迷路的•人群=随机的•样式=异常的•标准=迂回的•路线(前者偏离后者)
aside•digression=summary•excerpt 偏离•离题=摘要•摘录(同义)
(同)depart, divagate, diverge, excurse, ramble, stray, wander
(记)di+gress 走→走到一边去 离题 参考:congress 议会(记:走到一起开会)

dilapidate [] v. (使)毁坏(to fallen into of decay or partial ruin)
(反)dilapidated ◆ still in use/ restored 荒废的 ◆ 还在使用/ 恢复使用的
(同)ruin, bankrupt, shipwreck, wreck
(记)di(=dis 分开)+lapid 石头→石头被分开→使毁坏 参考:lapidary 宝石商

dilate [] vt. 使膨胀,使扩大 (to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent)
(反)dilate ◆ contract/ narrow 使膨胀 ◆ 收缩/使变狭窄
(记)di(=dis 分开)+late(=wide 放大)→放大,膨胀

dilatory [] adj. 拖拉的,不慌不忙的(tending to delay or procrastination)
(类)dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain 拖延的•拖拉=不满的•抱怨(同义)
(反)dilatory ◆ precipitate 拖拉的 ◆ 轻率的
dilatoriness ◆ alacrity 拖拉 ◆ 敏捷
(同)leisurely, unhasty, unhurried, slow, deliberate, laggard

dilettante [] n. 业余爱好者(dabbler)
(类)dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequence
业余爱好者•致力=无足轻重者•重要性(缺乏)
dilettante•superficiality=partisan•bias 业余爱好者•肤浅=党派支持者•偏见(正面特征)
(同)nonprofessional, smatterer, tyro, uninitiate
(记)dilet=(delight 高兴)联想:凭兴趣做事的人→业余爱好者

diligent [] adj. 勤勉的,辛勤的(constant and earnest in effort and application)
(类)diligent•effort=malign•ill will 勤勉的•努力=有害的•恶意(名形同义)
diligence•effort=satire•lampoon 勤奋•努力=讽刺•讽刺(同义)
(反)procrastination ◆ diligence 拖拉 ◆ 勤勉
(同)asiduous, industrious, sedulous

dilute [] v. 稀释(to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture)
(类)dilute•concentration=slacken•tautness 稀释•浓度=松弛•紧张(动宾关系)
(记)di(=dis 分开)+lute(=wash冲洗)→冲洗达到稀释
list 10 dimension -----dolt
dimension [] n. 尺寸;维度
(类)congruent•dimension=coeval•age全等的•尺寸=同时代的•时代(形容词及其相关对象)
measure•dimensions=calibrate•diameter=gauge•pressure=plumb•depth
量•尺寸=确定口径•直径=测定•压力=测量深度•深度(动词及其作用对象)

diminish [] v. 减少(to make or become smaller ,less, or less important)
(反)diminish ◆ increase/escalate 减少 ◆ 增加/增大

din [] n. 喧闹声,嘈杂声(a loud continued noise)
(类)din•ear =stench•nose 嘈杂声•耳朵=恶臭•鼻子
(反)din ◆ hush/silence 喧闹声 ◆ 安静/安静
(同)hubbub, pandemonium, tumult, uproar

dingy [] adj. 肮脏的,暗黑褪色的(a dark, dull ,or dirty color)
(类)dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 暗黑的不反光=滑溜的不粘附
【注:coarse•polish 为错误选项。粗糙的•磨光 不是反面特征关系,如果换成光滑或者精致就对
了粗糙的不光滑,不精致】

diocesan [] adj. 主教管区的(a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese)
(反)diocesan ◆ ecumenical 教区的 ◆ 全世界的

diplomatic [] adj.外交的(of or engaged in diplomacy);老练的(tactful or suave)
(类)diplomatic•tact=genial•bonhomie 有策略的•机智=温和的•温和
diplomat•tact=inventor•ingenuity 外交家•机智=发明家•独创性

dire [] adj.悲惨的,阴惨的(dismal,oppressive);可怕的
(反)dire ◆ pleasant悲惨的 ◆ 快乐的

dirge [] n. 挽歌(a song or hymn of grief or lamentation)
(类)dirge•music=elegy•poetry 挽歌•音乐=悲歌•诗情(种属)
dirge•grief=paean•praise 挽歌•忧伤=赞美歌•赞美

disabuse [] v.使省悟,纠正 (to free from error, fallacy, or misconception)
(类)disabuse•fallacy/misconception=cure•diseaser=rehabilitate•addiction=loose•confinement
纠正•错误/误解=治疗•疾病=使复原•沉溺=放松•限制(前者消除后者)
(反)disabuse ◆ lead into error/ mislead 纠正 ◆ 导致错误/误导

disaffected [] adj.不满的,叛离的(discontented especially against authority)
(类)disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment(conviction) =anxious•serenity
不满的•满足=可疑的•托付(确信)/担忧的•平静(形容词与名词的反义关系)
disaffected•rebel=officious•meddle 叛离的•造反=多管闲事的•干涉(人物典型行为)
(反)disaffected ◆ contented/win over/ beloved 不满的 ◆ 满足的/争取过来的/心爱的
disaffect ◆ mollify 使敌对 ◆ 平息

disarm [] vi.解除武装,缓和,消除敌意(to deprive of reason to be hostile)
(反)disarm ◆ put on gard 解除武装 ◆ 全副武装
bait ◆ disarm 使恼火 ◆ 消除疑虑敌意

disarray [] n.vt. 杂乱,混乱(to throw into disorder, confusion)
(类)shipshape•disarray=squalid•cleanliness 井然有序的•杂乱=肮脏的•干净

disavow [] vt. 否认,抵赖,不想承担责任(to disclaim responsibility for)
(反)disavow ◆ affirm 否认 ◆ 承认
disavowal ◆ admission/acknowledgement 否认 ◆ 允许/承认
(同)disclaim, deny, disallow, repudiate

discern []v.辨别(to recognize or identify as separate and distinct ,discriminate)
(类)discern•acute=believe•gullible辨别•敏锐的=相信•过分相信的(后者过分前者)
insight•discerning=caprice•whimsical洞察力•有洞察力的=任性•反复无常的(同义)
perspicacious•discerning=ravishing•attractive敏锐的•辨别的=销魂的•吸引人的(程度)
discernable•obvious(manifest)=audible•stentorian =palatable•savory
可辨别的•明显的=可听见的•洪亮的=可口的•风味极佳的(程度)
(反)discernment ◆ lack of insight 识别力 ◆ 缺乏洞察力
acumen ◆ unable to discerning 敏锐的 ◆ 不能辨别的
myopic ◆ discerning 短视,缺乏辨别力 ◆ 有辨别力的

discharge [] vt.解雇(to dismiss from employment)
(反)discharge ◆ hire 解雇 ◆ 雇佣

disciple [] n.信徒,门徒
(类)disciple•follow=apologist•defend 信徒•追随=辩护者•辩护(人物典型行为)

discombobulate [] v.使混乱,使仓惶失措(to confuse or disconcert)
(类)discombobulated•order=erratic•consistency 混乱的•秩序=游移的•连续(前缺乏后)
(反)discombobulate ◆ compose 使混乱 ◆ 使安定

discomfit [] v. 使窘迫;使沮丧 (to confuse and deject)
(类)discomfit•blush=contempt•sneer 使窘迫•脸红=鄙视•讥笑(后者体现前者)
(反)discomfit ◆ mollify 使窘迫 ◆ 平息

discommode [] v. 使不便;打扰(to cause inconvenience to;trouble )
(反)convenience方便 pacificate ease/mollify 安抚assist帮助oblige施恩惠

discompose [] vt. 使不安,使烦乱(to destroy the composure of)
(类)discompose•pacific=fabricate•authentic=engage•tedious
使不安•平息的=捏造•真实的=使忙碌•单调乏味的(反义)
discompose•placid=fabricate•ingenuous 使不安•平息的=编造•坦白的
(反)discompose ◆ pacificate 使不安 ◆ 使镇静
(同)agitate, bother, discombobulate, dismay, disquiet, disturb, upset
(例)discomposed by the rudeness of his friend他被朋友的粗鲁弄的心烦意乱。

disconcert [] vt. 使困惑,使不安(to disturb the self-possession of ,perturb)
(反)disconcert ◆ placate 使仓皇失措 ◆ 安抚
(同)embarrass, abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, discountenance, faze

discord [] n. 不和谐(lack of agreement or harmony)
(类)discordant•sound=anachronistic•time 声音不和谐的•声音=时代错误的•时代
(反)discord ◆ harmony 声音不和谐的 ◆ 和谐的
(同)conflict, contention, difference, disharmony, dissension, dissent
(例)a household full of turmoil and discord 充满混乱和不和谐的家庭

discourse [] n. 演说;论文
(类)diatribe•discourse=lullaby•song 攻击性演说•演说=摇篮曲•歌曲(种属)

discredit [] v. 羞辱(to injure the reputation)
(类)invective•discredit=exhortation•motivate 辱骂•羞辱=劝诫性的讲话•推动(行为及其目的)
discredit•reputation=injure•well-being 羞辱•名誉=损害•健康(前者破坏后者)

discrepancy [] n.差异,矛盾(divergence or disagreement)
(反)discrepancy ◆ converge/ concord 差异 ◆ 汇聚/和睦
discrepant ◆ consonant 不一致的 ◆ 协调一致的

discrete [] adj. 分离的,不连续的(apart or detached from others)
(类)discrete•overlap=infinite•exhaust 离散的不会重叠=无穷无尽的不会彻底耗尽
(反)discrete ◆ continuous 不连续的 ◆ 连续的
(同)distinct, different, diverse, separate

discretion []n.慎重(circumspection);判断力(ability to make responsible decisions)
(类)brash•discretion=frivolous•gravity 轻率鲁莽的•慎重=无关紧要的•重大
foolish•discretion=impecunious•money 愚蠢的•判断力=没钱的•钱(前者缺乏后者)
indiscretion•convention=overdose•prescription
行为不检点•规矩习俗=过量用药•药方(前者违背后者)

discretionary [] adj.随意的,自主决定的(exercised at one's own discretion)
(反)obligatory/ mandatory强制性的 preordain命中注定的

discriminate [] v. 区别,差别对待(to note a difference)
(类)epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching=sentinel•watchful
讲究饮食的人•有鉴赏力的=旁观者•观察的=哨兵•警惕的
discriminate•difference=liken•similarity 区别•不同=比拟•相似之处(前者寻找后者)
(反)equitable ◆ discriminatory 公平的 ◆ 差别对待的
(同)difference, differentiate, discern, distinguish

discursive [] adj. 散漫的,无主题的(moving from topic to topic without aim)
(反)keen on title关注主题的 succinct简明扼要的concentrated集中的

disdain [] v. 轻视,鄙视(treat with scorn or contempt)
(类)snub•disdain=double-cross•disloyalty 冷落•鄙视=叛变•不忠诚(前者体现后者)
(反)disdain ◆ treat favorably/adulation 轻视 ◆ 亲切地对待/谄媚
(同)dispise, abhor, contemn, look down, scorn, scout

disengage [] vt. 解开,分开(uncouple; separate; disconnect)
(反)disengage ◆ mesh 分开 ◆ 啮合 【注:engage=mesh 都是机械用语,啮合。】
(同)unbind, undo, unfasten, unfix, unloosen

disgorge [] v. 吐出(surrender something),呕出(vomit)
(反)disgorge ◆ swallow 吞下ingest咽下
(例)Unwilling to disgorge the cash he had stolen , the embezzler tried to run away.
不愿吐出窃来的钱,这个贪污犯想逃走。

disgruntle [] vt. 使不高兴(make discontented)
(反)disgruntle ◆ refresh 使不高兴 ◆ 使精神振奋
disgruntled ◆ contented 不满意的 ◆ 满足的

disguise [] v.伪装,掩饰(to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity)
(类)disguise•identification=camouflage•detection 假装•鉴定=伪装•察觉(反义)
disguise•recognition=padding•damage 假扮•认出=垫料•损害(前者防止后者)
(同)camouflage, dissemble, dissimulate, mask
(例)disguised herself with a wig 用假发伪装自己。

disinclination [] n. 不起劲,不感兴趣,厌恶(slight aversion)
(类)aversion•disinclination=adulation•admiration 强烈的厌恶•厌恶=谄媚•赞美(前者过分)
(反)disinclination ◆ leaning/proclivity /bent 厌恶 ◆ 爱好倾向
loquacity ◆ disinclination to speak 多舌 ◆ 不愿说话
(同)dislike, aversion, disfavor, displeasure, dissatisfaction, indisposition

disinfect [] vt. 消毒(to free from infection)
(类)antiseptic•disinfect=oil•lubricate 抗菌剂•杀菌=油•润滑
aseptic•disinfection=anesthetic•numbness 防腐剂•消毒=麻醉剂•麻木
(记)infect 感染,传染

disjointed [] adj.脱节的;杂乱的
(类)disjointed•coherence=banal•originality 杂乱的•一致=陈腐的•新颖
(反)disjointed ◆ orderly 杂乱的 ◆ 整齐的
(同)incoherent, disconnected, discontinuous, disordered, inchoate, incohesive

disinter [ ] v.掘出
(反)disinter ◆ bury 掘出 ◆ 埋葬
(同)exhume, disinhume, exhumate, unbury

disinterested [] adj. 无偏见的(free from selfish motive or interest;unbiased)
(类)disinterested•partisanship=venal•probity 公平的•党派偏见=贪污的•正直
(反)factional ◆ disinterested 派系的 ◆ 无偏见的
iniquity ◆ disinterestedness 极不公正 ◆ 无偏见

disjunctive [] adj.可分的,分离性的,分隔的(marked by breaks or disunity)
(类)disjunctive•unity=nominal•significance 分离的不统一=有名无实的不重要

dismantle [] vt. 拆除...的设备,分解(to take to pieces)
(类)dismantle•unity=adulterate•pristine 拆除•整体=掺假•纯净(前者消除后者)

dismay [ ] n.沮丧,惊慌v.使沮丧,使惊慌
(反)dismay ◆ hearten 沮丧 ◆ 振作鼓舞
(同)discompose , agitate, bother, disquiet, disturb,fluster, perturb, upset
(例)dismayed by the task that lay ahead 被摆在面前的工作弄得很沮丧。

disparage [] v. 贬低,轻视(belittle)
(类)disparage•ignore=scorn•reject 轻视•忽视=轻蔑•拒绝(褒贬)
(反)aggrandize夸大champion拥护extol 赞扬kudos荣誉revere尊敬adulate奉承
(例)Do not disparage anyone's contribution. 不要贬低任何人的贡献。
(记)parage 来自 peer(贵族,同辈)dis 表示去除→取消贵族资格→贬低,轻视

disparate [] adj. 迥然不同的(basically different);不相关的(unrelated)
(反)disparate ◆ analogous/like/ similar 不同的 ◆ 类似的/相似的/相似的
diaparate ◆ homogeneous 不相关的 ◆ 同类的
(记)parate 来自pare 准备,预备,如prepare;dis 分开→分开准备的→不相关的,全异的

dispassionate [] adj.冷静的(calm);公正的(impartial)
(反)dispassionate ◆ responsive 冷静的 ◆ 反应迅速的
dispassionate ◆ partial /biased 公正的 ◆ 偏袒的/偏袒的
(同)neutral, colorless, detached, disinterested, impersonal, unpassioned
(记)passion 激情,热情 参考:compassion 同情,怜悯

dispatch [] n. 迅捷(speedy action) v. 派遣,一下做完
(反)dispatch ◆ leisureliness 迅速 ◆ 悠然
(记)这个词与patch 碎片没有任何关系;记时与package 包裹一起联想:快速分发包裹,快件。

dispose [] vt. 使倾向(incline)vi.处理掉(dispose of 与of连用)
(类)recycle•disposal=rehabilitate•demolition 重复利用•处理掉=修复•摧毁破坏(反义)
(反)disposed ◆ disinclined 有倾向的 ◆ 无倾向的
(记)pose 词义摆姿势;作为词根的意思是安排,布置→dispose 处置
(例)The low salary did not dispose him to accept the position. 低薪使他不想接受这项工作。
Man proposes. God disposes. 谋事在人,成事在天。(这里dispose是处理、安排的意思)

disregard [] v.不重视,漠视
(类)flout•disregard=taunt•challenge 愚弄嘲笑•漠视=嘲弄•公然挑战(前者表达后者)
(反)disregard ◆ nurture 漠视 ◆ 培育
(同)neglect, discount, forget, ignore, overlook, overpass, slight
(记)regard 重视,尊敬

disrupt [] vt. 使分裂(to break apart);扰乱,打断(to disturb or interrupt)
(类)saboteur•disrupt=apologist•defend 蓄意破坏者•打断破坏=辩解者•辩护
(记)rupt 断裂 参考:rupture 破裂

dissect [] vt.vi. 解剖,切成碎片(to cut apart to examine the structure)
(类)specimen•dissect=sentence•parse 样本•仔细剖析=句子•语法分析(后者分析前者)
(记)sect 宗派,部分,段 与sequ(跟随)同源;dis(分开)+ sect(部分)→解剖,切碎

dissemble [] v. 用假象隐藏真相、掩饰;假装(to put on a false appearance)
(类)dissemble•honesty=snub•politeness 掩饰•诚实=冷落怠慢•礼貌(前者缺乏后者)
dissemble•information=masquerade•feeling 隐藏•信息事实=伪装•感情
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦白的不掩饰=粗俗的不打扮=有礼貌的不怠慢
(反)dissemble ◆ behave honestly 隐藏 ◆ 诚实
dissembling ◆ candid 隐藏的 ◆ 坦白的
(同)camouflage, cloak, dissimulate, dress up, mask
(记)semble 相像,真相 与simulate(模仿,假装)同源;dis 消除→使不象→隐藏真相,假装

disseminate [] vt. 广泛散播、传播(to scatter or spread widely)
(类)disseminate•information=foment•discontentment 传播•信息=激起•不满意
(反)disseminate ◆ garner/ nucleate 散播 ◆ 储存/聚集成核【注:garner v. 储存 n. 谷仓】
(同)circulate, diffuse, disperse, distribute, propagate, radiate
(记)dis 分散+ seminate 播种→广泛散播 参考:seminal 种子的semen 精子,种子

dissension [  ] n. 意见不合,纠纷,倾轧(strong disagreement or discord)
(反)concord ◆ dissension 一致和谐 ◆ 意见不合
(同)conflict, contention, difference, disaccord, dissidence
(记)参考:dissent 不同意 assent 赞成,同意 consent 同意,赞成

dissent [] vi. 持异议,不同意,不墨守成规(to differ in opinion or sentiment)
(类)dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group 持异议者不正统=独来独往者不合群
(反)dissent ◆ conform 不同意 ◆ 使顺从
(同)disaccord, disagree, discord, divide, vary
(记)sent 感觉→感觉不同,当然意见不一。参考:sentiment 感情 sensation 感觉,感情

dissipate [] vt. 驱散(dispel);浪费(squander);放纵(to be dissolute)
(类)husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate 节约•浪费=敏捷•拖拉(反义)
dissipation•temperation=fecundity•sterility 放荡•自我节制=多产•不肥沃(反义)
(反)dissipate ◆ accumulate/ gather/amass 驱散 ◆ 积累/积聚/积聚
(记)同disperse驱散,疏散一起记(哈哈,黔驴计穷只能如此了)

dissolute [] adj.放荡的(indifferent to moral restrains)
(类)libertine•dissolute=wag•humorous 放荡不羁的人•放荡的=风趣的人•幽默风趣的
(同)abandonde, licentious, profligate, reprobate, self-abandoned, unprincipled
(记)solute 溶解;不要看成salute 敬礼;不过可以拿过来助记→不敬礼→不遵礼节→放荡的

dissolve [] v. 溶解(to cause to pass into solution);解散(disintegrate)
(类)dissolve•insoluble=bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant
溶解•不溶的=弯曲•坚硬不可弯曲的=浸没•有浮力的
solvent•dissolve=coagulant•thicken=caustic•burn
溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•变浓厚=腐蚀剂•灼烧(药剂功用)
clot•dissolved=crowd•dispersed 凝结•溶解的=人群•分散的
(反)consolidate ◆ dissolve 使联合 ◆ 解散
dissolve ◆ coagulate 溶解 ◆ 凝结
(记)solve 解决,解答

dissonance [] n.不和谐(lack of agreement, harmony)
(反)dissonance ◆ concord 不和谐 ◆ 和谐
(同)discord, difference, disaccord, disharmony
(记)son 表示声音sound

dissuade [] vt. 劝阻(to deter by advice or persuasion)
(类)protest•dissuade=supplicate•entreaty 提出异议反对•劝阻=恳求•请求(同义)
remonstrance•dissuade=reprehension•censure 抗议•劝阻=斥责•指责(同义)
resolute•dissuade=obstreperous•control 坚决的难以劝阻=任性的难以控制
inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest 无动于衷的•劝阻=不可征服的•征服
(反)dissuade ◆ abet/ enhance 劝阻 ◆ 怂恿并帮助/促进
(同)deter, disadvise, discourage, divert
(记)参考:persuade 说服

distain [] v. 贬损,伤害名誉
(类)contemptible•distain=hilarious•laugh 可鄙的•贬损=欢闹的•笑(形容词与其相关对象)
(记)stain 污点→贬损 参考: taint 污点 tain锡箔

distal [] adj远离中心的,(神经)末梢的(situated away from the point of attachment or origin or
a central point especially of the body)
(反)distal ◆ proximal 远离中心的 ◆ 接近中心的,最接近的
【注】proximal:next to or nearest the point of attachment or origin, a central point, or the
point of view;especially:located toward the center of the body 最接近的
(记)与 distant 遥远的 一起记

distend [] n. 膨胀(expand;swell out)
(反)distend ◆ constrict 膨胀 ◆ 压缩
distention ◆ compression 膨胀 ◆ 压缩
(记)tend=tent(满足)联想:人自满的时候容易膨胀 参考:distent a.膨胀的 content 满足的

distill [] v. 蒸馏
(类)distill•pure=liquefy•fluid 蒸馏•纯净的=使液化•流动的(前者造成后者)
distill•purity=leaven•volume 蒸馏提高纯度=发酵扩大体积
distillate•purity=synopsis•conciseness 馏出物•纯=大纲•简明 【注:distillate n.馏出物】
(记)still=(drop 滴)参考:instill 滴注,慢慢灌输

distort [] vt. 扭曲,歪曲(to reproduce or amplify inaccurately)
(类)distortion•caricature=brevity•aphorism 歪曲•滑稽模仿=简短•箴言(前者是后者特征)
(记)tort=torq 扭曲 参考:torque 扭矩 torture 拷问,曲解 contort 扭曲

distract [] vt. 转移,分心(to divert in the mind);使发狂(to disturb or trouble greatly)
(类)rapt•distract=intrepid•deter 全心投入的•分心=无畏的•威吓
(反)rapt ◆ distracted 全心投入的 ◆ 分心的
(记)tract 拉 参考:contract 合同 tractor 拖拉机 retract 缩回

distraught [] adj. 心神狂乱的,极其烦恼的(bewildered)
(类)troubled•distraught=covetous•rapacious 扰乱的•极其烦恼的=渴望的•贪婪的(程度)
(反)distraught ◆ composed 心神狂乱的 ◆ 镇静的
(同)distracted, distrait, distressed, harassed, troubled, worried
(记)distract 的过去分词

ditty [] n. 小调,小曲(an especially simple and unaffected song)
(类)fable•tale=ditty•song 寓言(通常短小的故事)•故事=小曲•歌曲(种属)
ditty•oratorio=anecdote•novel 小曲•清唱剧=轶事•小说(种属)
(记)来自dict 说,口头 联想:口头流传的→小调 参考:dictator 独裁者

diurnal [] adj. 白昼的,白天的(occurring in the daytime; daily)
(类)diurnal ◆ nocturnal/ chiefly active at night 白昼的 ◆ 夜晚的/在夜间活动的
(记)di=day

diverge [] vi. 分歧;岔开(vary; go in different directionsfrom the same point )
(类)diverge•apart=traverse•across 分岔•分开地=横越•交叉(同义)
ad-lib•impromptu=aside•divergent 即兴地•即席的=在旁边•分岔的(副词形容词同义)
(反)diverge ◆ come together 分歧 ◆ 一致
divergence ◆ unification/ confluence 分歧 ◆ 统一/汇合
(同)digress , depart, ramble, stray, wander;differ, disagree

diversity [] n.差异;多样性
(反)diversity ◆ uniformity 多样性 ◆ 一致性
(同)variety, diverseness, multiformity, multiplicity, variousness

divert [] vt.使转向(to turn from one course or use to another,deflect)
(类)divert•shunt=retard•brake 使转向•使车转向=减速•刹车(行为及其交通上的行为)

divestiture [] n. 剥夺,脱衣 (the act of divesting)
(反)divestiture ◆ acquisition 剥夺 ◆ 获得
divest ◆ endow 剥夺 ◆ 捐赠,

divulge [] vt.泄漏秘密(to make known as a secret)
(反)divulge ◆ keep secret 泄漏秘密 ◆ 保密
(同)reveal , betray, disclose, discover, unclose

dodder [] vi. 摇摆,蹒跚(to progress feebly and unsteadily)
(类)dodder•unsteady=cavort•sprightly 摇摆蹒跚•不平稳的=雀跃•活泼的

dodge [] v.避开,躲避(to evade by a sudden or repeated shift of position)
(类)dodge•blow=escape•capture 躲避•打击=逃避•捕获
(同)duck, fence, parry, shirk, sidestep; equivocate
(例)The child dodged through the crowd. 那小孩在人群中躲躲闪闪
(记)谐音:“躲之”→避开,躲避

doff [] vt. 脱(to take off);丢弃;废除
(反)doff ◆ don 脱下 ◆ 穿上
(记)d+off

dogged [] adj. 顽固的,顽强的(marked by stubborn determination)
(反)dogged ◆ easily discouraged/yielded 顽固的 ◆ 容易气馁的/屈服
(同)obstinate,inflexible,adamant,persisitent

doggerel [] adj. 歪诗的n.打油诗(crude or trivial poetry)
(类)doggerel•poem=sketch•draw 打油诗•诗=草图•图(种属)
doggerel•verse=potboiler•article 打油诗•诗=蹩脚文章•文章(种属)
【注:potboiler:蹩脚文章,蹩脚作家】

dogma [] n. 教条(something held as an established opinion)
(类)dogma•iconoclast=convention•maverick
教条•提倡打破旧习的人=习俗•特立独行者
(反)dogma ◆ heresy 教条 ◆ 异端学说

doldrums [] n. 情绪低落(a dull, depressed mood)
(类)doldrums•energy=depravity•virtue 情绪低落•精力=堕落•美德(前者缺乏后者)
(同)tedium, boredom, ennui, yawn
(记)doldr(=dole悲哀)参考:dolorous悲哀的doleful悲哀的,忧愁的indolent懒惰的

dolorous [] adj. 悲哀的,忧愁的(full of or cause pain or sorrow)
(反)dolorous ◆ jubilant / happy / jovial 悲哀忧愁的 ◆ 欢腾的/高兴的
(同)woeful, afflicted, doleful, dolent, miserable, rueful, sorrowful, wretched

dolt [] n. 呆子,笨蛋,傻瓜(a blockhead ;dunce)
(类)dolt•stupid=wag•humorous 傻瓜•愚蠢的=小丑•滑稽的
(同)dunce, chump, dolthead, fathead, lunkhead, oaf
(记)谐音:逗他。这是很多人对傻瓜的态度。

list 11 domicile --------encomium
domicile [] n.住所,住宅(a dwelling place•place of residence)
(类)nomad•domicile=freelancer•employer 游牧民•住所=自由作家•老板(前者缺乏后者)
(记)dom家 参考:dome 圆屋顶 domestic 家庭的

domination [] n. 支配,控制(supremacy or preeminence over another)
(类)servile•domination=gullible•chicanery 卑屈的•支配=易受骗的•欺骗(容易被)
(反)dominant ◆ recessive [生]显性的 ◆ [生]隐性的

don [] vt. 穿上(to put on or dress in an article of clothing)
(反)doff ◆ don 脱 ◆ 穿

donor [] n. 捐赠人(one that gives, donates, or presents something)
(类)gift•donor=legacy•predecessor 礼物•捐赠人=遗产•先辈(前者来自后者)

doodle [] n. v. 乱写,乱画(to draw or scribble idly)
(类)draw•doodle=travel•ramble 画•乱画=旅行•漫步

dormant [] adj.休眠的,静止的,不活跃的(lying asleep or as if asleep; inactive)
(类)dormant•inactivity=malleable•plasticity 不活跃的•不活跃=可塑的•可塑性(形名同义)
(反)dormancy ◆ activity 休眠 ◆ 活跃
(同)latent, abeyant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent

dour [] adj.严肃的,严厉的(sullen; gloomy; severe ;stern)
(类)dour•geniality=bumptious•humbleness 严厉的•温和=傲慢的•谦逊
(反)dour ◆ congenial/genial/ jocund 严厉的 ◆ 温和的/欢乐的

downpour [] n. 暴雨,倾盆大雨(a heavy , drenching rain)
(类)downpour•flooding=wind•erosion 暴雨•泛滥=风•侵蚀(因果)

doyen [] n. 老资格,首席(the senior member of a body or group)
(类)eccentric•conventional=doyen•initiated 行为古怪者•常规的=老前辈•刚入门的(反面特征)
(记)谐音“导爷”;中国最早一批下海者→老资格的

doze [] vi.瞌睡;假寐(to fall into a light sleep; nap)
(类)doze•sleep=nudge•prod 瞌睡•睡觉=轻推•推动(程度)

draconian [] adj. 严峻的,苛刻的(cruel; severe)
(类)draconian•inclemency=fretted•vexation 严峻的•严酷=烦恼的•烦恼(形名同义)
draconian•severity=palmy•prosperity 严峻的•严格=繁荣的•繁荣(形名同义)
(反)indulgent放纵的 mild温柔的genial亲切的 lenient宽大仁慈的
(同)rigid, ironhanded, rigorist, rigorous, strict, stringent, unpermissive

drawl [] v. 懒洋洋地说,慢慢地说(to utter in a slow lengthened tone)
(类)drawl•speak=inch•move=lope•run 慢慢说•说=慢慢移动•移动=大步子慢跑•跑
(记)draw拉 拉着长音说话→懒洋洋地说,慢慢地说

dreary [] adj. 沉闷的 (having nothing likely to provide cheer)
(反)dreary ◆ jocund 沉闷的 ◆ 欢乐的
(同)gloomy, depressive, dismal, dispiriting, oppressive, somber

drench [] v.湿透,浸透(to wet thoroughly)
(类)drenched•wet=antithetic•different 湿透的•湿的=对立的•不同的(程度)
(同)soak , impregnate, saturate, seethe, sodden, sop, souse, steep

drivel [] vi.说傻话n.胡言乱语,傻话(silly or meaningless talk)
(类)nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast 无意义的•傻话=夸大的•夸大言辞
(记)谐音(追我)mm对gg说,“就凭你也敢追我——简直是胡说八道”

drizzle [] n./v. 下毛毛雨,毛毛雨(a very light rain)
(反)drizzle ◆ deluge 毛毛雨 ◆ 大洪水
(记)来自drop滴

droll [] adj. 古怪的,滑稽的,好笑的(having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality)
(类)droll•laugh=grisly•flinch 好笑的•笑=可怕的•退缩
(反)droll ◆ grave/ serious 严肃的 somber 忧郁的
(记)参考:doll 洋娃娃,玩偶

drone [] vt.嗡嗡地说出,单调而低沉地说(to make a continued ,low, monotonous sound)
(类)drone•monotonous=stammer•halting=hiss•sibilant
单调低沉地说•单调的=结巴地说•结结巴巴的=嘘声•咝咝声的
(反)drone ◆ speak animatedly 单调低沉地说 ◆ 有活力地说

drudgery [] n. 苦差,苦工(dull, irksome, and fatiguing work)
(反)drudgery ◆ rewarding work 苦差 ◆ 美差
(记)drudge 做苦工的人 比较:trudge 跋涉 dredge 挖泥船

dubious [] adj. 可疑的;不确定的(inclined to doubt ;questionable)
(类)disaffected•contentment=dubious•commitment 不满的•满足=可疑的•确信
(反)dubious ◆ certain 不确定的 ◆ 确定的
indubitable ◆ questionable 不容置疑的 ◆ 值得怀疑的
(同)doubtful, dubitable, equivocal, problematic, suspect, uncertain, unclear, undecided

ductile [] n.有延展性的(capable of being drawn out or hammered thin)
(类)ductility•malleable=toxicity•poisonous 延展性•延展性的=毒性•有毒的(同义)
(同)plastic, adaptable, malleable, moldable, pliable, pliant, supple

dulcet [] adj.(声音)悦耳的(pleasing to the ear; melodious)
(反)dulcet ◆ cacophonous 悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的
(同)euphonic, euphonious, mellisonant, melodic, sweet, tuneful

dullard [] n.愚人,笨蛋(a stupid or insensitive person)
(反)dullard ◆ wit 愚人 ◆ 机智的人
(同)dunce, dullhead, dumbbell, dummy, idiot, ignoramus, moron, simpleton, stupid

dune [] n.沙丘(a hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind)
(类)sand•dune=word•sentence 沙•沙丘=词语•句子(组成关系)

dupe [] n. 傻瓜,易受骗的人v.欺骗(to delude by underhand methods)
(类)credulous•dupe=insensitive•boor 轻信的•易受骗的人=感觉迟钝的•粗人
trusting•dupe=reverent•idolater 容易相信的•易受骗的人=恭敬的•崇拜者
dupe•duplicity=callous•impassive 欺骗•伪善=无情的•冷漠(同义)
【注:duplicity:double-dealing; hypocrisy 两面派,伪善】
(同)butt, chump, fall guy, gudgeon, gull, pigeon, sap, sucker

dwindle [ ] v.逐渐缩小;衰落(to become gradually less until little remains)
(类)dwindle•decrease=crawl•proceed 逐渐缩小•减少=爬行•前进(逐渐•正常)
(反)dwindle ◆ increase 缩小 ◆ 增加
(同)abate, bate, diminish, drain (away), lessen, reduce, taper

dyspeptic [] adj. 消化不良的;阴郁的;脾气坏的(of or displaying a morose disposition)
(反)dyspeptic ◆ genial 脾气坏的 ◆ 和蔼的
(同)bad-tempered,hot-tempered,ill-humored, ill-natured, tempersome
(记)dys(病)+ peptic 胃蛋白酶的→消化不良;参考:pepsy 百事可乐的商标

dyslexia [] n.[医] 阅读障碍
(类)dyslexia•read= insomnia•sleep 阅读障碍症•阅读=失眠症•睡觉
(记)dys(病)+lex 词语+ ia 病后缀

eaglet [] n.小鹰;小雕(a young eagle)
(类)eaglet•bird=fawn•mammal 小鹰•鸟类=小羊•哺乳动物
(记)let(表示小的后缀)

earnest [] adj.认真的;诚恳的(proceeding from an serious state of mind)
(反)earnest ◆ facetious 认真的 ◆ 轻浮的
(同)grave,sedate,sober,solemn,somber,staid,weighty
(例)If you work in earnest,you will succeed. 认真工作就会成功。

earplug [] n.耳塞(an ornament inserted in the lobe of the ear to distend it)
(类)earplug•noise=shield•impact 耳塞防止噪音=盾防止冲击

earshot [] n.听力所及的范围(the range within which the voice may be heard)
(类)earshot•hear=ken•see 听力范围•听=视野范围•看(行为及其范围)
(记)shot→射程

earsplitting adj.震耳欲聋的(distressingly loud or shrill)
(类)earsplitting•loud=heartrending•sad 震耳欲聋•响亮的=心碎的•伤心的(程度)
(同)loud, blaring, piercing, roaring, stentorian
(记)声音大得把ear都split(撕裂)

easel [ ] n. 画架(An upright frame for supporting something, such as an artist's canvas)
(类)easel•canvas=tripod•camera 画架•画布=三角架•照相机(事物及其支持物)
【注】frame•photograph 绝对错误;本题强调支撑,而不是frame
(记)ease(容易,不费力)+ l 联想:画架让画画不费力更容易了。

eavesdrop [] v.偷听(to listen secretly to what is said in private)
(类)eavesdrop•conversation=trespass•property 偷听谈话=擅闯领地
eavesdrop•hear=shadow•follow 偷听•听到=尾随•跟随 (偷偷•正常)
eavesdrop•listen=collude•cooperate 偷听•听=阴谋•合作 (偷偷•正常)
listener•eavesdropper=observer•spy 听者•偷听者=观察者•间谍(种属)
(记)在drop(滴着)檐水的eaves(屋檐)下偷听

ebullient [] adj.热情奔放的(showing excitement)
(反)ebullient ◆ tepid 热情奔放的 ◆ 不热烈的
ebullience ◆ lifelessness 无生气 impassiveness 无感情 torpor 无精打采
ebullient ◆ torpid 热情奔放的 ◆ 无精打采的(干扰:insensitive迟钝的)
【注】ebullient和torpid主要强调一种心理状态,情绪。是可以变化的。
而insensitive指的是一种性格或生理特点,是难以变化的。
(同)exuberant,brash, effervescent, vivacious
(记)e+bull(公牛)→一群公牛;联想:象公牛一样热情奔放

eccentric [] adj.古怪的(odd;whimsical;irregular)n.行为古怪者
(类)eccentric•conventional=doyen•initiated 行为古怪者•常规的=老前辈•刚入门的(反面特征)
eccentric•unconventional=hero•admirable行为古怪者不符常规=英雄令人钦佩(正面特征)
(反)eccentric ◆ ordinary 古怪的 ◆ 常规的
(同)erratic, idiosyncratic, peculiar, queer, singular, weird
(记)ec(反)+centric(中心)→偏离中心的,偏离常规的,古怪的
(例)One of his eccentricities is sleeping under the bed instead of in it.
他的怪癖之一是睡在床底下,而不睡在床上。

eclat [] n.辉煌成就(a notable success)
(反)eclat ◆ fiasco 大成功 ◆ 大失败
(记)谐音:一克拉的(钻石)联想:钻石级的——代表辉煌成就。

eclipse [] n.v.日月蚀;使黯然失色(darken;extinguish)
(类)eclipse•prestige=enfeeble•vigor 使声望黯淡=使精力衰弱
(反)make distinctive 使与众不同 make more prominent 使更加卓越
(记)真难记,因为ellipse(椭圆)捣乱。仔细观察:e+clips夹子+e 联想:两个e被几个
夹子夹住手脚,不能发挥优势,因此逐渐黯然失色,泯然众人矣。

ecstasy [] n.v.狂喜(a state of being overwhelming emotion)
(类)pleasure•ecstasy=surprise•astonishment 高兴•狂喜=奇怪•震惊(程度)
(反)ecstasy ◆ self-control 狂喜 ◆ 自制
(同)rapture, exultant, exhilaration
(记)ec(反)+stat(平静)=不平静→狂喜的

ecumenical [] adj.世界范围的;一般性的;特指世界范围基督教的
(类)ecumenical•generality=entire•integrity 一般性的•一般性=完全的•完整(形名同义)
(反)ecumenical ◆ diocesan 世界范围基督教的 ◆ 主教管辖特定小教区的
ecumenical ◆ factional/provincial 世界范围的 ◆ 派别的/狭隘的
(同)universal, catholic, worldwide
(记)e(谐音:一)+cu(谐音:苦)+men(人)→一群苦命人 联想:一群苦命人组成这个世界。

eddy [] n.v.漩涡(a current moving contrary to the direction of the main current)
(类)eddy•stream=anomaly•trend 旋涡•溪流=异常•趋势 (异常•正常)
(记)相关词ebb:退潮(to fall back from the flood stage)

edible [] adj.可食用的(fit to be eaten:)
(类)edible•eat=potable•drink 可食用的能吃=可饮用的能喝
(同)comestible, eatable, esculent

edifice [] n.大厦;大建筑物(an elaborate conceptual structure)
(类)edifice•buttress=limb•splint 扶壁支撑大厦=夹板固定肢体
edifice•tower=barrier•rampart 塔楼是一种大建筑物=壁垒是一种障碍物
blueprint•edifice=syllabus•course 蓝图•大厦=课程提纲•课程(前者规划后者)
(记)来自edify:启发。大厦(edifice)是经启发后精心建构的

efface [] v. 擦掉;抹去;磨灭(rub out)
(反)aggrandize夸大blazon/emboss装饰bring to preeminent卓越institute建立
(记)ef(否定,去掉)+face(脸上)=(从脸上)抹去
(例)Efface unpleasant memories of the past. 忘却过去不愉快的回忆。

effervesce [] vi.冒泡(bubble)欢腾(show liveliness or exhilaration)
(类)effervescence•feeling=fury•anger 欢腾•情绪=狂怒•怒 (程度)
(反)effervescence ◆ be flat/ lassitude 欢腾 ◆ 平淡/ 疲乏倦怠
effervesce ◆ droop 欢腾 ◆ 消沉
effervescent ◆ still 欢腾的 ◆ 平静的
(同)ebullience, buoyancy, exuberance, exuberancy
(记)ef(强调)+fervid(热的;热情的)+ esce→热情,欢腾

effete [] adj.衰老的;疲惫的(no longer fertile)
(反)effete ◆ hale/ sound 衰老的 ◆ 强壮的
(记)ef(不)+fete(=fetus新生儿)联想:不再象新生儿一样:走向衰老的。

effluvium [] n. 臭气(noxious smell);没用的副产品(pl.effluvia)
(反)effluvia ◆ desired products 无用之副产品 ◆ 有用的产品
(记)flu 流出→流出的东西→废物,废气→无用的副产品 参考:effluent 流出物,污水

effulgence [] adj.光辉,灿烂(radiant splendor;brilliance)
(类)effulgent•resplendence=bootless•futility 光辉的•辉煌=无用的•无用(名形同义)
(记)fulgent 本身是一个词:灿烂的

effusive [] adj. 感情横溢的;喷发的(pouring forth;gushing)
(类)gush•effusive=rage•irate 涌出•喷发的=大怒•发怒的(名形同义)
(反)effusive ◆ lack of emotion/ reticent 感情横溢的 ◆ 缺乏感情的/ 沉默寡言的
effusive ◆ torpid / insensitive 麻木的/ 不敏感的,麻木不仁的
(记)fuse(导火线)→爆发
(例)effusive in one’s gratitude. 感激之情溢于言表

egalitarian [] n.adj.平等主义(的)
(类)egalitarian•equity=meliorism•progress 平等主义追求平等=改良论追求改进
(记)来自equal 平等的

egoism [] n. 利己主义(a doctrine that self-interest is the valid end)
(反)egoism ◆ altruism 利己主义 ◆ 利他主义
(记)ego(自我)参考:egocentric 自我中心的 egotist 自私自利的人

elaborate [] v.详述 adj.精细的;详尽的(full of detail)
(类)elaborate•sketch=fawn•imperiousness 详述•概述=奉承•专横(反义)
(反)elaborate ◆ abstract/ simplify 详述 ◆ 摘要/ 简化
(同)complex,complicated, intricate, knotty, labyrinthine, sophisticated
(记)花很多labor(操劳)和心思在上面→详述

elastic [] adj.有弹性的;能伸展的(easily resuming original shape after being stretched)
(类)elastic•expand=viable•live 能伸展的•伸展=能活的•活
ephemeral•endure=inelastic•stretch 短暂的无法持久=无弹性的无法伸展
(反)inelastic ◆ extended 无弹性的 ◆ 延伸的
(同)flexible,resilient,stretch,supple
(记)last有持久延展的意思 例如:The war lasted four years. 战争持续了四年

elate [] adj. 兴高采烈的(elated) v.使兴奋(to fill with joy)
(反)elate ◆ depress 使兴奋 ◆ 使沮丧
elated ◆ despondent 兴高采烈的 ◆ 沮丧的
elated ◆ hangdog 兴高采烈的 ◆ 垂头丧气的(downcast)
elation ◆ dejection/ wretchedness 高兴 ◆ 沮丧/ 可怜,悲惨
(同)excite, exhilarate, inspire, spirit(up), stimulate
(记)e(=ex向外)+late(=wide 放大)→心情好自然情绪向外释放。参考:dilate 扩大,膨胀

elbow [] n.肘(the joint of the human arm)
(类)elbow•joint=heart•organ 肘属于关节=心脏属于器官
(记)谐音:埃尔伯(拜仁慕尼黑球星),联想:埃尔伯是拜仁的左膀右臂

eleemosynary [] adj.施舍的;慈善的(supported by charity)
(类)philanthropist•eleemosynary 慈善家特点是慈善的
(同)charitable,altruistic,benevolent, humane, humanitarian, philanthropic
(记)e+lee+m(谐音:一粒米)+mosy(=mercy)→一粒米表达同情→施舍,慈善

elegy [] n.哀歌(诗);挽歌(诗)(poem or song expressing lamentation)
(类)elegy•poem=paean•song=tango•dance 挽诗•诗=赞歌•歌=探戈•舞(种属)
elegy•sorrow=hymn•praise=satire•ridicule=eulogy•admiration
哀歌表达悲伤=赞歌表达赞美=讽刺文学表达嘲弄=颂词表达钦佩
elegiac•sorrow=devotional•reverence 哀悼的•悲伤=虔诚的•尊敬(形名同义)

elephantine [] adj.象的;巨大的having enormous size or strength
(反)elephantine ◆ microscopic 巨大的 ◆ 微细的
(记)来自 elephant 大象

elevate [] v.举起;提升(rank or status);振奋(moral,intellect,culture,spirits)
(反)elevation ◆ debasement 提升 ◆ 降低
(记)lev(向上举起)参考:levity 轻浮

elicit [] vt. 引出;引起(draw out by discussion)
(反)evoke ◆ fail to elicit 唤起 ◆ 不能引起
(同)educe, evince, evoke, extort, extract, milk
(记)e(=ex向外)+licit(合法的;准许的)→准许出来→引出,引起

ellipsis [] n.省略;省略号(marks indicating an omission or a pause)
(类)apostrophes•word=ellipsis•sentence 撇号省略字=省略号省略句子

elliptical [] adj.椭圆的;省略的;朦胧含糊的
(反)elliptical ◆ palpable 朦胧含糊的 ◆ 明显的
(记)分别作为ellipse(椭圆);ellipsis(省略);eclipse(日月蚀)的adj.形式
观察这三个词,eclipse的特征是中间有个clip(夹子),想象日月被夹子夹住形成日月蚀。ellipsis
特征是后面的sis,联想她是sister 被省略了ter。参考:elapse时光流逝

elucidate [] v. 阐明;说明(explain;enlighten)
(类)elucidate•clarity=abet•encouragement 阐明使清晰=教唆使鼓励
(反)elucidate ◆ garble/obfuscate/obscure 阐明 ◆ 混淆/混乱/晦涩
(同)clarify, clear up, explain, illuminate, illustrate
(记)参考:lucid 明晰的

emaciate [] v .使憔悴(to make feeble);减肥
(类)emaciated•thin=apoplectic•angry
憔悴的•瘦=易怒的•生气(褒贬)【注:非程度】
(反)emaciate ◆ invigorate/fatten 使憔悴 ◆ 鼓舞/变胖
(例)She was emaciated by long illness. 由于长期生病她变得消瘦了。

emancipate [] v.解放(to free from bondage)
(反)emancipate ◆ shackle 解放 ◆ 束缚
emancipation ◆ bondage 解放 ◆ 束缚
(同)discharge, liberate, manumit
(记)man(手)把手解放出来—>解放。参考:manuscript 手稿

embargo [] n.(贸易)禁运令;封港令(ban on commerce)
(类)embargo•commerce=quarantine•contact 禁运阻止贸易=隔离阻止接触
(记)bar(酒吧)+go 联想:酒吧搬走了,因为禁港令。

embark [] vi.上船;开始从事(commence)
(类)embarkment•journey=debut•career 上船开始旅行=初次登场开始职业生涯
(反)conclude ◆ embark on 结束 ◆ 开始从事
(记)bark(树皮)联想:用树皮做成独木舟—>上船

embarrass [] vt.使困窘(to cause to feel self-conscious or ill at ease);妨碍(impede)
(类)blush•embarrassment=yawn•sleepiness 脸红表示困窘=打呵欠表示想睡
catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment 大灾难•不幸=耻辱•困窘 (程度)
embarrass•shame=console•comfort 使困窘•羞愧=安慰•舒心(后者是前者的结果)
embarrass•mortify=indulge•mollycoddle 使困窘•使苦恼=纵容•溺爱 (同义)
disembarrass•entanglement 使摆脱困扰•困扰(前者消除后者)
(同)abash, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, rattle
(记)bar(栅栏;障碍)使受到阻碍→妨碍,使困窘

embed [] vt. 嵌入,放入(enclose;place in something)
(反)embed ◆ extract 放入 ◆ 取出
(记)bed 本身除床外,做动词时也有嵌入的的义项

embezzle [] vt.盗用;挪用(to appropriate fraudulently to one's own use)
(类)embezzle•funds=usurp•power 盗用款项=篡夺权力
embezzlement•fraud=forgery•counterfeit 盗用•诈骗=伪造•假冒(前者为后者手段)
(同)misappropriate, peculate
(记)bezzant(拜占庭帝国时银币名)

embolden [] v.壮胆;鼓励(to instill with boldness or courage)
(反)embolden ◆ abash/ appall/ boggle/ cow/ daunt/ faze/ thwart
使大胆 ◆ 使不安/使胆寒/使惊奇犹豫/吓唬/使胆怯/使狼狈扰乱/阻挠
(记)en(使)+bold(大胆的)

emboss [] vt.饰以浮饰;使凸出来;浮雕装饰(to ornament with raised work)
(反)emboss ◆ flatten out 使凸出来 ◆ 使平坦
(记)boss 原义:a protuberant part or body 将军肚 联想:因老板肚子常常凸起后引申为老板。

embrace [] n.v.拥抱;乐于接受(to take up especially readily or gladly)
(类)embrace•affection=blush•embarrassment拥抱表示爱=脸红表示困窘
(反)embrace ◆ abjure/ abrogate /eschew/ ostracize/ renounce /spurn
乐于接受 ◆ 誓绝/废除/避免/放逐/放弃/摒弃
(记)brace:支持 参考:bracket 支架,括弧

embroider [] v.刺绣(to ornament with needlework)
(类)embroider•cloth=chase•metal 在布料上刺绣=在金属上雕琢
(记)em(加强)+broid(= braid 编织)→编织,刺绣

emigrate [] v.(使)移居;(使)移民
(类)repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification 移民了又被遣返=批准了又被撤消
emigrate•exile=enlist•conscript移民•驱逐=从军•强制入伍(后者强制)
(记)来自migrate 反义词: immigrate 移居入境

eminence [] n.显赫地位;出众(a position of prominence or superiority)
(类)luminary•eminence=master(maven)•experience 杰出人物有显赫地位=专家有经验
(反)eminent ◆ undistinguished 显赫的 ◆ 平凡的
(记)参考:prominence 卓越 imminent 逼近的

emollient [] adj.使柔软的n. 润滑剂,安慰剂
(类)emollient•soothe=dynamo•generate 润滑药使安慰减轻=发电机使发电
emollient•suppleness=desiccant•dryness 润滑药使柔软=干燥剂使干燥
(记)moll(软)参考:mollify 平息

emulate [] vt. 努力赶上;仿效 (to strive to equal or excel)
(类)emulation•exemplar=deference•authority 仿效榜样=遵从权威
emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 仿效典范的=除去不必要的
(记)e+mul(骡子,执拗)+ate→一头骡子 联想:象骡子一样的努力工作,追赶
参考:mulish 骡子似的,执拗的 emulous 好胜心强的 emulable adj.可仿效的, 可超越的

enact [] vt.制定颁布法律(to cause to be by legal and authoritative act)
(反)enact ◆ repeal / rescind 颁布 ◆ 废除
enactment ◆ rescission 颁布 ◆ 废除
(记)act:法令;扮演

enamel [] n.珐琅;瓷釉;搪瓷(a usually opaque vitreous composition)
(类)enamel•tooth=bark•tree 牙的表面是珐琅质=树的表面是树皮

encomium [] n.高度赞扬(glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise)
(类)encomium•eulogize=discontent•complain=quibble•cavil
赞扬•颂扬=不满•抱怨=吹毛求疵•挑剔(名词和动词同义)
(反)encomium ◆ harsh criticism 高度赞扬 ◆ 猛烈批评
(同)citation, eulogy, panegyric, salutation, tribute

list 12 encompass ------exhaust
encompass [] v.环绕(surround);包含(include)
(反)encompass ◆ exclude 包含 ◆ 排除
(记)compass n. 罗盘,圆规v. 包围

encumber [] v. 阻碍;妨碍
(反)encumber ◆ remove impediment 阻碍 ◆ 去除阻碍
(记)cumber(躺)参考:cumbersome:讨厌的;笨重的

endemic [] n.地方病 adj.地方性的(epidemic)
(类)endemic•region=inborn•individual 地方性的是就地域而言=天性的是就个体而言
(反)endemic ◆ exotic/foreign 地方性的 ◆ 外来的/外国的
(记)dem(人民)。参考:epidemic 流行病(的)

endorse [] vt. 背书,签署;支持(to approve openly)
(类)endorse•approval=endow•income 【注:endow :to furnish with an income】
签署•批准=资助•收入(批准后签署意见=有收入后进行资助)
endorsement•policy=rider•bill
签署•政策=法案附文(类似盖公章)•法案(后者经由前者生效)
(反)endorse ◆ deprecate/impugn/oppose publicly 支持 ◆ 抗议/指责/公然反对
(同)approve, accredit, certify, sanction
(例)His driving licence hase been endorsed,a record of a motoring offence has been
entered in it. 他的驾驶执照上曾有违规的纪录。

enervate [] vt.使衰弱(to weaken or destroy the strength or vitality of)
(类)enervate•energy=curtail•period 使精力衰弱=缩减周期
enervate•strength=dispirit•morale 使力量衰弱=使士气泄气
enervate•vigor=eclipse•prestige 使精力衰弱=使声望黯淡
enervate•vitality=debase•value=hamstring•effectiveness
使衰弱:活力=贬低:价值=使残废:效力(前者使后者失效或衰弱)
(反)enervate ◆ fortify/invigorate/strengthen 使衰弱 ◆ 使增强/使精力充沛/变强
enervation ◆ vitality 虚弱 ◆ 生命力
(记)e(出)+nerve(精力)释放出精力→使衰弱。完全等价 enfeeble

enfranchise [] vt. 给予选举权;解放(to endow with the right to vote)
(类)enfranchise•vote=license•practice=illuminate•see
给予选举权可以投票=给予许可证可以实行=照亮使可以看见
(反)enfranchise ◆ enfetter/resubject/subjugate 解放 ◆ 束缚/使再臣服/使屈从
(记)en(加强)+franch(=frank自由的,免费的,率直的)→使自由→解放

effrontery [] n.厚颜无耻;冒犯胆大(brazen boldness; presumptuousness)
(反)effrontery ◆ decorum 厚颜无耻 ◆ 正派得体
effrontery ◆ timidity 冒犯胆大 ◆ 胆小
(记)由front联想当面冒犯

engender [] vt. 产生;导致(cause; produce)
(反)engender ◆ quash/eradicate 产生 ◆ 撤销/根除
(记)由gender(性)联想:通过性来生产。

engross [] vt.使全神贯注(occupy fully)
(类)engrossed•absorbed=intimate•close 全神贯注的•极感兴趣的=亲密的•紧密的
(记)gross = whole总的,所有的,毛重的→将所有的注意力都集中起来→全神贯注

enigma [] n.谜语;费解的事物(puzzle)
(类)enigma•impenetrable=juggernaut•unstoppable
谜的特点是难以弄懂的=摧毁一切的强大力量特点是无法阻碍的
(反)enigmatic ◆ broadly known/free of ambiguity/readily understood
令人费解的 ◆ 广为人知的/不含糊的/浅显易懂的

enlighten [] vt. 启发;教导;照耀(to give spiritual or intellectual insight to)
(类)explanation•enlighten=equivocation•coax 解释为了启发=含糊话为了哄骗

enmity [] n.敌意(ill will; hatred)
(反)enmity ◆ camaraderie/comity/concord 敌意 ◆ 同志情谊/团结/和睦

ennoble [] vt.授予爵位;使尊贵(to make noble)
(反)debase ◆ ennoble贬低 ◆ 使尊贵
(记)en(使)+ noble 贵族→使成为贵族→使尊贵

ennui [] n.v.倦怠;厌倦(a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction)
(类)ennui•enthusiastic=fervor•apathetic=somnolence•alert
倦怠不热情=热情不冷漠=嗜睡不警惕(名形反义)
(反)ennui ◆ energy/enthusiasm/exuberance/keen interest
倦怠 ◆ 活力/热情/生气盎然/强烈的兴趣
(同)tedium, boredom, doldrums , yawn
(记)谐音“安慰”联想:安慰一颗倦怠的心。

ensemble [] n. 合奏曲(a work for two or more vocalists or instrumentalists)
(反)ensemble ◆ solo 合奏曲 ◆ 独奏曲
(记)semble(相同) 联想:共同弹奏相同的曲子→合奏曲
参考:dissemble 掩饰resemble 象,类似 assemble集合,装配

ensconce [] vt. 安置(to establish or place firmly, comfortably, or snugly)
(反)ensconce ◆ dislodge/ displace/ unsettle 安置 ◆ 驱逐/取代位置/使紊乱
【注:unsettle :to displace from a settled condition】
(记)en + sconce n. 烛台→使象烛台一样→安置

ensue [] vi. 随之而来(follow)
(反)ensuing ◆ anterior 后来的 ◆ 先前的
(记)由sue(诉讼)联想:治安状况不好,诉讼接连发生。
(例)the trouble that ensued from this misunderstanding. 由误会而产生的麻烦。

entangle [] vt. 使纠缠;卷入(to twist together or entwine into a confusing mass;snarl)
(类)exonerate•blame=disentangle•snarl 免除责任•指责=松开•纠缠(反义)
entangle•involve=grill•question 纠缠•涉及=拷问•提问(程度)
(反)disentangle ◆ snarl 松开 ◆ 使缠结
(记)源自tangle 纠缠 参考:untangle解开disentangle解开
(例)My fishing line got entangled in weeds. 我的钓鱼线和杂草缠在一起了。

enthusiasm [] n.狂热;热心
(类)enthusiasm•mania=covet•rapacity=suspicion•paranoia
热心•狂热=渴望•贪婪的=怀疑•偏执狂(多疑症)(褒贬程度)
reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm 尊敬•尊敬=热望•热心(同义)
(反)halfhearted ◆ enthusiastic 半心半意的 ◆ 狂热的

entice [] vt. 诱使(lure; attract; tempt)
(类)goad•enticement=command•entreaty 驱使•诱使=命令•恳求 (主被动关系)
enticement•tempt=affection•love 引诱•引诱=喜爱•爱(名动同义)
(反)enticing ◆ formidable 诱人的 ◆ 可怕的
(记)谐音:安第斯→安第斯山,美洲旅游胜地→联想:安第斯山对游客充满了诱惑

entrance [] vt.使狂喜;使入迷(carry away with emotion)n.入口
(反)entrance ◆ bore/ disappoint/ disgust/ repel/ repulse
使入迷 ◆ 使厌烦/使失望/使作呕/令人但反感/使拒绝
entrance ◆ egress 入口 ◆ 出口
entrancing ◆ unprepossessing 使人欣喜的 ◆ 不讨人喜欢的
(例)She stood entranced at the sight. 她站在那里望着那景色出神。

entrap [] vt.诱骗(to lure into a compromising statement or act)
(类)vigilant•entrapped=exacting•satisfied 警醒的•被诱骗的=苛求的•满足的 (难以关系)
(同)allure, bait, decoy, entice, inveigle, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll
(记)en + trap 圈套,陷阱 →使进入圈套→诱骗

entreat [] v. 恳求(to make an earnest request)
(类)protest•dissuade=supplicate•entreat 抗议•劝阻=低三下四地恳求•恳求(同义)
goad•enticement=command•entreaty 驱使•诱使=命令•恳求(主被动关系)
(同)appeal, beseech, crave, implore, importune, invoke, plead, supplicate
(记)en(使)+ treat(托福听力的一个重要义项:请客)→使请客(对小气的人当然得恳求了)

enunciate [] v.清晰发音(articulate);阐明
(类)waffle•enunciate=embed•disinter 胡扯• 阐明=嵌入• 掘出 (反义)
enunciate•mumbling=clarify•confusing 清晰发音•喃喃而语=使清晰•混淆(反义)
enunciate•words=limn•lines 清晰地表达言语=清晰地描绘线条
(记)e(出)+ nunci(发音)→清晰发音 参考:pronunciation 发音

epaulet [] n.肩章;肩饰(something that ornaments the shoulder)
(类)epaulet•shoulder=ring•finger 肩章戴在肩上=戒指戴在手指上

ephemeral [] adj.朝生暮死的;极短暂的(lasting a very short time)
(类)ephemeral•endure=inanimate•live=repellent•attract
短暂的无法持久=无生命的无法生存=相斥的无法吸引
ephemeral•transience=convoluted•complexity=perpetual•permanence
朝生暮死的•短暂=盘绕费解的•复杂=永久的•永恒(形名同义)
ephemeral•abide=intransigent•yield 短暂的•坚持=不妥协的•屈服
(反)enduring 持久的 everlasting 永恒的 eternal/ permanent/ perpetual 永久的

epic [] n.史诗 adj.史诗的;英勇的;超出正常范围的
(反)epic ◆ modest 超出正常范围的 ◆ 一般的

epicure [] n.美食家 (one with sensitive tastes especially in food or wine)
(类)epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching 美食家•识别的=观众•观看的(正面特征)
(反)epicure ◆ a person indifferent to food 美食家 ◆ 厌食者
(同)gastronome, gourmand, gourmet
(记)来自Epicurus古希腊哲学家伊壁鸠鲁 主张享乐和美食

epidermis [] n.表皮;上皮
(类)epidermis•mammal=bark•conifer 表皮•哺乳动物=树皮•松柏
(记)epi(在外)+ derm 皮肤→表皮

epigram [] n.警句(a terse, sage, or witty and often paradoxical saying)
(类)brevity•epigram=exaggeration•caricature
警句特点是简明扼要=讽刺画特点是夸张(正面特征)
epigram•wise=paradox•contradictory
警句特点是英明的=自相矛盾的话特点是矛盾的(正面特征)
(记)epic(史诗中的)+gram(句子)联想:史诗中的句子多为警句
(同)adage,aphorism,epigram,maxim,proverb

epilogue [] n.收场白;尾声
(类)epilogue•novel=coda•symphony 小说的结尾=交响乐的尾声
epilogue•play=coda•sonata/dessert•meal 戏剧的收场白=奏鸣曲的尾音=饭后甜点
epilogue•prose=finale•music 散文的收场白=音乐的终曲
epilogue•story=terminus•stop 故事的收场白=下车站的终点站(事物及其结尾)
(反)preface ◆ epilogue 序文 ◆ 结尾
(记)epi(在后)+ logue 说→在后面说的→收场白 参考:dialogue 对话

episode [] n.一段情节(one event in a chain of events)
(类)episode•series=issue•periodical 一段情节•连续系列=出版一期•期刊
(记)epi(在…之间)+ sode(=soda 肥皂剧)→在肥皂剧之间的→一段情节

epistemology [] n.认识论(a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge)
(类)epistemology•knowledge=aesthetics•beauty 认识论研究知识=美学研究美
(记)一点背景知识:认识论的核心问题是:什么是知识?什么是真理?人类的知识来自何处?

epitaph [] n. 墓志铭;碑文
(类)epitaph•tombstone=motto•shield 墓志铭刻在墓碑上=座右铭刻在盾牌上
(记)epi(在…之前)+taph(= tomb 坟墓)

epithet [] n.绰号;脏话(a disparaging or abusive word or phrase)
(类)epithet•disparage=alias•mislead 脏话贬低人=化名误导人
(记)epi(在…下)+ thet(=set放)→放在下面说的话→脏话

epitome [] n.摘要(summary);典型(a typical or ideal example)
(类)epitomize•brevity=embellish•ornamentation 摘要•缩写=装饰•装饰(同义)

equable [] adj. 稳定的(unvarying; steady);心态平和的(not easily disturbed; serene)
(反)equable ◆ intemperate 心态平和的 ◆ 放纵的
equanimity ◆ agitation/ excitability 平和 ◆ 激动
(记)equ(平等) 参考:equator赤道

equipoise [] n.v.平衡
(反)equipoise ◆ vacillate 平衡 ◆ 摇摆

equity [] n.公平(freedom from bias or favoritism)
(类)illiteracy•education=inequity•redistribution 教育消除文盲=重新分配消除不公平
equivalent•interchange= indistinguishable•confound 相等的可以交换=难辨别的易混淆
(反)equitable ◆ biased/ discriminatory 公平的 ◆ 偏袒的/ 差别对待的

equivocate [] vi. 模棱两可地说(to avoid making an explicit statement)
(类)equivocation•ambiguous=platitude•banal=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可的话是含糊的=陈词滥调特点是陈腐的=矛盾修饰法是不调和的
equivocation•coax=explanation•enlighten 模棱两可为了哄骗=解说为了启发
equivocate•commitment=procrastinate•action 模棱两可逃避承诺=拖延逃避行动
equivocate•deceive=grandstand•impress 模棱两可为欺骗=炫耀为留下印象
equivocal•meaning=amorphous•shape 模棱两可的缺乏意义=无定形的缺乏形状
equivocation•truth=euphemism•offense 模棱两可逃避事实=委婉语避免冒犯
equivocation•truth=obfuscation•clarity 模棱两可的话不正确=困惑不明晰
(反)waffle ◆ speak unequivocally 胡扯 ◆ 说话不模棱两可
equivocation ◆ clarity 模棱两可 ◆ 清楚
equivocate ◆ communicate straightforwardly 模棱两可地说 ◆ 直率的说
(同)lie, falsify, palter, prevaricate

erode [] v. 使腐蚀;使侵蚀(to eat into;corrode)
(类)erode•destruction=accrete•growth=incinerate•singe
腐蚀使受到破坏=依附生长使生长=焚毁使烧焦(因果关系)
gully•erosion=callus•friction 溪谷是饱经风水侵蚀而成=老茧是饱经摩擦而成
wind•erosion=downpour•flooding 风造成侵蚀=倾盆大雨水使泛滥(因果关系)

errant [] adj.漫游的(moving about aimlessly or irregularly);犯错误的(fallible)
(类)errant•course=amorphous•shape=heretical•doctrine
漫游的没有固定路线=无定型的没有固定形状=异教的不遵从固定教条
errant•standard=digress•topic 犯错误的偏离标准=离题的偏离主题
(同)erratic,devious,stray,wandering,aberrant,devious,fallible, errable
(记)来自error(错误)

erratic [] adj.不稳定的;古怪的;游移的(having no fixed course)
(类)erratic•permanent=heroic•craven 游移的不是持久的=英勇的不是懦弱的
exemplary•criticized=erratic•predicted 模范的不能批评=游移不定的不能预测
(记)来自error(错误,误差)

erudite [] adj. 博学的 n.博学之士
(类)erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect 博学的能看穿=健忘的易忽略
(反)ignorant无知的smattering of knowledge知识贫乏的 unlettered未受教育的
erudition ◆ illiteracy 博学 ◆ 文盲
(记)e(去除)+rudite(=rude粗鲁)联想:去除粗鲁当然是博学之士了。

escalate [] v.(战争等)升级,上升(to increase in amount, intensity, or scope)
(反)escalate ◆ diminish/wane 升级上升 ◆ 减弱
(记)esca(=escape逃离)联想:逃离战火 参考:escalator自动扶梯 elevator升降梯

eschew [] v.避开;戒绝(to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds)
(反)eschew ◆ embrace/greet/habitually indulge in/seek/welcome
避开 ◆ 接受/问候/习惯地沉溺/寻觅/欢迎
(记)eschew的东西不值得你去chew(咀嚼)
(同)escape, avoid, bilk, double, duck, elude, evade, shun, shy

esoteric [] adj.秘传的 (understood by the specially initiated alone)
(反)common accepted普遍接受的generally known广泛知道的
(记)将oter看作other 不让其他人知道:秘传的。
(同)recondite, abstruse, acroamatic, hermetic, occult, orphic, profound, secret

espouse [] vt.支持;拥护(adopt; support)参加婚礼,结婚(to take in marriage;marry)
(类)espouse•marriage=lurk•concealment 结婚•婚姻=潜伏•隐藏(动名同义)
(反)espouse ◆ abjure/repudiate 拥护 ◆ 誓绝/拒绝
(记)spouse 配偶

esteem [] n.v.尊重(repect;value)
(类)obeisant•esteem=embrace•affection 鞠躬表示尊敬=拥抱表示爱
esteem•idolatrize=favor•bribe=desire•covet 尊敬•盲目崇拜=赠助•行贿=渴望•贪求
infuriate•rage=commend•esteem 激怒引起愤怒=赞美引起尊重(行为及其影响)
(反)stigma ◆ mark of esteem 耻辱 ◆ 尊重的标志
esteem ◆ odium 尊重 ◆ 憎恶

estimable [] adj.值得尊敬的(worthy of esteem);可估计的;有价值的
(反)estimable ◆ contemptible 可尊敬的 ◆ 可鄙的
estimable ◆ infamous 令人尊重的 ◆ 声名狼藉的

estrange [] vt.使疏远;使隔离(separate; alienate)
(反)estrangement ◆ reconciliation/rapprochement 疏远 ◆ 和好

etch [] n.腐蚀剂 v.蚀刻
(类)etch•corrosive=glue•adhesive
腐蚀剂特点是腐蚀性的=粘合剂特点是带粘性的(正面特征)

eternal [] adj.永恒的
(反)eternal ◆ ephemeral 永恒的 ◆ 朝生暮死的

ethereal [] adj. 轻飘的;空气的;太空的(light; heavenly)
(反)ethereal ◆ material/ponderous 轻飘的 ◆ 物质的/沉重的
(记)ether=either或者这,或者那,拿不定主意→说话轻飘飘的

ethics [] n. 伦理学
(类)ethics•behavior=logic•reasoning伦理学研究行为=逻辑学研究推理过程
(记)区别:ethnic人种的,种族的

eulogize [] vt.称赞;颂扬
(类)eulogy•praise=elegy•lament 颂词表扬=挽歌哀悼
encomiast•eulogize=quibbler•cavil 赞美者称赞=吹毛求疵者挑剔
encomium•eulogy=discontent•complain 赞美•赞辞=不满•抱怨(同义)
panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize 颂词称赞=讽刺文讽刺
(反)eulogize ◆ defamation/pan/stricture 称赞 ◆ 诬蔑/批评/指责
(记)eu(谐音:优→好)+log(说)→说好话→称赞 参考:dialog对话

euphemism [] n.婉言(mild expression in place of an unpleasant one)
(类)euphemism•offense=aphorism•diffuseness=invulnerableness•injure
婉言不会冒犯=格言不会冗长=无懈可击不会受伤

euphonious [] adj.悦耳的(pleasing or agreeable to the ear)
(类)euphonious•sound=graceful•movement悦耳的声音=优美的动作
(反)euphonious ◆ cacophonous 悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的
(同)melodious, dulcet , sweet, tuneful

euphoria [] n.精神欢快;欣快症(a feeling of well-being or elation)
(类)satisfaction•euphoria欣快症表现为过分满意

evacuate [] v.疏散;撤离
(反)evacuate ◆ conquer/fill up/occupy 撤退 ◆ 占领/填满
(记)vacuate:在…中造成真空

evanescent [] adj.短暂的;逐渐消失的(fleeting; vanishing)
(类)evanescent•disappear(vanish)=periodic•recur/pliant•yield
短暂的容易消失=周期性的容易重现/顺从的容易屈服
evanescent•permanent=archaic•current 短暂的•永恒的=过时的•流行的
evanescence•transient=complexity•convoluted
转瞬即逝事物特点是短暂的=复杂事物特点是盘错费解的(正面特征)
(反)evanescent ◆ abiding/lasting/perpetual 短暂的 ◆ 持久的/永久的
(记)e+van(谐音:完)+escent(后缀:表示开始)联想:一开始就完了→短暂的。

evasion [] n.逃避,借口(the act or an instance of evading)
(类)inclemency•evasion 险恶•逃避

everlasting [] adj.永恒的,无止境的(lasting forever;eternal) n. 永久
(类)everlasting•duration=countless•number 无止境的持续时间=数不清的数目
(反)everlasting ◆ ephemeral 永恒的 ◆ 短暂的

evict [] vt.赶出;驱逐(expel)
(类)evict•residence=banish•country 逐出住所=驱逐出境
eviction•dwelling=deportation•country 逐出住所=驱逐出境
(反)evict ◆ harbor 逐出 ◆ 收容
(记)vict (征服) 参考:victory胜利,战胜

evince [] vt. 表明;表示(show clearly)
(反)evince ◆ conceal/ keep hidden 表明 ◆ 隐藏
(记)vince(战胜,证明)参考:invincible不可征服的 convince使确信,使信服

evoke [] vt. 唤起,引发(call forth)
(反)evoke ◆ fail to elicit 引起 ◆ 不能引出
(例)evoke laughter; 引发笑声 songs that evoke old memories. 唤起往日回忆的歌曲
(记)e(向外)+voke(=voc呼唤)→唤起 参考:convoke 召集revoke撤回 provoke激怒

ewe [  ] n.母羊(ram公羊)
(类)sheep•ewe=swan•pen 羊•母羊=天鹅•雌天鹅(种属)

exacerbate [] vt.激怒;使加剧(worsen;embitter)
(反)exacerbate ◆ allay/ assuage/ palliate 加剧 ◆ 缓和
(记)ex(加强)+acerb(苦涩,尖酸)+ate=激怒 参考:acerbic酸的,尖刻的

exacting [] adj.苛求的;吃力的(extremely demanding)
(类)exacting•satisfied=indomitable•controlled=vigilant•entrapped=wary•gulled
苛求的难以满足=不屈的难以控制=警惕的难以落入陷阱=机警的难以上当
(反)exact ◆ condone/ forgive 强求 ◆ 宽恕
exactitude ◆ imprecision 正确,严格 ◆ 不精确

exalt [] v. 提升;赞扬(raise in rank or dignity; praise)
(反)exaltation ◆ condemnation 赞扬 ◆ 谴责
exalt ◆ humble/lower in status 提升 ◆ 贬抑/降低身份
(记)alt(高)参考:altitude(海拔)高度

exasperate [] vt. 激怒,使加剧 adj.激怒的
(反)exasperate ◆ mitigate/mollify 激怒 ◆ 缓和
(同)irritate, aggravate, gall, nettle, rile, roil
(记)ex(加强)+ asper(= rough粗暴的)+ate →非常粗鲁的容易激怒别人→激怒
(例)It is exasperating to lose a train by half a minute. 因半分钟之差而误了火车是恼火的。

excavate [] v.挖掘,挖空(to make a hole in;hollow out)
(反)excavate ◆ fill in 挖空 ◆ 填满
(记)ex(加强)+cav(=cave洞)+ate→挖掘

exceptional [] adj.例外的,异常的,特别的(being an exception; uncommon)
(反)exceptional ◆ commonplace/prosaic 特别的 ◆ 平凡的
(记)exception有两个重要义项1、例外2、异议,反对 分别有两个重要的派生词
exceptional和exceptionable adj.可反对的, 可抗议的, 要不得的;两者意思无任何交插

excerpt [] v. 做摘录n.摘录(selected passage)
(类)summary•excerpt=aside•digression 摘要•摘录=偏离•离题(同义)
(记)比较except除了 联想:除去多余的东西→摘录

excoriate [] v. 严厉批评(to censure strongly;denounce)
(反)excoriate ◆ accolade/extol/flatter/praise lavishly
严厉批评 ◆ 推崇备至/赞扬/过分赞扬/高度赞扬
(同)lambaste,castigate, flay, lash, scarify, scathe, scorch, scourge, slash
(记)ex+cori(=core核心)+ate→使黑心露出来→严厉批评;注:原义“擦破皮”。

excrete [] vt. 分泌,排泄(to separate and discharge (waste matter) from the organs)
(反)excrete ◆ absorb/ ingest排泄 ◆ 吸收/摄入
(记)ex+crete(分离)→分泌,排泄 参考:discrete分离的,不连续的

excruciate [] vt. 施酷刑;折磨(afflict)
(反)excruciate ◆ exult 施酷刑 ◆ 使欢跃
(同)afflict, agonize, crucify, torment, torture
(记)ex(强调)+cruc(=cross十字架)联想:钉在十字架上是一种酷刑→施酷刑,折磨
参考:crusade十字军东征 cruciform十字形的

exculpate [] vt. 声明无罪;开脱(clear from blame)
(类)exculpatory•absolve=hortative•encourage/motivational•stir
辩明无罪的•释放=劝告的•鼓励/激发动机的•激励
alibi•exculpatory=warning•admonitory
借口特点是辩解的=警告特点是警告的(正面特征)
(反)exculpate ◆ attribute guilt/ inculpate/ indict 开脱罪责 ◆ 归罪/ 控告
(同)absolve, acquit, disculpate, exonerate, vindicate
(记)ex(否定前缀)+ culpate(罪过) 参考:inculpate 治罪,控告

excursive [] adj. 离题的;散漫的(having the nature of digression)
(类)digress•excursive=reiterate•redundant 离题•离题的=反复重申•多余的
(记)cursive(潦草马虎的)→离题的

execrate [] v.憎恶;咒骂(curse; express abhorrence for)
(反)execrate ◆ laud 咒骂 ◆ 赞美
execrable ◆ commendable 憎恶的 ◆ 值得表扬的
execration ◆ approbation 咒骂 ◆ 嘉许
(同)curse, objurgate, abhor, abominate, detest, loathe,swear, imprecate
(记)ex+secrate(=sacred神的,宗教的)→背离神圣→憎恶,咒骂 参考:sacrifice牺牲,供奉

exemplary [] adj.可仿效的;模范的(worthy of imitation; commendable)
(类)exemplary•imitation=culpable•blame=notable•attention
模范的•模仿=有罪的•怪罪=著名的•注意(因果关系)
emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 仿效•模范的=排除•不需要的
exemplify•paradigm=amends•corrective 模仿范例=修正改正物
(例)来自exemple榜样

exempt [] adj. 免除的 vt. 使免除(to free from an obligation to which others are subject)
(类)exempt•liability=pardon•penalty 免除债务=宽恕罪过(消除关系)
(记)联想:exemple榜样,模范→模范乘车可以免票→免除

exhaust [] vt. 耗尽;使精疲力尽(to wear out completely)
(类)infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap 无穷的不会耗尽=分离的不会重叠
exhausted•rest=thirsty•imbibe 精疲力尽的需要休息=口渴的需要喝水
exhaustive•careful=mesmerized•interesting详尽无遗漏的•仔细的=着迷的•有趣的(程度)
【注】exhaustive :treating all parts or aspects without omission; thorough
(反)exhaustive ◆ incomplete/partial 彻底的 ◆ 不完全的/部分的
(同)deplete, bankrupt, drain
(记)ex(加强)+haust(谐音:耗死它)→耗尽;使精疲力尽

list 13 exhilarate --------finicky
exhilarate [] vt. 使振奋;使兴奋(To cause to feel happily refreshed and energetic;elate)
(反)exhilarate ◆ sadden 使兴奋 ◆ 使悲哀
soporific ◆ exhilarating 昏昏欲睡的 ◆ 令人兴奋的
(同)elate, inspire, spirit (up), stimulate
(记)ex(表强调)+hilar(= cheerful高兴的)→非常高兴 参考:hilarious高兴的,欢闹的

exhort [] v. 劝告;规劝(urge)
(类)exhort•suggest=goad•direct 规劝•建议=(像赶牛棒)驱赶•指导
exhortation•encourage=hurl•insult 劝告使鼓励=愤慨地说使侮辱
exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit/obloquy•discredit/persiflage•incite
劝告使有动机=谩骂使丢脸/指责使耻辱/戏弄挖苦使刺激
exhortative•urge=didactic•teach 劝告的•驱策=说教的•教导
(同)urge, goad, prick, prod, prompt, propel, spur
(记)ex(加强)+hort(鼓舞)→鼓劲→劝其向上 参考:hortation n. 劝告,鼓励

exodus [] vt.大批离去(departure)
(反)exodus ◆ influx 大批离去 ◆ 流入
(记)将dus看成bus;联想:一群人乘坐大巴离去。

exonerate [] v. 免除责任;确定无罪(acquit; exculpate)
(类)exonerate•blame=disentangle/extricate•snarl 免除责任•责备=解开/摆脱•纠缠
(反)exonerate ◆ censure/ incriminate/ inculpate/ prove guilty
免罪 ◆ 责难/控告/证明有罪
(记)ex+oner(= burden负担,责任)→免除责任 参考:onerous费力的,负有法律责任的

exorbitant [] adj. 过度的(excessive)
(类)exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty 过度的•适度=背信弃义的•忠诚(形名反义)
(记)ex(偏离)+orbit(轨道)→偏离轨道的→过度的

exotic [] adj.外来的,奇异的(not native; strange)n.外国人
(反)exotic ◆ indigenous 外来的 ◆ 本地的

expansive [] adj. 易膨胀的;广阔的;健谈的,外向的;自大狂的
(类)expand•volume=proliferate•number 体积膨胀=数量增加(增加关系)
(反)expansive ◆ limited/ reserved/taciturn/withdrawn
广阔的,健谈的 ◆ 有限的/冷漠的/沉默寡言的/性格内向的
(反)expansive ◆ diffident 自大狂的 ◆ 无自信的
【注:diffident 与malicious(恶毒的)同时出现选择diffident】
(例)expansive delusion 自大狂

expedite [] vt.加快(hasten)adj.无阻碍的;迅速的
(类)expedite•process=accelerate•pace 加快进程=加速步伐
(反)expedite ◆ retard 加速 ◆ 减速

expedition [] n.远征;探险队;迅速
(类)expedition•foot dragging=consensus•factionalism
迅速•拖拉=一致同意•党派之争(反义)
(反)expedition ◆ foot dragging 迅速 ◆ 脚步拖沓

expiate [] vt.补偿 vi.赎罪make amends for (a sin)
(类)expiate•guilt=correct•error=repose•fatigue
赎罪•罪行=改正•错误=休息•疲劳(前者消除后者)

expire [] v.期满;终止;断气
(反)expire ◆ come to life断气 ◆ 出生

explicit [] adj.外在的;清楚的;直率的;结尾的(totally clear; definite)
(反)explicit ◆ immanent 外在的 ◆ 内在的
explicit ◆ inchoate 结尾的 ◆ 开始的
explicit ◆ obscure 清晰的 ◆ 模糊的
(记)参考implicit:暗示的,含蓄的

exploit n. 英雄事迹(deed, act;especially:a notable or heroic act)
(类)exploit•heroic=gaffe•tactless 英雄事迹是英勇的=社交失态是不老练的

exponent [] n.倡导者;阐述者(one that champions, practices, or exemplifies)
(类)exponent•advocate=pollster•canvass
倡导者•支持=民意测验专家•彻底检查(人及其特征动作)
(记)ex(强调)+ponent(同类) 参考•opponent对手

expurgate [] v.净化;删去不当处(clean; remove offensive parts of a book)
(类)censor•expurgate=vendor•purvey 检察员•删除=卖主•供应(人物典型动作)
(反)inexpurgate ◆ obliterate 无法除去 ◆ 除去
(记)purge:泄药,净化

exquisite [] adj.高雅的;精致的(characterized by intricate and beautiful design)
(反)exquisite ◆ tawdry 高雅的 ◆ 俗丽的
(记)来自quis奎斯(欧洲的一种丘鹬)•这种鸟非常高雅

extant [] adj.现存的;传世的(still in existence)
(反)extant ◆ destroyed/extinct/lost/missing 现存的 ◆ 被毁的/灭绝的/丢失的

extemporize [] v.即席演说
(类)extemporization•rehearsal=honesty•guilt即兴演出•排演=诚实•狡猾(反义)
extemporization•spontaneous=juggernaut•unstoppable
即席演说特点是自发的=摧毁一切的强大力量特点是无法阻止的
(反)extemporize ◆ follow a script 即席演说 ◆ 参考草稿
extemporaneous ◆ planned 即席的 ◆ 有计划的

extenuate [] vt.减轻;使人原谅(weaken; mitigate)
(类)extenuate•seriousness=moderate•intensity减轻•严重性=缓和•强度
(反)extenuating ◆ aggravating 减轻的 ◆ 加剧的
(记)ex(加强)+ tenuate(变薄,减弱)

extinct [] adj.绝种的;熄灭了的(no longer existing or living)
(反)extinct ◆ extant/ resuscitated 灭绝的 ◆ 现存的/使复苏的
extinction ◆ perpetuation 灭绝 ◆ 永存

extinguish [] vt.熄灭;消灭(to put out (a fire, for example); quench)
(反)extinguish ◆ ignite/ rekindle 熄灭 ◆ 点燃/重新点燃

extol [] v. 颂扬;吹捧(praise; glorify)
(反)censure /deprecate /detract /excoriate /impugn /malign /rail /vilify

extort [] v.敲诈;强占(wring from; get money by threats, etc.)
(类)extortionist•intimidation=sycophant•flattery勒索者•胁迫=谄媚者•谄媚
extortion•retribution=kidnap•detainment=extort•obtain
强求•报偿=绑架•拘留=敲诈•获得(不正常•正常)

extract [] n.榨出物;摘录vt.榨取;摘录
(反)extract ◆ embed 取出 ◆ 嵌入
hybrid ◆ of unmixed extraction 杂种,混血儿 ◆ 纯正血统
【注】extraction:origin; lineage 血统,出身

extraneous [] adj.外来的;无关的;体外的
(类)extraneous•essence=achromatic•hue无关的不是本质=无色的没有色调
extrovert•outgoing=perfectionist•exacting
性格外向者•外向的=追求完美者•要求苛刻的(正面特征)
(反)extraneous ◆ apposite/essential/relevant 无关的 ◆ 恰当的/本质的/相关的
extraneous ◆ intuitive 体外的 ◆ 直觉的
extrinsic ◆ immanent/inherent /ingrained 外在的 ◆ 内在的/根深蒂固的

extravagant [] adj.奢侈的;无节制的
(类)extravagance•expenditure=loquaciousness•talk奢侈是开支多=啰嗦是话多
(反)frugality ◆ extravagancy 节省 ◆ 挥霍

extricate [] vt.使解脱,救出(free; disentangle)
(反)extricate ◆ enmesh/entangle 使解脱 ◆ 缠住

exuberant [] adj.繁茂的;丰富的;非常高兴的(abundant; effusive; lavish)
(类)exuberant•happy=soaking•wet/frigid•cool 非常高兴•高兴=湿透的•湿/严寒•冷(程度)
(反)exuberance ◆ ennui 高兴的 ◆ 倦怠的
(同)brash, ebullient, effervescent, vivacious
(记)uber(生育力)→繁茂

exude [] vt.vi.(使)流出;(使)渗出(discharge; give forth)
(反)exude ◆ absorb 流出 ◆ 吸收

exult [] v.狂喜(rejoice)
(类)exult•satisfaction=crave•longing 狂喜•满意=热望•渴望(程度)
(反)exultant ◆ abject/crestfallen/dejected 狂喜的 ◆ 极可怜的/沮丧的
exultation ◆ lamentation 狂喜 ◆ 悲伤

fable [] n.寓言
(类)fable•tale=ditty•song 寓言是一种故事=小曲是一种歌(种属)

fabricate [] vt.制造;捏造(build; lie)
(类)fabricate•authentic=discompose•pacific 捏造不可靠的=不安不平静的
fabricate•ingenuous=discompose•placid 捏造不坦白的=不安不宁静的
(同)manufacture

facetious [] adj.轻浮的;好开玩笑的(humorous; jocular)
(类)facetious•speech=antic•behavior 好开玩笑的•讲话=滑稽的•行为
(反)facetious ◆ earnest/ingenuous/lugubrious 轻浮的 ◆ 认真的/坦率的/悲哀的
(同)witty, humorous, jocose, jocular
(记)face脸上+ious轻浮的(表情)

facilitate [] vt.帮助;使容易;促进(make less difficult)
(反)facilitate ◆ hamper/impeding/obstruct/thwart 促进 ◆ 阻碍;妨碍
facile ◆ arduous/profound 易做到的 ◆ 艰巨的/深邃的

faction [] n.派别;派系斗争(party; clique; dissension)
(类)consensus•factionalism=clarity•confusion/expedition•foot dragging
一致同意•派系分裂=清晰•混淆/迅速•拖沓(反义)
(反)factional ◆ disinterested/ecumenical 派系的 ◆ 无私的/世界范围的
faction ◆ unity 内讧 ◆ 团结
factious ◆ cooperative 派系斗争的 ◆ 合作的
factorable ◆ irreducible 可因子分解的 ◆ 不可分解的
(记)分裂为factor因子•内讧

fallacy [] n.谬论
(类)disabuse•fallacy=cure•disease打消错误观念=治愈疾病(消除关系)
(反)fallacious ◆ sound/valid/veritable/verifiable/veracious 错误的 ◆ 合理的/正确的
fallacy ◆ valid argument 谬论 ◆ 正确论点
fallibility ◆ inerrancy 易错 ◆ 无错误

fallow [] adj.休耕的;闲置的(plowed but sowed; uncultivated)
(反)fallow ◆ in use 闲置的 ◆ 使用中的

fail-safe [] n.自动防故障装置
(类)fail-safe•malfunction 自动防故障装置•故障(阻止关系)

falsehood [] n.谎言;虚假
(类)falsehood•calumniate=evidence•corroborate 用谎言诽谤=用证据证实

falter [] n.v. 蹒跚;颤抖;动摇(hesitate)支吾说话
(类)falter•act=stammer•speak 蹒跚是动作不灵活=结巴是说话不灵活
(同)lurch,stagger,stumble,wobble,hesitate,vacillate,waver, wiggle-waggle

fanatic [] n.狂热者;盲信者 adj.狂热的;盲信的
(类)fanatic•admirer=zealot•adherent 盲信者•爱慕者=狂热者•追随者(程度)
fanatic•devoted=prude•proper 狂热者是献身的=守礼者是适宜的
fanatical•belief=frenetic•movement 狂热的信念=极度激动的动作

fang [] n.(犬狼等的)犬牙;(毒蛇的)毒牙
(类)fang•tooth=finger•digit 犬牙•牙齿=手指尤指大拇指以外的•手指(种属)

fantasy [] n.v.幻想
(类)grotesque•fantasy=imperial•significance 怪诞的•幻想=帝王的•重要
illusion•fantasy=nicety•precision 幻觉•幻想=精密•精确(同义)
(记)Final Fantasy系列,Square公司的大作

farce [] n.闹剧(broad comedy; mockery)
(类)farce•performance=limerick•poem 闹剧•演出=5行打油诗•诗(种属)
(同)mockery, burlesque, caricature, travesty

fascinate [] vt.强烈吸引;使着迷
(类)fascination•interest=adoration•fondness 着迷•感兴趣=崇拜•喜爱(程度)

fast [] n.绝食;斋戒 adv.快地;稳固地
(类)fast•eat=moratorium•act/respite•labor 斋戒•吃=暂停•行动/暂停•劳动
clasp•fasten=lathe•shape 扣子•扣紧固定=车床•成形(工具及其作用)
(反)fast ◆ loosely attach 稳固地 ◆ 松散地连接
fastness ◆ unsecured palace 要塞 ◆ 没有防卫的地方
secure ◆ unfasten 使牢固 ◆ 使松开
(记)(fast)绝食不是靠(fast)速成的,需要忍耐

fastidious [] adj.难取悦的;挑剔的
(类)fastidious•careful=zealous•devoted
挑剔的是极其细心的=狂热的是极其忠诚的(程度)
fastidious•outshine=recalcitrant•resist
挑剔的•胜过=拒不服从的•抵抗(人物个性及其特征行为)
dapper•fastidious衣冠楚楚的是挑剔的(正面特征)
(反)fastidious ◆ coarse/cursory/easygoing/indiscriminate/uncritical
挑剔的 ◆ 粗糙的/草率的/懒散的/混杂的/不加批判的
(记)动不动就fast绝食的人难以取悦fastidious
(例)She is fastidious about her clothes/food,etc. 她对于衣服/食物很苛求。

fateful [] adj.命中注定的;重大的;致命性的(vitally affecting subsequent events;momentous)
(反)fateful ◆ inconsequential 重大的 ◆ 不重要的

fathom [] v. 理解,调查,测量(comprehend; investigate)
(类)erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect博学的容易理解=健忘的容易忽略
(反)measurable ◆ unfathomable 可测量的 ◆ 无法测量的
occult ◆ readily fathomable 秘密的 ◆ 已理解透的

fatigue [] n.v.疲惫 adj.疲惫的
(类)fatigue•repose/rest=dehydration•water=guilt•expiation
疲劳•休息=脱水•水=内疚•赎罪,补偿(消除关系)
(反)indefatigable ◆ soon tired 不知疲倦的 ◆ 很快疲倦的

fatuous []adj.愚昧的;痴呆的;虚幻的(foolish; inane)
(反)fatuous ◆ astute/sagacious/sensible 愚笨的 ◆ 机敏的/聪慧的/敏感的
(同)asinine, foolish, silly, unwitty

faultfinder n.找岔,喜欢挑剔的人(one who is given to petty criticism and constant complaint)
(类)faultfinder•criticize=arbitrator•mediate 喜欢挑剔的人批评=仲裁人调解

fawn [] n.未满周岁的小鹿;巴结 v.阿谀奉承 adj.奉承的
(类)fawn•adulate=adorn•woo 奉承为了谄媚=装饰打扮为了求爱
fawn•attentive=garish•colorful奉承的是过分殷勤的=俗丽的是过分色彩艳丽的
fawn•hauteur=elaborate•sketchy=swagger•self depreciatory
阿谀•倨傲专横=模棱两可地说话•直接=摆架子•自卑(反义)
fawn•obsequious=patronize•condescending=yield•compliant
奉承特点是服从的=惠顾特点是屈尊的=屈服特点是遵从的(动形同义)
sycophant•fawn=miser•hoard =reprobate•misbehave
马屁精爱拍马=守财奴爱贮藏=堕落者爱行为不端(人物典型行为)
【注】reprobate有两个意思V. 责备N. 堕落放纵的人
(同)grovel, toady

faze [] vt. 打扰,折磨,使狼狈(disconcert; dismay)
(反)embolden ◆ faze 使大胆 ◆ 使狼狈
fazed ◆ undisturbed 打扰的 ◆ 未被打扰的
(同)embarrass,abash, discomfit,disconcert, discountenance, rattle

feckless [] adj. 无效的;无力气的;粗心不负责任的(careless and irresponsible)
(反)feckless ◆ responsible 粗心的 ◆ 负责任的
(同)fustian, meaningless, purposeless, worthless

fecund [] adj. 多产的;丰饶的;肥沃的(capable of producing offspring or vegetation)
(反)fecundity ◆ deprivation 多产 ◆ 丧失
(同)fertile, fruitful, productive, prolific, rich, spawning
(记)谐音“肥垦的” 联想:肥沃能够开垦的

feeble [] adj.衰弱的;无效的(lacking strength; weak.)
(类)feeble•strength=disquiet•composure 无力的•力气=不安的•镇静(缺乏关系)
(反)feeble ◆ hardy 衰弱的 ◆ 强壮的

feigned adj.假装的(not genuine or real)
(类)genuine ◆ feigned 真正的 ◆ 假装的

fender [] n.挡泥板;防御物
(类)fender•collision 挡板防止碰撞(防止关系)

feral [] adj.野生的;凶猛的(of or suggestive of a wild animal;savage)
(反)feral ◆ cultivated 野生的 ◆ 栽培的
(同)brutish, bestial

ferrous [] adj.铁的;含铁的
(反)ferrous ◆ containing no iron 含铁的 ◆ 不含铁的

fertilize [] vt.施肥;使丰饶;使受精(to make (soil, for example) fertile)
(类)fertilize•grow=immunize•resist 施肥目的是使生长=免疫目的是使抵抗(疾病)
【注:干扰选项是nourish•enrich 滋养•滋养 这两个词是同义关系不是目的
enrich :to add nutrients to 给…添加营养物质】
glue•seal=manure•fertilize 胶水•封口=肥料•使肥沃(事物及其功能)

fervid [] adj.热情的(marked by great passion or zeal)
(反)fervid ◆ restrained 热情的 ◆ 克制的

fervor [] n.热情(great warmth and intensity of emotion)
(类)fervor•apathetic=ennui•enthusiastic 热心•无动于衷的=倦怠•狂热的
fervor•zealot=doubt•skeptic=improvidence•spendthrift
热心•狂热的=疑惑•怀疑的=浪费•浪费的(名形同义)
(反)zealotry ◆ lack of fervor 狂热行为 ◆ 缺乏热心
fervor ◆ apathy/indifference 热情 ◆ 冷漠
(同)passion, ardor, calenture, enthusiasm, zeal

fester [] n.脓疮 v.溃烂;感染(to infect, inflame, or corrupt.);烦恼
(反)fester ◆ heal 溃烂 ◆ 愈合

fetid [] adj.有恶臭的(malodorous)
(类)fetid•smell=cacophonous(grating)•sound/ugly•appearance
恶臭的气味=刺耳的声音/丑陋的外表
(反)fetid ◆ having a pleasant smell 恶臭的 ◆ 有愉快芳香的

fetter [] n.脚镣 v.束缚(s hackle)
(反)fetter ◆ loose/release/set free 束缚 ◆ 松弛/解放
enfetter ◆ enfranchise/liberate 束缚 ◆ 释放
management ◆ unfettered liberty 管理 ◆ 没有约束的自由

fiasco [] n.大失败;惨败(total failure)
(反)fiasco ◆ a notable success/eclat 大失败 ◆ 显著的成功/巨大成就

fickle [] adj.(感情等)易变的(capricious);薄情的
(类)fickle•constancy=naive•sophistication 感情易变的•专一=天真的•老于世故
(同)capricious, lubricious, mercurial, temperamental, ticklish, volatile

fictitious [] adj.虚构的;小说的(imaginary)
(反)fictitious ◆ factual 虚构的 ◆ 事实的

fidelity [] n.忠诚;尽职(loyalty)
(反)apostasy ◆ fidelity 背叛 ◆ 忠实

fidget [] vi.n.坐立不安;烦躁
(类)fidget•nervousness=cringe•dread 坐立不安•紧张=畏缩•畏惧(行为表现心理)

figurative [] adj.比喻的;字意引申的(not literal, but metaphorical)
(反)figurative ◆ literal 比喻的 ◆ 照字面上的

figurine [] n.小雕像
(类)figurine•statue=twig•branch 小雕像•雕像=小树枝•树枝(小•正常)

filibuster [] n.v. 妨碍议事;阻挠(block legislation by making long speeches)
(类)filibuster•delay=hoax•deceive 妨碍议事•拖延=骗局•欺骗(正面特征)
filibuster•legislation=blockade•commerce 妨碍议事阻挠立法=封锁阻挠商业交往
(记)fili(谐音“费力”)+buster(=one that breaks up something 破坏者)费力破坏→阻挠

filigree [] n.金银丝做的工艺品(ornamental openwork of delicate design)
(类)chiaroscuro•contrast=filigree•delicacy(干扰:tapestry•intricacy 挂毯•复杂)
明暗配合法特点是对比=金银丝工艺品特点是精致(正面特征)
【注】chiaroscuro :the technique of using light and shade in pictorial representation.
filigree•wire=lace•thread金银丝做的工艺品•金属丝=饰带•线(材料关系)

filing [] n.锉屑(a particle or shaving removed by a file)
(类)filing•metal=shaving•wood 锉屑由锉金属产生=刨屑由刨木头产生

filly [] n.小雌马
(类)filly•horse=pullet•chicken 小母马•马=小母鸡•鸡(小雌性对总称)

filter [] v.过滤(to remove by passing through a filter) n. 滤器
(类)filter•impurities=winnow•chaff 过滤除去杂质=扬谷除去谷壳
mosquito•netting = impurity•filter 蚊子•网 = 杂质•过滤(后者消除前者)

finale [] n.终场;结尾;终曲
(反)finale ◆ opening scene 收尾 ◆ 开场

finch [] n.雀类鸣鸟(如燕雀,金丝雀)
(类)finch•bird=aspen•tree=lizard•reptile=eagle•bird
雀•鸟=杨树•树=蜥蜴•爬行动物=鹰•鸟(种属)

finesse [] n.技巧;计谋;手段(delicate skill)
(反)finesse ◆ heavy-handedness/ ineptitude 技巧 ◆ 愚笨 / 无能

finicky [] adj. 过分讲究的(extremely nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards)
(类)meticulous•finicky 程度关系。不能与fluent•glib搭配:因为这两者是同义或褒贬关系,而
不是程度关系(当glib做口齿伶俐讲时是同义;做油腔滑调讲时是褒贬)
(同)dainty, fastidious, finical, fussy, pernickety

list 14 flaccid --------galvanize
flaccid [] adj.软弱无力的(flabby)
(反)flaccidity ◆ firmness 软弱 ◆ 坚固
(同)limp, flabby, flimsy, floppy

flag [] n.旗;标记 v.标记;变弱衰退(droop; grow feeble)
(类)flag•country=trademark•company 国家的标志是旗帜=公司的标志是商标
flag•vigor=waver•resolution 衰弱•精力=犹豫•果断(消除关系)
(反)flag ◆ wax 衰弱 ◆ 增加
flagging ◆ thriving/ vibrant 衰弱的 ◆ 兴旺的/活跃的
unflagging ◆ fading 恒定的不衰减的 ◆ 消逝的

flamboyant [] adj. 辉耀华丽的;火焰似的;浮夸的
(类)flamboyant•reserved=furtive•open 炫耀的•保留的=秘密的•公开的
(反)flamboyant ◆ natural/ subdued/ understated 辉耀浮夸的 ◆ 自然的/ 柔和的 /朴素的
【注】understated :exhibiting restrained good taste:
(同)baroque, florid, luscious,showy,ostentatious,pretentious,splashy

flatter [] vt.过分夸赞;奉承(to compliment excessively and often insincerely, especially in
order to win favor)
(类)flatter•praise=loquacious•talkative 奉承•赞扬=多嘴的•喜欢说话的(褒贬)
sabbatical•leave=flattering•infatuation
周期性休息的•休假=讨人喜欢的•令人痴迷之物(后者的正面特征是前者)
可以解释成:休假是属于周期性休息的;令人痴迷之物是讨人喜欢的
【注】infatuation :an object of extravagant, short-lived passion
disparage•ignore = scorn•reject (干扰:adulate•flatter奉承•奉承(程度))
蔑视•忽视 =轻蔑•拒绝(褒贬)
toady•flatter=extortionist•intimidation=querulous person•complain
谄媚者•奉承=勒索者•恐吓=发牢骚的人•抱怨(正面特征)
(反)flatter ◆ excoriate/ invective 奉承 ◆ 严厉批评/谩骂的

flaw [] n.瑕疵;缺点 v.生裂缝
(类)glitch•flaw=peccadillo•error(sin,offense) 小故障•缺点=小错误•错误
impeccable•flaw=ingenuous•guile 无暇的•瑕癖=真诚的•狡猾(反面特征)

flax [] n.亚麻
(类)flax•linen=clay•porcelain 亚麻•亚麻织品=粘土•瓷器(原料产品关系)

fledge [] v.长羽毛(to grow the plumage necessary for flight)
(反)fledge ◆ molt 长羽毛 ◆ 脱毛
fledgling ◆ experienced practitioner 刚开始的人 ◆ 有经验的从业者

fleet [] adj.快速的 vt.消磨 vi.疾驰;飞逝;掠过
(类)fleeting•pass=meteoric•rise 疾驰的•通过=流星似的•升起(快速对行为)

flexible [] adj. 有弹性的;柔韧的;灵活的
(类)adamant•flexibility=refractory•control 坚硬的•弹性=难驾驭的•控制
limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty 易弯曲的•柔韧性=细长的•脆弱
static•moving=pliable•inflexible 静止的•移动的=易弯的•不可弯曲的
flexibility•spinelessness=courage•daredevilry=courage•foolhardiness
柔韧性•没骨气=勇气•冒失(正常和过分关系)
(反)flexible ◆ mulish 灵活的 ◆ 和骡子一样固执的
flexibility ◆ calcification 柔韧 ◆ 僵化

flinch [] n.v.畏缩;退缩(to recoil, as from something unpleasant or difficult;shrink)
(类)grisly•flinch=droll•laugh 恐怖的•畏缩•好笑的•笑 (动作及其引发原因)
flinch•fear=grimace•pain 畏缩•害怕=痛苦的表情•疼痛(动作表达心理)
(记)区别:filch 偷窃;filth 污秽;finch 雀类

flippancy [] n. 轻率,无礼
(类)flip•respect=nonchalant•concern 无礼的•尊重=冷漠的•关心(反面特征)
(反)flippancy ◆ earnest/gravity/seriousness/sobriety 轻率 ◆ 认真,庄重,冷静

flirt [] v.调情(to make playfully romantic or sexual overtures) n.调情者
(类)supplicant•beseeching=coquette•flirtatious 哀求者•哀求的=风骚女人•调情的

flit [] n.v.掠过;迁徙(fly; dart lightly; pass swiftly by)
(类)flit•move=blurt•utter迅速飞过•移动•突然说出•出声(迅速对正常)
(反)flit ◆ plod 迅速飞过 ◆ 沉重缓慢地走

flock [] n.一群;大量 v.聚结
(类)clique•intimates=flock•sheep 私党•熟友=羊群•绵羊(组成关系)
herd•animals=flock•birds 兽群•动物=鸟群•鸟(组成关系)
(反)flock ◆ segregate 聚集 ◆ 隔离

florid adj.华丽的(very flowery in style)
(反)florid ◆ inane 华丽的 ◆ 空洞的(EMPTY, INSUBSTANTIAL)(需进一步讨论)

flounder [] n.v.挣扎;犯错;困难地往前走
(类)flounder•process 困难地往前走•前行
(反)flounder ◆ act gracefully 挣扎 ◆ 优美地行动
flounder ◆ slide 困难地往前走 ◆ 滑动
(同)blunder, lurch, stumble

flourish [] vi.繁荣;茂盛;炫耀(grow well; prosper; make sweeping gestures)
(反)flourish ◆ waste away/wither 繁荣 ◆ 衰弱/凋谢
flourish ◆ lack of embellishment 炫耀 ◆ 缺乏装饰

flout [] n.v.蔑视(reject; mock)
(类)flout•disregard=taunt•challenge 蔑视•忽视=嘲弄•挑战(程度)
(同)scoff, fleer, gibe, gird, jeer, jest, sneer

fluctuate [] vi.波动;动摇(wave)
(类)pristine•decay=stable•fluctuation 纯洁的•腐败=稳定的•动摇(反面特征)
(反)fluctuate ◆ remain steady 波动 ◆ 保持稳定
fluctuation ◆ invariance 波动性 ◆ 不变性

fluent [] adj.流利的;流畅的
(类)fluent•glib=humorous•wry [meticulous•finicky/nitpick]
流利的•油腔滑调的=幽默的•讽刺性幽默的(褒贬)
【注:编者认为如果两组搭配同时出现优先选前者;因为无论是glib还是wry都是对对应词的一种歪
曲。流利走上歪路变成了圆滑,而幽默走上了歪路变成了讽刺。而后者仔细的和过分仔细的即使有褒
贬的含义这种褒贬关系也不是歪曲的感觉,而是一种正向的关系“过度”;有程度的意味在里面。你能
说过度仔细的达到了挑剔的程度;但你不能说过度流利的到了圆滑的程度;或者过度幽默的到了讽刺
的程度。】
(反)fluent ◆ halting 流利的 ◆ 犹豫的

fluke [] n.侥幸(unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune)
(反)fluke ◆ expected occurrence 侥幸 ◆ 预期发生

flush [] vi.脸红;冲洗(to be emptied or cleaned by a rapid flow of water, as a toilet.)
(类)galvanize•stimulate=irrigate•flush 刺激•刺激=冲洗(伤口)•冲洗(同义)

fluster [] v. 慌乱(confuse)
(反)flustered ◆ calm 慌乱的 ◆ 冷静的
(同)discompose, agitate, bother, disquiet, disturb, perturb

fluvial [] adj. 河流的
(类)fluvial•river=sidereal•star 河流的•河流=恒星的•恒星

foible [] n.小缺点
(类)foible•failing=squabble•dispute(tiff,quarrel) 小缺点•缺点=小争吵•争吵
foible•fault(flaw)=quibble•objection 小缺点•缺点=小反对•反对

foil [] v.挫败 n.金属薄片
(类)foil•metal=veneer•wood 金属薄片•金属=饰面薄板•木材
(反)foil ◆ implement 挫败 ◆ 生效帮助

foliage [] n.树叶;一簇叶子masses of leaves
(类)foliage•bush=plumage•bird 一簇叶子•树丛=羽毛束•鸟(事物及其所属物)

foment [] vt.引发;煽动(stir up; instigate)
(类)conducive•foment=tonic•invigorate 有助于的•煽动=滋补的•使健壮(因果)
foment•discontentment=disseminate•information 煽动不满=传播信息
(反)foment ◆ allay/defuse/impede/inhibit/placate/quash/quell/squelch/stifle/thwart
煽动 ◆ 缓和/阻碍/禁止/安抚/镇压/扼杀/阻挠
(同)incite, abet, instigate, provoke, raise,stir(up)

foolproof [] adj.连傻子都懂的;十分简单的
(类)foolproof•fail=airtight•leak
连傻子都懂的难以失败=密封的难以泄漏(难以关系)

footloose [] adj.自由自在的
(类)footloose•attachment=dauntless•trepidation/unversed•familiarity
自由自在的•附着=无所畏惧的•恐惧/不熟练的•熟悉(行为及其反面特征)
(反)footloose ◆ attached 无拘束的 ◆ 附着的
(记)foot+loose松开脚=自由的

forebear [] n.祖先
(反)forebears ◆ descendants 祖先 ◆ 后代

forbearance [] n.克制;忍耐;宽容
(反)forbearance ◆ impatience 克制 ◆ 无耐心

ford [] n.浅滩 v.涉水place where a river can be crossed on foot
(类)ford•river=pass•mountain
渡水过河=通过隘口过山(穿越关系【山•水二层对应】)
(记)联想:Ford 福特汽车

forestall [] vt.预先阻止;先发制人prevent by taking action in advance
(反)forestall ◆ abet/precipitate 预先阻止 ◆ 教唆/促成

foreword [] n.前言
(类)foreword•introductory=appellation•designate
前言•引导的=指派;命名•已受委派而尚未上任的(正面特征)

forgery [] n.伪造;伪造品
(类)forgery•documents=plagiarism•ideas 伪造文件=剽窃思想
forger•metal=miller•grain
锻造工•金属=磨坊工•谷物(职业及其工作对象【二层对应•碾磨】)

formidable [] adj.可怕的;艰难的(menacing; threatening)
(反)formidable ◆ comforting/enticing/genial/reassuring
可怕的 ◆ 安慰的/引诱的/和蔼可亲的/安慰的
formidable ◆ simple 艰难的 ◆ 简单的
(同)appalling,awful,dreadful, terrible, arduous, labored, strenuous

forthright [] adj.直率的;立即的(straightforward; direct; frank)
(类)forthright•guile=acrid•gentleness 直率的•欺骗=刻薄的•和蔼(反面特征)
(反)forthright ◆ furtive 直率的 ◆ 偷偷摸摸的

fortify [] vt.增强
(反)fortify ◆ enervate/vitiate 增强 ◆ 使衰弱/削弱
fortified ◆ debilitated 增强的 ◆ 削弱的

foster [] vt. 养育培养;鼓励(to promote the growth and development of)
(反)foster ◆ stifle 养育 ◆ 扼杀
foster ◆ thwart 鼓励 ◆ 阻挠【注:干扰选项retract 撤回】

founder [] vt. 完败(fail completely)沉没(sink) n.奠基者
(反)founder ◆ afloat/stay aloft 沉没 ◆ 漂浮/在高处
founder ◆ succeed 完败 ◆ 成功

fracas [] n.喧闹的吵架(brawl; melee)
(反)fracas ◆ peaceful discussion 喧闹的吵架 ◆ 平和的讨论

fracture [] n.破裂;骨折
(反)fracture ◆ cement 破裂 ◆ 像水泥结合巩固

fragile [] adj.易碎的;脆弱的;纤巧的
(类)fragile•break=porous•penetrate/flammable•burn
易碎的•破碎=多孔的•渗透/易燃的•燃烧(容易关系)

frail []adj.虚弱的;脆弱的;(意志)薄弱的
(类)spindly•frailty=limber•flexibility 细长的•脆弱=易弯曲的•柔韧性
(反)frailty ◆ hardness/stamina 脆弱 ◆ 坚硬/毅力精力

fraudulent [] adj.欺诈的cheating; deceitful
(类)authenticity•fraudulent=sincerity•hypocritical 真实•欺诈的=真诚•伪善的
hoax•fraudulent=paragon•excellent 骗局特点是欺骗的=模范特点是优秀的

freelancer [] n.自由作家
(类)freelancer•employer=nomad•domicile 自由作家没有老板=游牧民流浪者没有住所

frenzy [] n.疯狂 v.使发狂
(类)frenzy•emotion=convulsion•contraction 疯狂是反常感情=痉挛反常收缩
energetic•frenetic/frenzied =firm•obdurate/obstinate
精力充沛的•狂热的=坚定的•顽固的(褒贬)
frenzy•calm=abandon•prohibit/inhibit 使发狂•使平静=放任•禁止抑制
agitated•frenetic=literate•erudite 激动的•极度激动的=有文化的•博学的
(同)delirium, furor

frequent [] v. 时常出入出现,常往;adj.经常的
(类)frequency•pitch=wavelength•color频率决定音品=波长决定颜色
(反)frequent ◆ visit rarely 时常出入出现 ◆ 很少访问
frequency ◆ rarity 频繁 ◆ 稀罕

fresco [] n.壁画
(类)fresco•wall=parquetry•floor 壁画•墙=画在地板上的装饰画;镶木细工•地板

fret [] n.苦恼;侵蚀 v.使苦恼;侵蚀;烦恼
(类)fret•vexation=draconian•inclement 烦恼•烦恼=严峻的•严酷的(同义)
(同)worry, fuss, pother, annoy, chafe, gall, irk, provoke, ruffle, vex

friable [] adj.易碎的;脆的
(类)friable•crumble=malleable•alter=lucid•comprehend
易碎的•弄碎=易变的•改变=清晰的•理解(容易关系)
impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不能透过的;坚固的•易碎的=不可燃的•易燃的(反义)
(反)friable ◆ unable to crumb/resistance to be pulverized/substantial
易碎的 ◆ 难以压碎的/难以粉碎/坚固的

friction [] n.摩擦;不和
(类)abraded•friction=desiccated•dehydration=vaporized•heat
摩擦的•摩擦=脱水的•脱水=蒸发的•加热(同义)

frieze [] n.在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的横条饰带
(类)frieze•building=illumination•manuscript
饰带•建筑物=文中装饰性图画•手稿(事物及其装饰对象)
frieze•ornament=pillar•support 饰带•装饰=柱子•支撑(事物及其功能)

frigid [] adj.酷寒的(intensely cold)
(类)frigid•cool=soaking•damp 严寒的•凉的=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
(反)sweltering ◆ frigid 炎热的 ◆ 寒冷的

fringe [] n.边缘(a marginal, peripheral, or secondary part)
(反)fringe ◆ center 边缘 ◆ 中心
(记)观察fringe中间的ring (环,包围)联想:由边缘开始包围。

frivolous [] adj.轻浮的,琐屑的(lacking in seriousness;relatively unimportant)
(类)frivolous•gravity=brash•discretion 轻佻的•严肃=仓促的•慎重(反面特征)
(反)frivolous ◆ sober 轻佻的 ◆ 冷静严肃的
frivolousness ◆ grandeur/temperance 轻薄 ◆ 壮丽/节制
(同)giddy, flighty

frond [] n.蕨类叶子;庞大的叶子(fern leaf; palm or banana leaf)
(类)frond•fern=needle•pine蕨类叶子•蕨类植物=针叶•松树
frond•leaf=boulder•rock 庞大的叶子•叶子=巨砾•石头(大对正常)

frothy [] adj. 泡沫的;浅薄的(playfully frivolous in character or content)
(反)frothy ◆ weighty 浅薄的 ◆ 重的
(例)A glass of beer with a lot of froth on it. 有许多泡沫的一杯啤酒。

frowsy/frowzy [] adj.肮脏的;难闻的(sordid)
(反)frowsy ◆ dapper 肮脏的 ◆ 整洁的

frugal [] adj.节约的(practicing by economy, as in the expenditure of money)
(类)frugal•miserly=confident•arrogant 节约的•守财奴的=自信的•傲慢无礼的(褒贬)
frugal•parsimonious=attentive•obsequious
节约的•极度节俭的=殷勤的•过分殷勤的(褒贬)
frugality•parsimony=pride•hubris节约•极度节俭=骄傲•极度傲慢(褒贬)
frugal•penurious=deference•sycophant=firm•obdurate=compliant•obsequious
节约的•吝啬的=敬重•奉承的=坚定的•顽固的=顺从的•巴结的(褒贬)
(反)frugal ◆ prodigal/sumptuous 节俭的 ◆ 浪费的/奢侈的
frugality ◆ extravagancy 节俭 ◆ 奢侈

frustrate [] adj. 失败的 v.挫败;使泄气灰心(to cause feelings of discouragement in)
(反)frustrate ◆ abet 使泄气灰心 ◆ 教唆

full-bodied [] adj.躯体大的;味道浓烈的
(类)full-bodied•flavor=resonant•sound 味道浓烈的•味道=洪亮的•声音

fulminate [] v. 大声斥责(to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation)
(类)fulminate•criticize=adulate•flatter 大声斥责•批评=奉承•谄媚(程度)
(反)fulmination ◆ praise 大声斥责 ◆ 赞美

fumble [] n.v.摸索;乱摸(to grope awkwardly to find or to accomplish something)
(反)fumble ◆ handle adroitly 摸索 ◆ 灵巧地处理
(同)grope, grabble
(记)谐音:翻宝—>搜索

fungi [] n.真菌类;蘑菇[pl.]
(类)fungi•ecologist=motivation•psychologist 真菌•生态学者=动机•心理学家

furnace [] n.火炉
(类)furnace•heat=generator•electricity 火炉产生热=发电机产生电

furor [] n.喧闹;狂怒;狂热(a general commotion; public disorder or uproar)
(反)furor ◆ serenity 喧闹 ◆ 平静

furtive [] adj.偷偷摸摸的;秘密的(stealthy; sneaky)
(类)furtive•open=flamboyant•reserved 秘密的•公开的=浮夸的•保留的(反义)
stealth•furtive=caprice•whimsical
秘密行动特点是偷偷摸摸=反复无常特点是多怪念头的
(反)furtive ◆ above board/brassy/candid/forthright/open/sublime/shamelessly bold
偷偷摸摸的 ◆ 光明正大的/厚颜无耻的/坦率的/庄严的

fury [] n.暴怒;狂怒;狂暴
(类)fury•anger=effervescence•feeling 狂怒•恼火=兴奋欢腾•情绪佳(程度)

fussy [] adj. 过分注重细节的;挑剔的(requiring great attention to sometimes trivial details)
(类)fussy•careful=garrulous•talkative
过分注重细节的•仔细的=啰嗦的•健谈的(过分与正常)
tend•fuss=assert•belabor注意•过分注重细节=断言•唠叨地讲(正常与过分)
【注】fuss :to be excessively careful or solicitous

fusty [] adj. 发霉味的(smelling of mildew or decay;musty);守旧的(antique)
(反)fusty ◆ fresh发霉味的 ◆ 新鲜的
(记)fust 原义木头,啤酒桶 联想:啤酒桶是发霉味的 参考:fustian 棉布,夸大的话

futile [] adj.白费力气的;无益的;无用的(ineffective; fruitless)
(类)bootless•futile=interesting•intriguing 无用的•无用的=有趣的•有趣的(同义)
bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence=void•empty
无益的•无益=光辉灿烂的•灿烂=空洞的•空的(形名同义)
(反)futile ◆ efficacious 无用的 ◆ 有效的
futility ◆ effectiveness 无用 ◆ 效力
(同)abortive, bootless, fruitless, ineffective, vain

gadfly [] n.牛虻;讨厌的人(any of various flies)
(类)gadfly•goad=humorist•amuse 刺激物,牛虻•刺激=幽默者•逗乐(正面特征)
(记)gad尖头棒+ fly苍蝇 带刺的苍蝇→牛虻

gadget [] n.小玩意(a contrivance)
(类)gadgets•tools=trinkets•jewelry 小玩意•工具=小装饰物•珠宝(小对正常)
(记)gad 尖头棒+get 表示小的后缀→小玩意

gaffe [] n.社交上失言;失态(a social or diplomatic blunder)
(类)gaffe•decorum=miscalculation•judgment 失礼•礼仪=错误的计算•判断(错误对正常)
gaffe•judgment=illusion•perception 失礼•判断=错觉•感知(错误对正常)
gaffe•tactless=exploit•heroic 失态•不圆通的=开拓•英雄的(正面特征)
gaffe•social=malapropism•verbal 失态是社交上的失误=用词错误是言辞上的失误

gainsay [] v.否认(deny)
(反)gainsay ◆ affirm/concur/speak in support of 否认 ◆ 证实/同意/支持

gait [] n.步态;步法(manner of walking or running)
(类)gait•walk=parlance•speak=mnemonic•remember
法•走=语法•说=记忆法•记忆(行为及其规范)

galaxy [] n.银河;星系(the Milky Way)
(类)galaxy•star=archipelago•island 星系•恒星=群岛•岛屿(组成关系)

gall [] n.v.(使)烦恼;(使)焦躁;难堪(annoy; chafe)
(反)gall ◆ appease/ assuage/ calm/lull/ placate 使焦躁 ◆ 使平静,抚慰

gallant [] adj.华丽的;英勇的
(反)gallant ◆ craven 英勇的 ◆ 胆小的
(同)gracious, brave, dauntless,heroic, lionhearted, stouthearted
(记)gall(胆汁)*英勇的

galley [] n.船上厨房
(类)galley•ship=kitchen•house 船上厨房•船=家中厨房•家

galvanize [] v.电镀;激励(to arouse to awareness or action; spur)
(类)galvanize•stimulate=irrigate•flush 刺激•刺激=冲洗(伤口)•冲洗(同义)
(反)galvanize ◆ allay/ lull 激励 ◆ 减轻/使平静
【注】irrigate :to wash out (a body cavity or wound) with water or a medicated fluid

list 15 gamble -------half-baked
gamble [] v.赌博;孤注一掷(to engage in reckless or hazardous behavior)
(类)cautious•gamble=adamant•yield 谨慎的不孤注一掷冒险=坚强的不屈服

gambol [] n.vi.欢跳;雀跃(to leap about playfully; frolic)
(反)gambol ◆ plod 欢跳雀跃 ◆ 沉重缓慢地走
(记)gamble(赌博) 获胜后gambol(雀跃)庆祝

gangly [] adj.身材瘦长的(gangling.)
(反)gangly ◆ stalwart  身材瘦长的 ◆ 强壮的
(记)谐音:杠铃。联想:身材跟杠铃似的—>瘦长。

gangway [] n.过道;通路;跳板
(类)gangway•ship=drawbridge•castle 跳板是上船之路=吊桥是进城堡之路
(记)gang(ly)瘦长的+way路=跳板

garble [] v.曲解;篡改;混淆(mix up; jumble; distort)
(类)garbled•clarity=ramshackle•soundness 曲解的不清楚=摇摇欲坠的不稳固
garbled•comprehend=obscured•recognize 篡改的难以理解=晦涩的难以认出
garble•unintelligible=correct•accurate 篡改使其不可理解的=校正使其准确的
(反)garble ◆ elucidate/report accurately 曲解 ◆ 阐明/精确地报告

gargantuan [] adj.巨大的(huge; enormous)
(类)gargantuan•large=excruciating•painful 巨大的•大的=极痛苦的•痛苦的
(反)gargantuan ◆ minuscule 巨大的 ◆ 微小的

garish [] adj.俗丽的;过分装饰的(gaudy)
(类)garish•colorful=fawn•attentive=prying•inquisitive
过分装饰的•色彩艳丽的=阿谀奉承的•殷勤的=窥探的•好问的(褒贬程度)

garment [] n.衣服;外观
(类)hem•garment=molding•cabinet=ruffle•shirt
衣服褶边•衣服=装饰嵌线壁带•橱柜=织物褶边•衬衫(前者特定装饰后者)
raincoat(lint)•garment=tarpaulin•covering
雨衣(皮棉)•衣服=防水油布•覆盖物(种属)

garrulous [] adj.唠叨的;啰嗦的(tiresomely talkative)
(类)garrulous•talkative=cloying•sweet=fussy•careful
啰嗦的•健谈的=过分甜腻的•甜的=过分注重细节的•仔细的(褒贬程度)
garrulous•words=prodigal•money唠叨的多废话=浪费钱的浪费钱
(反)garrulity ◆ taciturnity 饶舌多话 ◆ 沉默寡言
(同)babblative, chatty, gabby, loquacious

gash [] n.砍得很深的伤口;很深的裂缝(a long, deep cut)
(类)cut•gash=cleft•chasm 伤口•很深的伤口=裂缝•很深的裂缝(程度)

gasification [] n.气化
(反)gasification/vaporization ◆ solidification 气化/汽化 ◆ 固化

gauche [] adj.笨拙的;粗鲁无礼的;缺乏社交经验的(lacking social polish; tactless)
(类)gaucherie•skill=cacophony•voice笨拙•技术=不和谐音•语音
(反)gaucheness ◆ polish 缺乏社交经验 ◆ 有修养

gaudy [] adj.俗丽的(ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented)
(类)gaudy•apparel=grandiloquent•speak 华丽而俗气的•衣服=大言不惭的•言语

gauge [] n.度量规格;测量器具 vt.度量;估计
(类)gauge•pressure=measure•dimensions/plumb•depth=scale•weight
计压器•压力=度量器•尺寸/铅锤•深度=天平•重量(工具及其测量对象)
gauge•pressure=calibrate•diameter度量压力=校准直径
(记)谐音:稿纸。联想:稿纸都有格子—>规格

gear [] n.齿轮;工具
(类)gear•tooth=screw•thread 齿轮•齿牙=螺钉•螺线(组成关系且特定对应部分)

genial [] adj.和蔼的;亲切的(having a pleasant or friendly disposition or manner)
(类)genial•bonhomie=diplomatic•tact 亲切的•温和=有外交策略的•机智(名形同义)
philanthropic•geniality=resourceful•inventiveness
博爱慈爱的•亲切=足智多谋的•发明(正面特征)
(反)genial ◆ caustic/dour/dyspeptic/mordant/truculent
和蔼的 ◆ 刻薄的/严厉的/阴郁的/尖酸的/好战凶猛的

genteel [] adj.上流社会有教养的;文雅的;时髦的(well-bred; elegant)
(类)genteel•vulgarity=intrepid•fear 有教养的•庸俗=勇敢的•害怕(反面特征)
truculent•gentleness=unregenerate•remorse 凶猛的•文雅=不改悔的•痛悔
(反)genteel ◆ churlish/loutish 有教养的 ◆ 粗暴的/蠢笨的
(记)来自gentle 文雅的 参考gentleman绅士

germane [] adj. 有密切关系的(being at once relevant and appropriate:fitting)
(类)germane ◆ irrelevant/inappropriate 有密切关系的 ◆ 无关的/不适当的
(记)germ(幼芽)参考:germinate发展,发芽germinal幼芽的,独创性的
(例)omit details that are not germane to the discussion 忽略与讨论无关的细节

gerrymander vt. 不公正划分选区(to divide an area into political units to give special advantages to
one group)
(类)gerrymander•district=rig•contest不公正划分选区•地区=用欺骗手段操纵•竞争(动宾)
【注:rig• to manipulate or control usually by deceptive or dishonest means】

geyser [] n. 间歇泉;(英)(洗澡用)燃气热水器
(类)geyser•water= volcano•lava 间歇泉喷发出水=火山喷发出熔岩

gibe [] v. 嘲笑,奚落(to deride or tease with taunting words)
(类)gibe•derision=apologize•regret=condolence•(sympathy/compassion)
奚落•嘲笑=道歉•遗憾 =哀悼•同情(前者程度较重)
(记)和jibe等同,谐音:讥鄙;联想因为鄙视而讥讽。
(同)scoff, fleer, flout, jeer, jest, sneer

giddy [] adj. 轻率的(lightheartedly silly:frivolous)
(反)giddy ◆ serious 轻率的 ◆ 严肃的
giddiness ◆ grave 轻率 ◆ 严肃
(记)god-神圣,而gid(dy)-轻率
(同)dizzy, fribble, frivolous, skittish

girder n. 大梁(a horizontal main structural member that supports vertical loads)
(类)girder•support=ballast•stability大梁•支撑=压舱物•稳定
(记)谐音•歌德 联想:歌德是德国文学的大梁。

gist [] n.要点, 要旨(the main point or part ;essence)
(类)gist ◆ tangential point 要点 ◆ 无关紧要的点
(记)谐音”记住他”;联想:对于要点,一定要记住他

glacier [] n.冰川(a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope)
(类)glacier•ice=sea•water冰川•冰=海洋•水(组成关系)
glacial•cold=profound•deep冰冷的•寒冷的=深刻的•深(程度)
(记)与glaze (釉)一起记 联想:釉和冰的共同特点都是光滑的。

glade [] n.林间空地(an open space surrounded by woods)
(类)glade•wood=oasis•desert(干扰:archipelago•ocean群岛•海)
林间空地•树林=绿洲•沙漠(强调一种大片中一点空的感觉)
(记)与gladiator一起记 联想:古代角斗士一般在林中空地中决斗。

gladiator [] n.角斗士
(类)gladiator•arena=lawyer•courtroom 角斗士•竟技场=律师•法庭

glaze [] n.釉v.使表面光滑(a smooth slippery coating of thin ice)
(类)glaze•porcelain=varnish•wood=veneer•furniture
釉•瓷器=清漆•木头=饰面•家具(事物及其表面装饰物)
(反)glaze ◆ rumple 使表面光滑 ◆ 弄皱
(记)与glade一起记glaze a glade

glib [] adj. 流利圆滑的,善辩的(marked by fluency in speaking or writing)
(类)fluent•glib=humorous•wry 流利的•油腔滑调的=幽默的•讽刺性的幽默(褒贬程度)
glib•profundity = maladroit•skill 口齿伶俐的•深刻=不灵巧的•技巧(缺乏关系)
(反)labored不自然的taciturn沉默寡言的 awkward笨拙的
(记)a glib tongue三寸不烂之舌

glisten [] v. 闪光 (to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection)
(类)dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 暗黑的不反光=滑溜的不粘附(反面特征)
(同)flash, gleam, glimmer, glint, glitter

glitch [] n. 小故障(a usually minor malfunction)
(类)glitch•flaw=peccadillo•error 小故障•错误=小错误•错误(小和正常)
(记)g+litch(=litchi 荔枝)联想:割荔枝出现了小故障。

gloat [] vi. 满足的看(有幸灾乐祸的味道)
(类)gloat•smug = primp•vain 满足的看•自以为是的=打扮•虚荣的(目的)
(记)与float一起记

gloomy [] adj. 阴沉的,昏暗的;忧郁的(low in spirits•melancholy)
(类)saturnine•gloomy=despondent•depressed=masterful•skilled
忧郁的•忧郁的=沮丧的•沮丧的=熟练的•熟练的 (同义)
(反)gloomy ◆ forthy 忧郁的 ◆ 性格开朗的
(同)sullen, dour, glum, morose, saturnine

gloss [] n. 简短解释(a brief explanation of a difficult;annotate)
(类)blurb•notice=gloss•explanation=cameo•appearance
简短公告•公告=简短解释•解释=简短表演•表演(前者是后者的简化版)
(记)与下面两词glossary,glossy一起记忆

glossary [] n.术语表(a collection of textual glosses)
(类)glossary•text=legend•map
术语表•正文=地图上的说明文字•地图(前者说明补充后者)

glossy [] adj. 平滑的,有光泽的(having a surface luster or brightness)
(类)varnish•glossy=sand•smooth上漆•光滑的=砂磨•平滑的(前者造成后者)

glut [] n. 大量,充斥,吃饱(an excessive quantity•oversupply)
(类)glut ◆ dearth 充斥 ◆ 缺乏
(记)与贪吃者glutton一起记忆
(同)satiate, gorge, sate, stodge, surfeit

glutinous [] adj. 粘的,胶状的(having the quality of glue•gummy)
(类)glue•adhesive = etch•corrosiv胶•粘的=蚀刻•腐蚀的(事物典型特征)
(反)glutinous ◆ non viscous 粘的 ◆ 不粘的
(记)源自glue(胶水)

glutton [] n. 贪吃者(one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating)
(类)gluttony•food = avarice•money贪食•食物=贪财•钱(后者是前者对象)
glutton•overindulge=ascetic•self denial贪吃者•放纵=禁欲者•克制
(反)gluttonous ◆ abstentious 贪吃的 ◆ 节制的
(记)glut(充斥)+ton(吨)能吃一吨的自然是贪吃者

goad [] vt. 驱使,唆使(to incite or rouse as if with a goad)
(类)goad•enticement=command•entreaty 驱使•诱使=命令•恳求 (主被动关系)
gadfly•goad=humorist•amuse 刺激物,牛虻•刺激=幽默者•逗乐(正面特征)
【注】gadfly :one that acts as a provocative stimulus; a goad.
(反)goad ◆ check/curb/ lull 唆使 ◆ 阻止/阻止/使安静
(记)原义赶牲口的棒子;引申刺激;与goal一起记忆,goad sb. to achieve a goal

gobble [] vt. 狼吞虎咽(to swallow or eat greedily)
(类)gobble•nibble = quaff/swill•sip 狼吞虎咽•细咬=痛饮•小嘬(过度与正常)
gobble•eat=guzzle•drink 狼吞虎咽•吃=狂饮•喝(过度与正常)
(记)谐音“管饱”;联想:不用狼吞虎咽,这里管你吃饱。
(同)gulp, bolt, cram, englut, guzzle, ingurgitate

goggle [] n. 护目镜
(类)goggles•eyes=earmuff•ears 护目镜•眼睛=御寒耳罩•耳朵

goldbrick [] vi. 逃避工作和责任(to shirk duty or responsibility)
(类)goldbrick•work = evade•answer 逃避•工作=逃避•回答(前者逃避后者)
(记)gold + brick原意是假金砖

gorge [] n. 峡谷vi. 狼吞虎咽(to eat greedily or to repletion)
(类)abstemious•gorge = reticent•talk 节制的•暴食=沉默•说话(反义)
river•gorge=wind•dune 河流冲刷形成峡谷=风刮形成沙丘(皆为V字形)
(同)satiate, cloy, glut, stodge, surfeit

gossamer [] n. 无实体东西(sth. light or insubstantial) adj. 轻而薄的(extremely light)
(反)substance实体 ponderous沉重的
(同)filmy, flimsy, gauzy, sheer, transparent

gourmand [] n. 嗜食者(one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking)
(类)gourmand•appetite=skinflint•thrift嗜食者食欲过好=吝啬鬼节俭过度
(记)和gourmet(美食家)区分:一个是贪吃;另一个是在食物中寻求美感

gourmet [] n. 美食家(a connoisseur of food and drink; connoisseur)
(类)gourmet•food =cineast•film=bibliophile•books
美食家•食物=电影迷•电影=爱书者•书(前者爱后者之美感)
【注:bibliophile •a lover of books especially for qualities of format】
(类)gourmet•cuisine = connoisseur•art 美食家•烹调=鉴赏家•艺术作品
gourmet•eat=bookworm•read 书呆子:读=美食家:吃(人物及其爱好)
gourmet•food=aesthete•art 美食家•食物=美学家•艺术(前者鉴赏后者)

grandeur [] n. 庄严,伟大(the quality or state of being grand)
(反)grandeur ◆ frivolous 庄严 ◆ 轻佻的
(记)源于grand(大)

grandiloquent [] adj(语言等)夸张的
(类)grandiloquent•speak = gaudy•apparel 夸张的•说话=俗丽的•服装
(反)grandiloquent ◆ secretive 夸张的 ◆ 秘密的
(记)grandi(大)+loquent(多嘴的)
(同)bombastic, declamatory, euphuistic, magniloquent

grandiose [] adj. 宏伟的,印象深的(imposing;impressive)
(类)grandiose•humility = ephemeral•longevity宏大的•谦卑=短命的•长寿
(反)grandiose ◆ trivial 宏伟的 ◆ 微不足道的
(同)grand, magnificent, majestic

grandstand [ ] v. 哗众取宠的表演(to play or act so as to impress onlookers)
(类)grandstand•impress=equivocate•deceive= proselytize•convert
哗众取宠的表演•打动=支支吾吾的说•欺骗=劝诱改宗的人•皈依(目的)
(记)grandstand本意大看台,主观众席。引申为取悦观众的表演

grate [] v.碾磨;发出刺耳声音;使烦恼(irritate,fret)
(类)grating•sound=acrid•odor=fetid•smell
刺耳的•声音=辛辣的•味道=恶臭的•气味(前者修饰后者)
(反)grate ◆ soothe 使烦恼 ◆ 使平静
(同)irritate, aggravate, gall, nettle, peeve, rile
(记)注意这个词中间的rat;联想:老鼠磨牙发出刺耳声音让人烦恼。

gratify [] vt. 使满足(give pleasure or satisfaction to;please)
(类)gratify•desire=slake•thirsty使满足•欲望=解渴•渴(前者满足后者)
(反)aggrieve使痛苦irk使厌烦displease使不快

gratuitous [] adj. 无根据的(unwarranted);免费的(given freely)
(反)gratuitous ◆ merited/ warranted 无根据的 ◆ 应得的/有正当理由的
gratuitous ◆ justified 无根据的 ◆ 证明…是正当的
(记)源于gratuity(赏钱,小费)联想:小费给多少是没有根据的,当然也是可以免的。
(同)free, chargeless, complimentary, costless, gratis(以上词义都是“免费的”)

gravel [l] n. 鹅卵石;卵石堆(a stratum or deposit of gravel)
(类)gravel•pebble=crowd•person 卵石堆•小鹅卵石=人群•人(组成关系)

green [] adj. 无经验的(deficient in training, knowledge, or experience)
(类)experience•green = pelf•impecunious 经验•无经验的=钱财•贫穷的
inexperience•green=pertinacity•refractory 无经验•无经验的=顽固•难控制的(同义)
(记)绿色象征青年,朝气,无经验 参考•greenhorn(初学者,容易受骗的人)
(同)inexperienced, callow, fresh, raw, young

gregarious [] adj. 合群的,爱社交的(sociable)
(类)recluse•gregariousness=poseur•sincerity 遁世者•爱社交=装模作样的人•真诚
(反)gregarious ◆ aloof 爱社交的=疏远的
(记)greg(群)参考•egregious超出平常的,过分的,惊人的

grieve [] adj.使痛苦(to cause to suffer)
(类)grieve•sorrow=smart•pain (使)痛苦•悲伤=刺痛•痛(前者造成后者)
solace•grief=pacification•anger安慰•悲伤=安抚•愤怒(前消除后)
(反)grievous ◆ slight 严重的 ◆ 轻微的
grievous ◆ joyous 令人痛苦的 ◆ 高兴的
【注:grievous三层意思:onerous(难以忍受的) afflictive(痛苦的)dire(可怕的)】
(记)注意与grievance(委屈,冤情)区别

grimace [] n. 面部扭曲,痛苦表情,鬼脸
(类)grimace•face=contortion•body 面部扭曲•脸部=扭弯•身体
chagrin•mind=grimace•face 懊恼是情绪异常=面部扭曲是脸部异常
grimace•pain=flinch•fear 痛苦的表情因为疼痛=畏缩因为害怕
(记)grim(严酷的,可怕的)+(f)ace可怕的脸

grin [] vi.咧着嘴笑(to draw back the lips to show the teeth in amusement)
(反)grin ◆ pout 咧着嘴笑 ◆ 噘嘴生气

gripe [] v. 抱怨,诉苦(to complain with grumbling)
(类)gripe•discontent=praise•admiration 抱怨因为不满=表扬因为喜爱
(同)fuss, squawk, yammer, yawp
(例)students griping about the cafeteria food学生抱怨食堂的饭

grisly [] adj. 恐怖的(inspiring horror or intense fear)
(类)grisly•flinch=droll•laugh恐怖的•畏缩=滑稽的•笑(前者造成后者)
(例)Houses were dark and grisly under the blank, cold sky.
在空寂寒冷的天空下,房屋显得模糊而恐怖。

groove [] n. 槽(a long narrow channel or depression)
(类)grooved•striation =braided•strand 有槽的•条纹=编织的•绳索(后者特征是前者)
striated•groove=dappled•spot 有条纹的•槽=有斑点的• 斑点(同义)
【注:striation•a minute groove especially when one of a parallel series】
(记)注意和grove(树丛)区分

grotesque [] adj. 奇异的(fanciful, bizarre)
(类)grotesque•fantasy = imperial•significance 奇异的•幻想=帝王的•重要
(记)源于grotto(岩洞)+pieturesque(图画的)岩洞里奇异的画
(同)fantastic, antic, bizarre

grotto [] n.小洞穴, 岩穴, 人工洞室(a small cave or cavern)
(类)grotto•cavern=arroyo•channel小洞穴:巨洞=小河:海峡 (小与大)

grove [] n.小树林(a planting of fruit or nut trees)
(类)grove•trees=archipelago•islands小树林•树木=群岛•岛屿 (组成关系)

grovel [] vi.卑躬屈膝(crawl or creep on ground; remain prostrate)
(类)groveler•petitioner=minion•dependent卑躬屈膝•请愿者=奴才•依赖者
imperious•grovel傲慢的•卑躬屈膝 (行为反面特征)
(记)区分gravel(沙砾),grove(小树林),groove(槽)
(同)fawn, cower, cringe, kowtow, toady, truckle

grueling adj.筋疲力尽的(trying to the point of exhaustion)
(反)grueling ◆ effortless 筋疲力尽的 ◆ 不费力气的
(记)联想cruel(残酷的)比赛很残酷,让人筋疲力尽。

guarantee [] vt. 保证,担保(undertake to do or secure)
(反)vouch ◆ refuse to guarantee 担保 ◆ 拒绝担保

guile [] n. 狡猾,狡诈(deceitful cunning•Duplicity)
(类)guile•artless = blemish•impeccable 狡猾•朴实的=弄脏•无瑕的(反义)
guile•naif=tardy•prompt 狡猾•天真的=迟缓的•迅速 (反义)
forthright•guile=acrid•gentleness 直率的•狡猾=刻薄的•柔和(反义)
ingenuous•guile = impeccable•flaw 直率的•狡诈=无瑕的•错误(反义)
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的•欺骗=奴性的•统治(容易)
(反)artless ◆ cunning/guile 朴实的=狡猾的
manipulate ◆ guileless 假造 ◆ 不狡诈的
(同)deceit, cunning, dissemblance, duplicity

guilt [] n. 罪行;内疚,自责(feelings of culpability)
(类)guilt•blame = narcissism•love 自责•谴责=自恋•爱(种属)
guilt•expiation=fatigue•repose 罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息(消除关系)
(反)innocence ◆ guilt 清白的 ◆ 有罪的
(同)blame, culpability, fault, onus

gullible [] adj.轻信的(easily duped or cheated)
(类)gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 轻信的人容易被欺骗=奴性的人容易被统治
trusting•gullible=compliant•servile 信任的•轻信的=顺从的•奴性的(过分前者是后者)
vigilant•entrapped=wary•gulled 警惕的不易被骗入圈套=机警的不易利用
【注:gull:to take advantage of (one who is foolish or unwary) • DECEIVE 利用,欺骗】
(同)easy, fleeceable, naive, susceptible

gully [] n.小峡谷(a small valley or gulch)
(类)gully•erosion=callus•friction 小峡谷•腐蚀=老茧•磨擦(后者形成前者)

gum [] n. 树胶;口香糖
(类)gum•rubber plant=resin•tree 树胶•橡胶树=树脂•树(前者由后者生成)

gush [] n. 涌出, 感情外溢(make an excessive display of feeling)
(类)gush•effusive=rage•irate 感情外溢•热情洋溢的=大怒•发怒的(同义)
gush•trickle=blast•whiff 涌出•滴流=爆炸•轻轻地吹(程度)

gust [] n. 一阵狂风(a sudden brief rush of wind)
(类)gust•wind=cloudburst•rainfall 一阵狂风•风=倾盆大雨•降雨(程度)

guzzle [] v. 狂饮(to drink especially liquor greedily)
(类)drink•guzzle = complain•carp 喝酒•狂饮=抱怨•吹毛求疵(程度)
(记)和gobble(狼吞虎咽)一起记
(同)drink, booze, imbibe, swig, swill, swizzle

habitable [] adj. 可居住的(suitable for habitation)
(类)habitable•dwelling = potable•beverage 住处是可居住的=饮料是可食用的
(记)habit(住) 参考:habitant居民 habitat 产地,栖息地
(同)livable, inhabitable, lodgeable, tenantable

hack [] n. 出租用老马(a jade),雇佣文人v.切割(to cut or sever with repeated irregular blows)
(类)hack•carve=gouge•engrave 砍•切开=用圆凿子削除•雕刻 (后者由前者进行)
hack•writer = mercenary•soldier 雇佣文人•作家=雇佣兵•士兵(种属)
(记)hack=黑客 联想:黑客是一群“害群之马”→出租用老马(记词需要,对不起黑客兄弟了)
(同)drudge, grub, hireling, mercenary

hackneyed [] adj.平凡的;陈腐的(lacking in freshness or originality)
(类)bromide•hackneyed = equivocation•misleading平凡的人平凡=模棱两可的话使人误解
hackneyed•original = windy•concise 陈腐的•有创意的=吹牛的•简洁的(反义)
(反)hackneyed ◆ fresh 不新奇的 ◆ 新鲜的
hackneyed ◆ offbeat 不新奇的 ◆ 离奇的
hackneyed ◆ original 陈腐的 ◆ 创新的
unhackneyed person ◆ bromide 有创造性的人 ◆ 平庸的人
unhackneyed ◆ trite 有创造性的 ◆ 不陈腐的
(记)来源于hack(老马)
(同)trite, bathetic, cliche, stale, timeworn

halcyon [] adj. 宁静的(calm);繁荣的,丰富的(prosperous;affluent)
(反)halcyon ◆ tempestuous 宁静的 ◆ 暴乱的
halcyon ◆ stormy 宁静的 ◆ 风暴的
halcyon ◆ miserable 丰富的 ◆ 少的可怜的(wretchedly inadequate)
(记)来源于古代神话,(相传冬至时能使海平面平静的)翠鸟

hale [] adj. 强壮的,健壮的(free from defect;sound)
(反)effete衰弱的 labyrinth虚弱的blighted枯萎的anemic贫血的wan病态的
decrepid 衰老的 infirm弱的
(记)比较inhale吸气 exhale呼气 联想:经常深呼吸有利健康
(同)fit, sane, sound, wholesome

half-baked adj.考虑不成熟的(lacking adequate planning or forethought;lacking in judgment,
intelligence, or common sense)
(反)half-baked ◆ well thought of 考虑不成熟的 ◆ 详细计划的
list 16 hallmark --------hypnotic
hallmark [] n. 典型的特征,特点(a distinguishing trait, or feature)
(反)hallmark ◆ uncharacteristic feature 典型的特征 ◆ 不典型的特征
(例)the dramatic flourishes which are the hallmark of the trial lawyer

hallow [] vt. 视为神圣(to make holy or set apart for holy use)
(反)hallow ◆ desecrate 视为神圣 ◆ 亵渎
(记)和hollow(空的)区分
(同)bless, consecrate, sanctify

hallucination [] n. 幻觉,幻想
(类)delusion•thinking=hallucination•perception 错觉•思考=幻觉•感觉(行为特殊方式)
(同) delusion, illusion, mirage, phantasm

halting [] adj. 蹒跚的,犹豫的(marked by a lack of effectiveness)
(类)stammer•halting=drone•monotonous结巴的说•犹豫=单调而低沉地说•单调的
(反)halting ◆ fluent 犹豫的 ◆ 流畅的
(记)源于halt(停止,踌伫)
(同)lumbering, maladroit

ham-handed adj. 笨手笨脚的(lacking dexterity or grace)
(反)ham-handed ◆ deft/adroit 笨手笨脚的 ◆ 敏捷熟练的/灵巧的
(记)ham(火腿,腿)+hand(手)
(同)awdward,clumsy, gauche, inept, maladroit

hammer n. 铁锤, 槌
(类)hammer•anvil=pestle•mortar 槌•砧=杵•臼(事物之间相互关系)
hammer•carpenter=knife•butcher 槌•木匠=刀•屠户(人物及其工具)

hamper [] vt.阻碍n.有盖的大篮子
(类)laundry•hamper=mail•mailbox 要洗的衣服放在篮子里=信放在信箱里
(反)hamper ◆ facilitate 阻碍 ◆ 促进
seminal ◆ hampering further development 发展的 ◆ 阻碍发展的
(同)clog, curb, fetter, shackle, tie, trammel
(例)the long dress hampered her escape

hamstring [] vt. 使残废,使无效(to make ineffective ;cripple)
(类)hamstring•effectiveness=enervate•vitality使无效•效率=削弱•活力(行为及其对象)
(记)ham(火腿,腿)+string(细绳,筋);原意是切断腿筋使成跛腿

hangdog [] adj. 忧愁的,悲哀的,沮丧的;低贱的(sad, dejected)
(反)buoyant 心情愉快的 elated兴高采烈的 sprightly轻快的
(记)原义是像狗一样被吊死的人

hankering [] n. 渴望(to have a strong or persistent desire)
(反)hankering ◆ odium/ lack of desire 渴望 ◆ 讨厌/不寄希望

haphazard [] adj. 偶然的(marked by lack of plan, order, or direction)
(反)haphazard ◆ methodical/ systematic 偶然的 ◆ 系统的
(同)random, desultory, irregular, unconsidered, unplanned
(记)hap(运气)+ hazard(冒险)联想:运气和冒险都靠偶然 参考:hapless不幸的

harangue [] v. 长篇大论(to address in a ranting way)
(反)harangue ◆ speak temperately 长篇大论 ◆ 有节制地说话
(同)orate, bloviate, perorate

harass [] v.烦扰(to annoy persistently)
(类)harass•irritating=haunt•familiar 使烦恼•使愤怒的=常到•熟悉的(同义)
(记)har + ass(驴子)
(同)raid, foray, harry, maraud

harbinger [] n. 先驱,预兆(one that presages or foreshadows what is to come)
(类)harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify先驱用来预言=原型用来做例证
(同)announce , foreshow, herald, preindicate, presage

harbor [  ]n. 港,避难所v. 包庇,隐匿(to give shelter or refuge to)
(反)harbor ◆ evict 隐匿 ◆ 赶出
(同)chamber, haven, house, roof, shelter, shield

hard-bitten [] adj. 顽强的,坚韧不拔的,不屈的(seasoned or steeled)
(反)hard-bitten ◆ tender 顽强的 ◆ 软弱的
(记)硬咬紧(bitten)牙关

hardy adj. 勇敢的,鲁莽的;强健的(capable of withstanding adverse conditions)
(反)hardy ◆ tender 强健的 ◆ 柔弱的

harmonious [] adj. 和睦的,和谐的(marked by accord in sentiment or action )
(类)harmony•congruity = clandestine•secrecy秘密的•秘密=协调•一致(同义)
harmonious ◆ acrimonious 和睦的 ◆ 严厉的
harmony ◆ discord 协调 ◆ 不调和
(记)源于harmonize;harmon谐音“和睦”是GRE最好记的一个词
(同)chiming, consonant, harmonic, symphonious
(例)a harmonious morning chorus of birds

harness [] n.马具 v.利用(UTILIZE)
(反)harness ◆ fail to utilize 利用 ◆ 失败利用
(例)harness the computer's potential 利用计算机的潜能
(记)原意是给马上马具

harp [] n. 竖琴
(类)horn•blow=harp•pluck 角•吹=竖琴•拨(乐器及其动作)

harrow [] vt.折磨, 使苦恼
(反)harrow ◆ assuage 使苦恼 ◆ 减轻(苦恼)
(同)afflict, agonize, excruciate, rack, torment, torture

harry [] v. 掠夺,骚扰(to torment by or as if by constant attack)
(反)harry ◆ comfort/untroubled/ mollify 骚扰 ◆ 安慰/没烦恼/安抚
(同)ravage, depredate, despoil, devastate

harsh [] adj. 粗糙的;刺耳的;严厉的(causing a painful sensory reaction)
(类)pan•harsh=barb•caustic 严厉的批评•刺耳的=讽刺的话•刻薄的(事物典型特征)
(反)harshen ◆ soften 使变粗糙 ◆ 软化
encomium ◆ harsh criticism 赞美 ◆ 严厉的批评
mollycoddle ◆ treat harshly 溺爱 ◆ 粗暴对待
paean ◆ harshly lampoon 赞美 ◆ 严厉地讽刺
(记)har(d)+sh
(同)rough, rugged, scabrous, uneven, unsmooth

hasten [] vt.促进 vi.赶紧(to urge on)
(反)slow the progress of延缓过程/check阻碍/retard阻碍
(记)has+ten(十分紧要)得加快促进
(同)accelerate, hurry, quicken, swiften

hasty [] adj. 匆匆的,急忙的(done or made in a hurry);轻率的(fast&typically superficial) (反)characterized by deliberation深思熟虑地对待well considered/ deliberate深思熟虑的
(记)和上面的hasten一起记忆
(同)expeditious, fleet, quick, rapid, swift

hatch [] n.舱口,舱口盖,(门、墙壁、地板上的)开口
(类)door•room=hatch•hold 门•房间 ◆ 舱口•货舱

haunt [] vt. 常去;(思想)萦扰;(鬼魅等)常出没于 n. 常到的地方
(类)haunt•familiar=harass•irritating 常到•熟悉的=使烦恼•使愤怒的(前者造成后者)
haunt•remember=persecute•injure 萦绕于•铭记=迫害•损害(同义)
(反)haunt ◆ shun 常到 ◆ 避开
(记)比较gaunt(憔悴的)
(同)frequent, affect, resort

hauteur [] n.傲慢,高傲,自大
(类)fawn•hauteur=self depreciate•swagger 奉承•自大=自我轻视•狂妄自大(反面特征)
(反)humility谦虚humbleness谦逊
(记)来自法语haut(高)+eur
(同)pride, arrogance,haughtiness, loftiness, uperciliousness

haven [] n. 避难所,安全的地方(a place of safety)
(反)haven ◆ unsafe place/dangerous place 避难所 ◆ 不安全的地方
(记)和天堂(heaven)一起记忆
(同)shelter , asylum, harbor, refuge, sanctuary

havoc [] n.大破坏,浩劫;大混乱(great confusion and disorder)
(反)havoc ◆ serenity 大混乱 ◆ 宁静
(同)ruin, destruction, devastation, ruination

headlong [] adj. 莽撞的,轻率的(lacking in calmness or restraint Impetuous; rash)
(反)headlong ◆ deliberate 轻率的 ◆ 深思熟虑的
(记)分开记忆head+long头长---轻率
(同)precipitate, abrupt, hasty, impetuous, rushing

hearken [] vi.倾听(to give respectful attention)
(反)hearken ◆ ignore 倾听 ◆ 不理睬
(记)分开记忆hear+ken看→边听边看→倾听
(同)listen, attend, hark, hear, heed

hearten [] vt. 鼓起勇气,激励(to give heart to)
(类)hearten / heart•dejection = mollify•anger激励•沮丧=平息•愤怒(消除关系)
(反)daunt使胆怯/dismay沮丧
(记)源于heart
(同)encourage, cheer, embolden, inspirit, steel

heartrending [] adj.令人心碎的;悲惨的(causing intense sorrow or distress)
(类)heartrending•sad=earsplitting/deafening•loud令人心碎的•伤心=震耳欲聋的•响亮
(记)heart(心)+rend撕开→撕心裂肺,悲惨的
(同)afflictive, heartbreaking, lamentable, regrettable, unfortunate

hedonism [] n.享乐主义(the doctrine that happiness is the sole good in life)
(类)hedonist•pleasure=recluse•privacy/narcissistic•self
快乐主义者•快乐=隐遁者•秘密/自恋者•自己(人物及其追求对象)
(反)hedonist ◆ ascetic 享乐主义者 ◆ 禁欲者
(记)hedo谐音“海盗”联想:海盗中流行享乐主义。
(例)lead the life of a hedonist

hegemony [] n.霸权,统治权(preponderant influence or authority over others)
(反)hegemony ◆ lack of authority 霸权 ◆ 缺少权利

heinous [] adj.可憎的,十恶不赦的(hatefully or shockingly evil•abominable)
(反)heinous ◆ commendable 可憎的 ◆ 值得赞美的
(记)hei谐音“黑”+nous →心肠够黑,十恶不赦的
(同)atrocious, desperate, monstrous, shocking

heirloom [] n. 传家宝
(类)heirloom•ancestor=bequest•testator 祖先留下传家宝 =立遗嘱之人留下遗产
(记)源于heir(继承人)+loom织布机

helmet [] n.头盔
(类)helmet•injury =amulet•evil 头盔•伤害=护身符•邪恶 (避免关系)
(记)和舵(helm)一起记忆

hem [] n. (衣服或裙子的)褶边
(类)hem•garment=ruffle•shirt=molding•cabinet
褶边•衣服=皱褶•衬衫=装饰用嵌线•橱柜(事物及其特殊部分)
(记)谐音“痕” →折痕→(衣服或裙子的)褶边

herald [] vt. 预告(to give notice of)
(类)unheralded•announcement = unabashed•embarrassment
未预告的•公告=不害羞的•困窘(反义)
(反)unherald ◆ proclaim 未预告的 ◆ 宣布
(记)原意是传令官
(同)announce, foreshow, harbinger, preindicate, presage

herbicide [] n. 除草剂
(类)plant•herbicide = insect•pesticide植物•除草剂=害虫•杀虫剂(事物及其消除对象)
(记)herb(草)+cide(杀)

heresy [] n. 异教(an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma)
(类)recantation•heresy = apostasy•faith改变信仰•异教=变节•忠实(反义)
(反)heresy ◆ dogma 异教 ◆ 教条
(同)dissent, heterodoxy, nonconformism, unorthodoxy

heretical [] adj. 异教的,异端的
(类)heretic•unconformity=apologist•defend=generous•liberality(干扰:authority•superiority)
异教徒•不顺从=辩护者•辩护=慷慨者•慷慨(人物典型特征)
doctrine•heretical=course•errant教条•异教的=路线•错误的(事物及其反面特征)
(同)dissident, heterodox, sectarian, unorthodox,heretical beliefs

hermetic [] adj. 秘术的,深奥的(having to do with the occult sciences, especially
alchemy; magical)
(反)hermetic ◆ easily comprehended 深奥的 ◆ 容易理解的
(同)recondite, abstruse, deep, esoteric, occult, profound, secret

hermit [] n. 隐士,隐居者
(类)hermit•society=vegetarian•meat 隐士•社会=素食者•肉(前者远离后者)
hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous 隐居处•隐蔽的=路标•明显的
(记)her+MIT.她入麻省理工就要成为隐士了
(同)ecluse, solitary

herpetologist [st] n. 爬虫学家(dealing with reptiles and amphibians)
(类)chameleon•herpetologist=salmon•ichthyologist 变色龙•爬虫学家=鳜鱼•鱼类研究者

hesitance [] n. 踌躇,犹豫(the quality or state of being hesitant)
(类)impetuous•hesitance=parsimonious•profligacy冲动的•犹豫=吝啬的•挥霍(反义)
impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile 冲动的•犹豫=无法镇压的•卑屈的(反义)
hesitation•reluctance=hubris•pride 犹豫•勉强=狂妄自大•骄傲 (程度)
(反)hesitance ◆ alacrity/ impetuosity 犹豫 ◆ 敏捷/性急

heterodox [] adj. 非正统的,异端的(not in agreement with accepted beliefs)
(类)heterodox•nonconformity=authority•superiority非正统的•不墨守成规=权威•优越
doctrine•heterodoxy=spontaneous•studied 正统教义•异端=自发的•后天习得的(反义)

hidebound [] adj. 顽固的(having an inflexible character)
(类)hidebound•conservative=manic•interested/excited(干扰:peeved•annoyed)
顽固的•保守的=疯狂的•感兴趣的/激动的(程度)
hidebound•flexibility=carefree•responsibility 死板的•灵活性=不负责任•责任(缺乏)
contumacious•authority=reactionary•change 不听令的的反对权威=反动的反对改变
(记)Hide(皮)+Bound(包起来)原意是一种驯服有很干燥的皮的动物
(同)illiberal, bigoted, intolerant, narrow

hideous [] adj. 丑陋的(exceedingly ugly)
(反)hideous ◆ pulchritudinous 丑陋的 ◆ 美丽的
affinity ◆ aversion/hideousness 吸引力 ◆ 厌恶/丑陋的
(记)hide(隐藏)+ous因为丑陋而隐藏起来
(同)ugly, unbeautiful, uncomely, unsightly

hie [] v. 急忙;疾走;催促(to go quickly)
(反)hie ◆ dawdle 催促 ◆ 游手好闲,闲混
(同)fare, proceed, travel, wend

hieroglyph [] n.象形文字,图画文字(a character used in a system of hieroglyphic writing)
(类)decipher•hieroglyph=separate•component 译解•象形文字=分离•组分(动宾)
(记)Hiero(神)+glyph(写)神写的象形文字

hike [] v. 使高涨,拉起(to rise up)远足
(反)hike ◆ backset 使高涨 ◆ 倒退

hilarious [] adj. 热闹的(marked by or affording hilarity)
(类)hilarious•funny = hoary•old 欢闹的•有趣的=古老的•老的(程度)
hilarious•laughter=contemptible•distain 笑声是欢闹=贬损别人是可鄙的(修饰)
(记)hilar(高兴)+ious(形容词结尾)
(同)glee, jocularity, jollity, joviality, merriment

histrionic [] adj.戏剧的(of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater)
(类)histrionic•actor = pedantic•scholar 戏剧的•演员= 书生气的•学者(正面特征)
(记)注意和historic(历史)区分
(同)dramatic, theatral, theatric, thespian

hive [] n. 闹市(a place swarming with activity)
(类)active•hive = tumultuous•bedlam 活跃的•闹市=喧嚣的•喧嚣之地(正面特征)
(记)原意是蜂房,引申为闹市

hoard [] n./v. 贮藏,秘藏(to keep (as one’s thoughts) to oneself)
(类)hoard•miser=shirk•malinger 储藏•守财奴=逃避•装病的人(人物典型动作)
miser•hoard=dandy•preen=sycophant•fawn=pundit•opine
守财奴•秘藏=花花公子•打扮=马屁精•奉承=博学者•发表意见(人物及其特征行为)
(反)hoard ◆ lavish 储藏 ◆ 浪费的
(记)注意和hoary(灰白的)区别
(同)squirrel, stash

hoary [] adj. 灰白的,久远的(extremely old)
(类)hoary•old=hilarious•funny 古老的•老的=欢闹的•有趣的(程度)
(同)ancient, aged, antediluvian, antique

hoax [] n. 愚弄,欺骗(an act intended to deceive or trick)
(类)hoax•deceive = filibuster•delay 阻挠•拖延=愚弄•欺骗(行为及其结果)
hoax•fraudulent=paragon•excellent 愚弄•欺骗的=模范•优秀的(事物典型特征)
(记)注意和coax(哄骗)区别
(同)fake, fraud, gyp, humbug, spoof

hodgepodge [] n. 大杂烩(a heterogeneous mixture)
(类)hodgepodge•uniformity=cliche•originality 大杂烩•一致=陈词滥调•新颖(缺乏)
items•hodgepodge=people•rabble 物品•大杂烩=人•乌合之众(个体及其杂乱集体)
(同)gallimaufry, hotchpotch, jumble, medley, potpourri

homage [] n. 敬意,尊敬,效忠(expression of high regard)
(类)laud•homage = counsel•advice称赞•敬意=劝告•劝告(同义)
(反)homage ◆ disrespect 敬意 ◆ 失礼
(记)同根词homicide(杀人犯),hom(=hum)人
(同)honor, reverence, deference

homely [] adj.家常的, 朴素的;不漂亮的(not attractive or good-looking)
(反)pulchritude ◆ homeliness 美丽 ◆ 不漂亮
(记)home+ly(糟糠之妻)不漂亮

homily [] n. 说教,训诫(a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme)
(类)homily•lecture = parable•story 说教•演讲=寓言•故事(种属)
(记)和homely(不漂亮的)区别

homogenize [] v. 使均匀(to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture)
(类)homogenize•uniform=putrefaction•rotten 使均匀•统一的=腐败•腐烂的 (同义)
(反)homogenize ◆ stratify 使均匀 ◆ 使分层
(记)homo(相同的)+genize

hone []v. 用磨刀石磨(to make more acute;whet) n. 磨刀石,抱怨,想念
(反)hone ◆ blunt 磨快 ◆ 弄钝

honorarium [] n.酬劳
(类)honorarium•grateful = amenity•comfortable 酬劳•感谢的=宜人•舒适的(正面特征)
(记)honor(荣誉)+arium
(例)medicine is an honorable profession

hoodwink [] vt. 欺骗, 迷惑(to deceive by false appearance)
(反)hoodwink ◆ disabuse 迷惑 ◆ 解惑
(同)dupe, bamboozle, befool, chicane, gull, hoax, trick

hortative [] adj. 鼓励的(giving exhortation)
(类)hortatory•urge=didactic•teach 鼓励的•力劝=说教的•教授(形容词与动词同义)
hortative•encourage=exculpatory•absolve鼓励的•鼓励=辨明无罪的•无罪赦免
(记)hort(敦促)+ative

horticulture [] n. 园艺
(类)flower•horticulture = tree•forestry 花•园艺=树•林学(学科及其研究对象)
(记)horti(花园)+culture(培育)参考agriculture(农业)

hovel [] n. 小屋(a small, wretched, and often dirty house)
(类)palatial•hovel=bucolic•city= bucolic•metropolis
富丽堂皇的•小屋=田园风味的•城市=乡村的•大都市(反面特征)
(记)谐音:好窝。联想:我的好窝是小屋

hub [] n. 车轴,中心
(类)spoke•hub=radius•center轮辐•中心=半径•中心(前者会聚于后者)

hubris [] n. 狂妄自大(exaggerated pride or self-confidencehubristic)
(类)hubris•pride=flattery•praise= hesitation•reluctance
狂妄自大•骄傲=奉承•表扬 =犹豫•不愿意(程度)
hubris•pride/self-confidence/proud = parsimony•frugal
狂妄自大•自豪的=吝啬•节俭的(褒贬程度)
hubris ◆ humility 狂妄自大 ◆ 谦逊
(记)hub 轴心 以自我为轴心→狂妄自大

humble [] adj. 卑下的,谦逊的,粗陋的(ranking low in a hierarchy or scale)
(类)bumptious•humbleness =dour•geniality傲慢的•谦逊=严厉的•亲切
bumptious•humbleness= impetuous•vacillation/hesitation
傲慢的•谦逊=冲动的•犹豫(形名反义)
humility•supplicant=resistance•adversary 谦卑•恳请者=抵抗•敌手(正面特征)
(反)humble ◆ bumptious/ supercilious 谦逊的 ◆ 傲慢的
humility ◆ hauteur/ panache 谦卑 ◆ 傲慢/炫耀,摆架子
(记)hum(地)+ble地的—谦逊的
(同)base, low,mean, plebeian

humor [] v. 迁就(to soothe or content by indulgence)
(类)humor•mollycoddle = chide•pillory 迁就•溺爱=责骂•使示众(程度)
(记)原意幽默
(同)coddle, cosset, indulge, mollycoddle, spoil

hurricane [] n. 飓风
(类)hurricane•cyclone=snow•precipitation 飓风•旋风=雪•降水(种属)
storm•hurricane=fire•inferno 暴风•飓风=火•大火(程度)
wind•hurricane=rain•deluge 风•狂风=雨•暴雨(程度)
(记)hurri(快)+cane快的风---飓风

husbandry [] n.节俭;耕种;家政(the control or judicious use of resources)
(类)husbandry•dissipate=alacrity•procrastinate 节俭•浪费=敏捷•拖延(反义)
(反)husbandry ◆ prodigality/ waste 节俭 ◆ 浪费/浪费
husband ◆ squander 节俭地使用 ◆ 浪费
(记)husband(大丈夫)+ry男耕(此词有耕种发意思)女织自然节俭
(同) economy, frugality, prudence, thrift

husk [] n.(果类或谷物的)外壳(通常用复数);皮;无价值之物
(类)seed/corn•husk=orange•rind种子/谷物•外壳=橘子•外皮(事物及其外皮)
(反)husk ◆ core 外壳 ◆ 核
husk ◆ vital part 无价值之物 ◆ 主要部分

husky [] adj. 声音沙哑的;粗糙的(hoarse or rough in quality)
(反)husky ◆ delicate 粗糙的 ◆ 细腻的
(记)来自husk 联想:植物的外壳一般是粗糙的。
(同)hoarse, croaking, croaky, gruff

hybrid [] adj. 混合的;杂种的;混合语的n. 杂种(something heterogeneous)
(反)hybrid ◆ of unmixed extraction /purebred 杂种的 ◆ 纯血统的/纯种的
(记)hybrid car(混合动力汽车,用发动机和电池作为动力来源)
(同)bastard, crossbreed, mongrel, mule
(例)the mule is a hybrid of the ass and the horse

hymn [] n. 赞美诗,圣歌;赞歌(a song of praise or joy)
(类)hymn•praise=elegy•sorrow =dirge•grief
赞歌•赞美=挽歌•悲伤=挽歌•悲伤(事物及其表达的含义)
(同)song, aria, ditty

hypnotic [] adj. 催眠的,于催眠的(tending to produce sleep)
(反)hypnotic ◆ conscious/stimulant 催眠药 ◆ 有知觉的/刺激物
(记)hypno(睡眠)+tic
(同) soporific, narcotic, opiate, somnifacient

list 17 hyperbole ---------indict
hyperbole [] n. 夸张法(extravagant exaggeration)
(类)exaggeration•hyperbole=anger•tirade/pithiness•aphorism/playfulness•banter
夸张法夸张=激烈的长篇演说愤怒/格言精辟/玩笑顽皮
exaggerating•hyperbole =malicious•ill will 夸张•夸张=恶毒的•恶意
(反)hyperbole ◆ understatement 夸张 ◆ 保守的陈述
(记)hyper(高)+bole(树干)
(同)exaggeration, embellishment, embroidering

hypocritical [] adj. 伪善的(characterized by hypocrisy; also •being a hypocrite)
(类)sincerity•hypocritical =authenticity•fraudulent 诚挚•伪善的=真实性•欺诈的
hypocritical ◆ ingenuous/honest 伪善的 ◆ 真诚的/诚实的
(记)hypo(不足的)+critical(批评)假装不轻轻的批评
(同)canting, pecksniffian, pharisaical, sanctimonious
(例)hypocritical compliments

ichthyologist [] n. 鱼类学者,鱼类研究者(one that deals with fishes)
(类)salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist
大麻哈鱼•鱼类学家=变色龙•爬虫学家(学者及其研究对象)

iconoclast [] n.偶像破坏者,打破旧习的人(one who attacks settled beliefs)
(类)iconoclast•attack=philosopher•cogitate 打破旧习的人•打破=哲人•思考

idolatrize [] v.奉为偶像,盲目崇拜(admires intensely and often blindly)
(类)esteem•idolatrize=favor•bribe 尊敬•盲目崇拜=赐予•行贿 (程度褒贬类比)
reverent•idolater=trusting•dupe 虔诚的•偶像崇拜者=轻信的•易受骗的人(正面)
(记)idol(偶像)+atrize

idyll [] n.田园诗,牧歌;田园生活
(类)idyll•carefree=ordeal•difficult 田园生活•无忧无虑的=严酷的考验•困难的
(反)idyll ◆ experience fraught with tension 田园休闲生活 ◆充满紧张的经历
【注】fraught :filled with a specified element or elements; charged充满的

ignite [] v. 点燃(to set afire),使灼热;使兴奋
(反)ignite ◆ extinguish 点燃 ◆ 熄灭
(同)light, enkindle, fire, inflame, kindle

ignominy [] n. 耻辱(deep personal humiliation and disgrace)
(反)ignominious ◆ lofty 可耻的 ◆ 崇高的
ignominy ◆ glory/honor/esteem/ respect 耻辱 ◆ 光荣
(记)ig+nomin(名声)
(同)discredit, disesteem, disrepute, infamy

illiteracy [] n. 文盲
(类)illiteracy•education=inequity•redistribution 文盲•教育=不公•重新分配(消除)
erudition ◆ illiteracy 博学 ◆ 文盲
(记)il(不)+literacy(有文化)

illuminati [] n. 有睿智的人(persons who claim to be unusually enlightened)
(类)illuminati•instruct=interpreter•translate 有睿智的人•指导=翻译员•翻译(正面)
(同)intelligentsia , literati
(记)源于iluminate(照明,说明)

illumination [] n. 照明;阐明;启发;装饰图案
(类)lamp•illumination=apron•protect=stylus•mark
围裙•保护=灯•照明=铁笔•刻痕(物品及其用途)
flash•illumination=squall•commotion
通过闪烁来照明=通过大叫来扰乱
illumination•manuscript =frieze•building
装饰图案•手稿=雕饰•建筑(装饰关系)
illuminate•darkness=educate•ignorance
照明•黑暗=教育•无知(前者消除后者)
(反)obfuscate ◆ elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly 使迷乱 ◆ 阐明/阐明/解释清楚

illusory [] adj. 产生幻觉的,幻影的,幻想(based on or producing illusion)
(类)mirage•illusory =maelstrom•turbulent 海市蜃楼•幻影的=大旋涡•狂暴的(正面特征)
illusion•fantasy=nicety•precision 幻想•幻想=准确•精确(同义)
illusion•perception=cunning•truth =gaffe•judgment
幻想•感觉=狡诈•事实=过失•判断 (事物及其特征化方式)
(记)源于illusion(幻想)
(同)ficitious, chimerical, fantastic, fictional, imaginary

imbibe [] v. 象喝一样地吸收或吸进(to absorb or take in as if by drinking)
(类)thirsty•imbibe=exhausted•rest 喝水解渴=休息消除疲惫
(记)im(=in)+bibe(=drink)

imbroglio [] n. 纷乱,纠葛,纷扰,一团糟(a violently confused altercation)
(反)imbroglio ◆ harmony 纷乱 ◆ 协调

imitation [] n. 模仿,效法;冒充,赝品
(类)exemplary•imitation=culpable•blame可作模范的•模仿•该责备的•责备(同义)
exemplary•imitation=reverent•deference可仿效的•模仿=虔诚的•尊重 (因果关系)
paragon/paradigm•imitate=reverence•regard模范•效仿=值得尊敬的人•尊重
(记)源于imitate(模仿)
(同)artificial, mock, simulated, spurious, substitute

immaculate [] adj纯净的(having no stain or blemish)
(反)squalor ◆ immaculate 肮脏的 ◆ 纯净的
(记)im(无)+maculate(斑点的)
(同)chaste, decent, stainless, unblemished, undefiled

immanent [] adj. 普遍存在的,内在的
(类)immanent ◆ explicit/ extrinsic 内在的 ◆ 外在的/外在的
(记)im(=in)+man(人的)+ent在人的―――内在的

immaterial [] adj. 非物质的,无形的,精神的(of no substantial consequence)
(类)immaterial•relevance=peripheral•center=circuitous•directness
不相关的•相关=外围的•中心=拐弯抹角的•率直(形容词与名词反义)
relevant ◆ immaterial 有关的 ◆ 无关的
(记)im(无)+material(实体的)
(同)incorporeal, insubstantial, nonphysical, spiritual, unmaterial

immature [] adj. 不成熟的, 未完全发展的
(类)immature•developed=incipient•realized 未完全发展的•发展好的=初始的•实现的
(记)im(不)+mature(成熟)

immemorial [] adj. 古老的(existing since beyond the reach of memory, record)
(反)immemorial ◆ recent 古老的 ◆ 近来的
(记)im(不能)+memorial(记忆)不能记住――古老的

immune [] adj. 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的
(类)vaccination•immune=overexposure•jaded 种疫苗•免疫的=曝光过度•厌腻的(因果)
【注:关键是overexposure的理解,不仅可以理解成胶卷的暴光过度,也可理解成在明星在媒体前
暴光过度,当然不是公众厌倦他们就是他们厌倦媒体了,所以是因果关系有道理。】
vaccinating•immunity=soporific•sleep 接种的•免疫=催眠的•睡觉(因果关系)
immunize•resist=fertilize•grow 使免疫•抵抗=施肥•生长(因果关系)
(反)immune ◆ having no resistance 免疫 ◆ 无抵抗力
immunity ◆ susceptibility 免疫性 ◆ 易感性
(记)和immure(禁闭)一起记忆

immure [] v. 监禁,禁闭(to enclose within or as if within walls)
(反)immure ◆ release / liberate 禁闭 ◆ 释放/解放
(同)imprison, bastille, constrain, incarcerate, jail

immutable [] adj. 不可变的(not capable of or susceptible to change)
(类)immutable•altered=implacable•propitiated 不可变的•改变的=不听劝解的•劝解的
immutable•change =transitory•endure 不能变的•改变=短暂的•耐久 (反义)
(反)immutable ◆ variable 不可变的 ◆ 可变的
(记)im(不)+mutable(易变的)

imp [] n. 顽童(a mischievous child)
(类)mischievous•imp=insensitive•boor 淘气的•顽童=感觉迟钝的•粗人(正面特征)
(同)gamin, monkey

impassive [] adj. 冷漠的,无感情的 ,平静的
(类)callous•impassive=dupe•duplicity 冷淡的•冷漠的=欺骗•不诚实 (同义)
mpassive•perturb=voracious•satisfy 冷漠的•打扰=贪婪的•满足(反面被动特征)
(反)impassive ◆ emotional/ perfervid/ excitable 冷漠的 ◆ 情感的/非常热心的/易兴奋的
(记)im(无)+passive(感情的)无感情的→冷漠
(同)apathetic, phlegmatic, stoic, stolid
(例)impassive endurance of pain

impeccable [] a.没缺点的,正直的
(类)impeccable•flaw=ingenuous•guile没缺点的•缺点=真诚的•狡诈
restive•calmness=impeccable•flaw=sterile•germ
不安静的•平静=没有缺点的•缺点=无菌的•细菌 (缺乏关系)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse=impeccable•flaw=indolent•stir
正直的•犯罪=锋利的•钝的(反义)
(反)impeccable ◆ faulty没缺点的 ◆ 有缺点的
(记)im(无)+peccable(易犯过失的)
(同)faultless, flawless, immaculate, irreproachable

impecunious [] adj. 不名一文的,贫困的(having very little or no money)
(类)impecunious•money=foolish•discretion 贫穷的缺乏钱=愚蠢的缺乏判断力
pelf•impecunious=experience•green钱财•贫穷的=经验•无经验的(缺乏)
(反)impecunious ◆ wealthy/prosperous/affluent 贫穷的 ◆ 富裕的/繁荣的/富裕的
impecunious ◆ lavish/prosperous/ affluent 贫穷的 ◆ 过分丰富的/繁荣的/富裕的
(记)im(无)+pecun (钱)+ ious 不名一文
(同)poor, destitute, impoverished, indigent, penurious

impede [] v. 妨碍,阻碍(to interfere with or slow the progress of)
(类)blandishment•cajole=obstacle•impede 甜言蜜语•哄骗=障碍•阻止(目的关系)
(反)facilitate ◆ impeding 促进 ◆ 阻止
impede ◆ promote/foment/ abet/ nurture/ assist 阻碍 ◆ 促进/煽动/教唆支持/抚育/帮助
encumber ◆ remove impediment 阻碍 ◆ 除去阻碍
cultivate ◆ impede 培养 ◆ 阻止
(同)hinder, block, brake, obstruct

impend [] vi. 即将发生(to be about to occur)
(反)remote ◆ impending 遥远的 ◆ 即将发生的
(同)imminent, proximate

impenetrable [] adj. 难以渗透的(incapable of being penetrated or pierced)
(类)enigma•impenetrable=juggernaut•unstoppable
迷一样的•难以理解的=压倒一切的力量•无法阻碍的(事物典型特征)
pierce•impenetrable=change•immutable=profane•inviolable
穿透•难以渗透的=改变•不可改变的=亵渎•不可亵渎的 (动形反义)
(反)porous ◆ impenetrable多孔渗水的 ◆ 难以渗透的
(记)im+penetrable(渗透的)
(同)impassable, impermeable, impervious, unpierceable

impenitent [] adj. 不悔悟的(not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain)
(反)impenitent ◆ remorseful/ rueful 不悔的 ◆ 悔改的/悔恨的
(记)im+penitent(悔悟的)
(同)remorseless, regretless, unregretful, unrepentant

imperative [] adj. 命令式的,急需的,势在必行的,强制的(expressive of a command)
(类) order•imperative=question•interrogative 命令•命令的=怀疑•表示疑问的(同义)
(记) 源于imper=order(命令)
(同)domineering, imperial, imperious, overbearing, peremptory

imperial [] adj. 帝王的,至尊的;壮丽的,堂皇的
(类)imperial•significance=grotesque•fantasy堂皇的•重大=奇异的•怪念头(同义)imperial•significant=spartan•austere 至尊的•重要的=非常简朴的•简朴的(程度)
(反)imperial ◆ obedient 最高权力的 ◆ 服从的
(记)词根imper=order(命令) 联想:有资格指手画脚发布命令的当然是皇帝。

imperious [] adj. 傲慢的,专横的(marked by arrogant assurance)
(类)imperious•fawn=swagger•self depreciate专横的•奉承=自大的•自贬(反义)
rash•circumspective=imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable
轻率的•慎重的=专横的•卑屈的=好战的•和平的(反义)
fawn•imperiousness=equivocate•directness=elaborate•sketch
奉承•专横=支吾•率直=详细描述•梗概(动名反义)
imperiousness•fawn=self depreciatory•swagger 专横•奉承=自我贬低•大摇大摆
elf•imperious恶人•专横的(人物典型特征)
(反)imperious ◆ servile/obeisant/ obsequious/ humble/ deferential
专横的 ◆ 卑屈的/服从的/谄媚的/谦逊的/恭顺的
(记)词根imper和imperial, imperatorial(至尊的)一起记忆
(同)masterful, domineering, peremptory, imperative

impertinent [] adj. 鲁莽的,粗鲁的(characterized by insolent rudeness);不恰当的
(类)impertinent•propriety=keen •obtuseness 鲁莽的•适当=敏锐的•迟钝(反义)
perturb•serenity=impertinent•propriety 扰乱:平静=鲁莽的:适当 (缺乏关系)
(反)impertinence ◆ obeisant /respect/relevance 无礼 ◆ 尊敬
(记)im(否定)+pertinent(有关的,得体的)→不得体的→鲁莽的
(同)officious, meddlesome, intrusive, obtrusive

imperturbable [] adj. 冷静沉着的,泰然自若的,镇静的(marked by extreme calm)
(反)imperturbable/ calm ◆ ticklis/ restive 冷静的 ◆ 不稳定的/吵闹的
imperturbability ◆ testiness/volatility 冷静 ◆ 暴躁/易变
(记)im+perturb(打扰)+able不被打扰的→冷静的
(同)cool, composed, collected, unruffled, nonchalant

impervious [] adj. 密封的;不会被损害的(not capable of being damaged or harmed)
(类)impervious•damaged=indefensible•excused=precarious•stable
不会被损害的•伤害的=无辩护余地的•申辩的=不稳定的•稳定的(反义)
impervious•damaged=indomitable•subdue
不会被损害的•伤害的=不屈服的•屈服的(反义)
impervious•friable=nonflammable•combustible
不会被损害的•易碎的=不燃烧的•易燃的
impervious•penetrate=ineluctable•avoid
不能渗透的•渗透=不可避免的•避免(反义)
(反)translucent ◆ impervious of light透明的 ◆ 不透光的
(记)im(否定)+pervious(渗透的)→不渗透的
(同)impenetrable,impermeable, imperviable, unpierceable

impetuous [] adj. 冲动的,急躁的(marked by impulsive vehemence or passion)
(反)impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile
冲动的•犹豫=镇压不住的•顺从的(反义)
impetuous•(vacillation/ hesitation)=bumptious•humbleness
冲动的•踌躇/犹豫=傲慢的•谦逊(形名反义)
(反)impetuous ◆ deliberate 冲动的 ◆ 深思熟虑的
impetuosity ◆ hesitance/vacillation 冲动 ◆ 犹豫/踌躇
(记)词根impet(推动)
(同)precipitate, abrupt, hasty, precipitant, rushing

impiety [] n. 无信仰,不虔诚(the quality or state of being impious)
(反)impiety ◆ devoutness 不虔诚的 ◆ 虔诚的
(记)im+piety(虔诚)

implacable [] adj. 不能和解或平息的(Impossible to placate or appease)
(反)implacable•appease=indomitable•subdue 不能平息的不可平息=不能征服的不可征服
implacable•compromise=honest•swindle 不能和解的不会妥协=诚实的不会诈骗
implacable•propitiated =inalienable•surrendered=immutable•altered
不能和解的•和解的=不能让与的•放弃=不能变的•改变的(反面特征:不能)
(记)im+placable(易抚慰的)
(同)grim, merciless, ruthless, unappeasable

implement [] n. 工具,器具v. 实现,使生效,执行
(反)implement ◆ foil  实现 ◆ 阻止

implode [] v. 内爆(to collapse inward as if from external pressure)
(类)collapse•implode=divide•sunder 倒塌•内爆=分开•切开(因果关系)
(反)implosion ◆ rapid outward movement 内爆 ◆ 快速向外运动
(记)im+plode

imposing [] adj. 使难忘的;壮丽的(impressive in size, dignity, or grandeur)
(反)imposing ◆ modest壮丽的 ◆ 适度的
(记)源于impose(强加)
(同)baronial, grandiose, magnificent, majestic

impostor [] n. 冒名顶替者(one that assumes false identity for deception)
(类)impostor•identity=usurper•authorization 冒名顶替者•身份=篡位者•权利
(记)源于impose(强加)

impotent [] a. 无力的,虚弱的,无效的(lacking in power, strength)
(反)clout ◆ impotence权力 ◆ 无力虚弱
(记)im+potent(有力的)
(同)weak , emasculate, forceless, ineffective, spineless

imprecise [ ] adj. 不严密的,不精确的
(反)nice ◆ imprecise 精密的 ◆ 不严密的

impresario [] n.(剧院、乐团等的)经理人
(类)impresario•entertainment=broker•trade 经理人投资娱乐业=经纪人协商交易

impromptu adj. 即席的,即兴的(composed without previous preparation;extemporaneous)
(类)ad-lib•impromptu=aside•divergent 即兴地•即席的=在旁边•分岔的(副词形容词同义)
impromptu•performance=unheralded•announcement
即席演出•表演=没有预先通知的•公告(反义)
impromptu•rehearsal=honesty• duplicity=caprice•deliberate
即兴演出•排演=诚实•狡猾=反复无常•深思熟虑的(反义)
(反)impromptu ◆ carefully rehearsed 即席演出 ◆ 仔细排练
(记)im+prompt(即时的)+u不即时的-即席的

improvise [] v. 即兴而作(to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously)
(类)score•improvise =text•extemporize 乐谱•即席而作=演讲稿•即席演讲
(反)rite ◆ improvised act 惯例 ◆ 即兴表演
(记)第三个即兴表演ad-lib
(同)extemporary, improvised, offhand, sunrehearsed

imprudent [] adj. 轻率的,鲁莽的 (not prudent•lacking discretion)
(反)imprudent ◆ judicious 轻率的 ◆ 审慎的
【注】judicious :having or exhibiting sound judgment;prudent. 有判断力的;审慎的
(记)im+prudent(谨慎的)

impudent [] adj. 放肆无礼的,厚颜无耻的(marked by contemptuous or boldness)
(类)impudence•brazen=deadpan•impassive 厚颜无耻•厚颜无耻=无表情•冷漠的(同义)
(反)impudent ◆ deferential/ respectful/ obeisant/ reverence/ deference
放肆无礼的 ◆ 恭敬的 /恭敬有礼貌的/ 恭敬的/ 尊重
(记)注意和imprudent(轻率的)区别
(同)unwise, impolitic, indiscreet, injudicious

impugn [] v. 指责,对…表示怀疑(to assail by words or arguments)
(反)impugn ◆ champion/ endorse/ extol/ vindicate/ uphold
指责 ◆ 支持/ 同意/ 赞美/ 辩护/ 赞同
(记)im+pugn(打斗)
(同)contradict, contravene, gainsay, negative, traverse

impuissance [] n. 无权;无力;虚弱
(反)clout ◆ impuissance 权势 ◆ 无权
(记)im(没有)+puissance(权力)→无权;puissance 谐音:溥仪三思;联想:当年溥仪皇帝没有任何权力,他再三思考的当然是权力。

inadvertent [] adj. 不注意的,疏忽的(not focusing the mind on a matter)
(反)advertent ◆ inattentive 留意的 ◆ 疏忽的
inadvertent ◆ intentional 疏忽的 ◆ 留意的
inadvertence ◆ careful attention 疏忽 ◆ 仔细注意
(记)im+advertent(注意的)
(同)careless, heedless, irreflective, thoughtless, unheeding

inalienable [] adj. 不能让与的,不能交出的(incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred)
(类)inalienable•surrendered=implacable•propitiated 不能交出的•交出的=难平息的•平息的
(记)alienate 除疏远的基本义项外,还有交出,让与的意思(to convey or transfer (as property or a right) usually by a specific act rather than the due course of law)这里所取的就是交出的意思。
(例)inalienable rights 不能交出的权利

inane [] adj. 空洞的(lacking significance, meaning, or point)
(反)expressive 有表现力的 meaningful有意义的 pregnant富有意义的
significant有意义的 weighty有内容的 substantiated实体化的
(记)in+an+e 在一个e时代里,人们普遍感到空虚
(同)flat, innocuous, jejune, sapless, vapid

inanimate [] adj. 无生命的(not animated or lively)
(类)inanimate•living = ephemeral•enduring 无生命的•活的=短暂的•持久的(反义)
(记)in(无)+animate(生机勃勃的)无生命的
(同)dead, deceased, exanimate, extinct, lifeless

inaugurate [] v. 举行就职典礼(to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies)
(类)inauguration•official=matriculation•student 就职•公务员=入学•学生
inaugurate•president=install•official=crown•king
举行就职典礼•总统=使就职•公务员=加冕•国王(行为及其对象)
(反)cease ◆ inaugurate/ commencement 终止 ◆ 开创/ 开始
(记)in(进入)+augur(预言)+ate(吃)中国的就职典礼免不了吃
(同)begin, commence, start, initiate

incandescent [] adj. 白炽的(strikingly bright, radiant, or clear)
(反)incandescent ◆ dull 白炽的 ◆ 阴暗的
(记)in+cand(白热)+escent(开始)
(同) bright, brilliant, effulgent luminous, radiant, refulgent

incantation n. 咒语
(类)incantation•utterance=talisman•object 咒语•话=护身符•东西(种属)

incarnate [] vt. 体现,使具体化,使成化身adj.人体的(invested with bodily and especially human nature and form)
(反)incarnate ◆ incorporeal 人体的 ◆ 灵魂的
(记)in+carn(肉体的)+ate
(同)embody, externalize, materialize, objectify, substantiate

incendiary [] adj. 放火的;煽动的,教唆的(involving a deliberate burning of property)
(类)incendiary•agitate=insurgent•rebel 煽动的•煽动=叛乱的•叛乱 (形容词和名词同义)
(记)in+cend(=cand放火)+iary原意是放火的,引申为煽风点火
(同)inflammatory

incense [] v. 用香焚;激怒(to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of)
(反)propitiate ◆ incense 劝解 ◆ 激怒
(记)原意为烧香,引申为激怒
(同)anger, enrage, infuriate, mad, umbrage

inception [] n.开端,开始,取得学位(an instance of beginning;commencement)
(类)inception•termination=matriculation•graduation 开始•终止=入学•毕业(反义)
(记)in+cept(词根•拿)+ion同根词•accept,concept
(同)origin, source, root

incessant [] adj. 不断的,不绝的,无尽的(continuing without interruption)
(反)incessant ◆ interrupted 不断的 ◆ 中断的
(记)in+cess(停止)ant 不停的,不断的
(同)continual, constant, perpetual,perennial

inch [] v. 慢慢前进,慢慢移动(to move by small degrees•progress slowly)
(类)inch•advance=accrete•grow 慢慢前进•前进=增长•生长(种属)
inch•move=drawl•speak 慢慢移动•移动=懒洋洋地说•说(程度) 缓慢
(记)一寸一寸的移动引申为慢慢前进

inchoate [] a.刚开始的,未完全发展的(being only partly in existence or operation)
(类)inchoate/incipient•realized=immature• developed
未形成的/初始的•形成的=未完全发展的•完全发展的(反义)
(反)inchoate ◆ explicit/ completely formed/ enduring/ fully formed/ fully realized
不完全的 ◆ 明确的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的/ 完全发展的
(记)in+cho(col)ate巧克力从凉的地方取出来-未完全(融化)的

incinerate [] vi. 烧成灰烬(to cause to burn to ashes)
(类)singe•incinerate=erode•destruction 烧的微焦•烧成灰烬=腐蚀•毁灭 (程度)
(记)in+ciner(灰)+ate

incipient [] adj. 开始的(beginning to come into being or to become apparent)
(类)incipient/ inchoate•realized=immature•developed
开始的•完成的=不成熟的•成熟的(反义)
incipient•realized=tangible•indefinite=hypothetical•proven(争议:moribund•dead)
开始的•完成的=切实的•不确定的=假说的•被证明的(反义)
(反)incipient ◆ full-blown/ full realized/ plentiful 开始的 ◆ 成熟的/完全实现的/丰富的
(记)in+cip(零)ient刚是零的-开始的
(同) initial, inceptive, introductory, nascent

incite [] v 煽动,刺激(to move to action•stir up•spur on•urge on)
(类)instigator•incite=bully•browbeat 煽动者•煽动=侍强凌弱的人•恫吓(特征行为)
persiflage•incite=exhortation•motivate 恶意抨击•刺激=劝告•促进(动作及表现)
(反)incite ◆ pacify 煽动 ◆ 抚慰
incitant ◆ insensible 兴奋的 ◆ 无知觉的
(记)in+ cite(词根•)注意和excite(兴奋的)区别
(同)instigate, abet, foment

inclement [] a.(天气)严酷的,严厉的(lacking mildness)
(类)draconian•inclemency=fret•vexation 严峻的•严酷=(使)烦恼•烦恼(同义)【词性不符】
inclemency•evade 险恶,严酷•逃避(因果关系)
inclement ◆ balmy/mild 险恶严酷的 ◆ 温和的
(记)in+clement(仁慈的)
(同)severe, bitter, harsh, intemperate, rigorous

incogitant [] adj. 考虑不周的(thoughtless; inconsiderate)
(类)incogitant•thoughtful=restive•calm 考虑不周的•深思的=不安的•安静的(反义)
incogitant•thoughtfulness=restive•calmnes 考虑不周的•深思=不安的•安静(反面特征)
(同)rash, brash, inconsiderate, reckless, thoughtless
(记)来自cogitate深思,慎重考虑

incongruent [] adj. 不协调的,不合适(not superposable to be coincident throughout)
(类)incongruent•conform=recalcitrant•obey=scatter•overlap
不协调的•顺从=反对的•顺从=分散的•重叠(反义)
(记)in+congruent(适合的;数学:全等的)
(同)inconsonant , discrepant, incompatible, incongruous, inconsistent

inconsequential [] adj. 不合逻辑的,不合理的;不重要(of no significance)
(类)inconsequential•illogical=apocalyptic•prophetic
不合逻辑的•不合逻辑的=天启的•预言的(同义)
(反)crucial ◆ inconsequential 重要的 ◆ 不重要的
(记)in+consequential(因果的,重要的)
(同)inconsequent, inconsiderable, paltry, trifling, trivial

incontrovertible [] adj. 无可争议的(not open to question)
(类)incontrovertible•dispute=untenable•defend
无可争议的•争议=无法抵抗的•防卫(反面特征)
incontrovertible•disputed=matchless•equaled
无可争议的•争议的=无法比拟的•相等的(反义)
(反)controvert ◆ substantiate 争论 ◆ 证实
(记)in+controvertible(可辩论的)
(同)certain, incontestable, indisputable, indubitable

incorrigible [] adj. 无药可救的,固执的(incapable of being corrected or amended)
(类)incorrigible•amend=irradicable•remove 固执的•改正=不能根除的•移动
incorrigible•reformed=inscrutable•understood 固执的•革新=难以了解的•理解
(反)incorrigible ◆ tractable 固执的 ◆ 温顺的
incorrigibility ◆ tractability 固执 ◆ 温顺
(记)in(不)+corrig(= correct改正)+ible→不能改正的→固执的

incriminate [] vt. 归罪,使负罪,控告(to proof of involvement in a crime or fault)
(反)incrimination ◆ exoneration 使负罪 ◆ 免罪
(记)in(加强)+criminate(使负罪)
(同)accuse, charge, criminate, impeach, inculpate

incubator [] n. 孵化器
(类)incubator•infant =greenhouse•plant 孵化器培育婴儿=温室培养植物
(记)cub幼兽,不动规矩的年轻人 联想:把幼兽放进去→孵化

inculpate [] vt. 使…有罪
(反)exonerate免罪/ absolve赦免/ exculpate使无罪
(同)accuse, arraign, criminate, impeach, incriminate

incursion [] n.侵犯,入侵 (a hostile entrance into a territory)
(反)incursion ◆ retreat 入侵 ◆ 撤退
(记)in+curs(词根•跑)ion跑进来-入侵

indelible [] adj. 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的
(类)indelible•forget=astounding•expect 不可磨灭的•忘记=令人吃惊的•预期(反义)
indelibility•erasure=impermeability•passage 不能消除•擦除=不渗透性•透过
(反)indelible ◆ erasable 去不掉的 ◆ 可抹去的
indelibility ◆ eras ability 擦试不掉 ◆ 擦掉
(记)in(不)+delible(删除)
(同)ineradicable, inerasable, inextrpable
(例)made an indelible impression on his hearers

indemnity [] n. 赔偿,补偿;保护(security against hurt, loss, or damage)
(类)mollification•soothe=indemnity•secure 减轻•缓和=保护•使安全 (动作及其目的)
(记)in+demn(词根•损坏)+ity
(同)amends, compensation, recompense, redress, restitution

indict [] vt. 起诉,控告,指控(to accuse of wrongdoing; charge)
(类)indict•accused 起诉•被起诉的(反面特征)
(反)absolve ◆ indict 赦免 ◆ 控告
(记)in+dict(词根:说)参考: dictator独裁者
(同)accuse, charge, impeach, incriminate, inculpate

list 18 indifferent -------inveigle
indifferent [] adj. 漠不关心的(marked by a lack of interest)
(类)shrug•indifference=embrace•affection 耸肩•漠不关心=拥抱•爱(动作体现情感)
(反)indifferent ◆ avid/ fervor/ enraptured 漠不关心的 ◆ 热心的/ 热情的/ 狂喜的
zealot ◆ indifference 狂热 ◆ 不关心
(记)in(不)+different(不同) 与平时无两样的-漠不关心的
(同)arraign, charge, impeach, incriminate, inculpate
(例)was indifferent to suffering and poverty

indigenous [] adj.土产的,本地的;先天的,天生的(innate;inborn)
(反)indigenous ◆ exotic/ foreign/ nonnative 本地的 ◆ 异国的,外来的
indigenous ◆ acquired 先天的 ◆ 后来获取的 
(记)注意和indigent(贫穷的) 区别
(同)innate , connatural, inherited, native, natural

indigent [] adj. 贫穷的(suffering from indigence)
(类)indigent•wealth=redundant•indispensability 贫穷的•富裕=多余的•不可缺少
(反)indigent ◆ affluent/ wealth 贫穷的 ◆ 富裕的
(同)poor, destitute, impecunious, impoverished, necessitous, penurious

indispensability n. 不可缺少(absolutely necessary)
(类)indigent•wealth=redundant•indispensability 贫乏的•富裕=多余的•不可缺少
(反)indispensable ◆ trivial 不可缺少的 ◆ 微不足道的
(记)in(不)+dispensability(不必要)→并非不必要→不可缺少

industriousness [  ] adj. 勤勉的, 刻苦的(constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied)
(类)industriousness•activity=fastidiousness•selectivity 勤勉的•活动=严格•选择
(记)由industry而来

indoctrinate [] v. 灌输思想(to instruct especially in fundamentals)
(类)stickler•exacting=pedagogue•indoctrinate 吹毛求疵者•苛求的=教育者•灌输
(记)in+doctrine(教条)+ate用教条去灌输

indolent [] adj. 懒惰的(averse to activity)
(类)indolent•shirk=miserly•hoard 懒惰的•逃避=吝啬的•密藏 (正面特征)
rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse{ impeccable•flaw=indolent•stir}
正直•违法=锋利•钝的{无瑕的•缺点=懒惰•激动}{事物及其反义}
(同)lazy, faineant, slothful, slowgoing

inducement [] n.引诱(the act or process of inducing)
(反)inducement ◆ deterrent 引诱 ◆ 制止
(记)in+duce(引导)+ment

indulgent [] adj. 纵容的(lenient:);自我放纵的
(类)abstemious•indulge=【austere•decorate】有节制的•放纵=【简朴的•修饰】干扰选项
参考:2002/7:timeworn•novelty=convolution•simplicity反义【干扰:austere•decorate】
indulge•ascetic=restrain•libertine 自我放纵•苦行的=抑制•放荡的
glutton•overindulgence=ascetic•self denial 暴食者•放纵=禁欲者•自我约束
(反)indulgent ◆ ascetic 放纵的 ◆ 苦行的
martinet ◆ indulgent person 严守纪律者 ◆ 放纵的人
draconian ◆ indulgent / mild 苛刻的 ◆ 纵容的/ 温和的
【注】放纵有两层意思:自我放纵和放纵别人。Indulgent包含这两层意思。
(同)forbearing, charitable, clement, lenient, merciful
(记)in(不)+delgent(谐音:打针)→不打针→纵容的

indurate [] vt. 使坚固(to make hard)
(反)indurate ◆ soften 使坚固 ◆ 使软化
(记)in+dure(词根•持续的)+ate
(同)harden, concrete, congeal, dry, solidify

ineffable [] adj.不能说的,不应说出的(incapable of being expressed in words)
(类)ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate 不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除
(记)in(不)+effable(可以说的)参考:fable寓言
ineluctable [] adj.无法逃避的(not to be avoided,resisted)
(类)ineluctable•chance=serendipitous•effort
无法逃避的•偶然=善于挖宝(有发掘天赋的)•努力(事物及其反面特点)
ineluctable•avoid=irrevocable•repeal 不可避免的•避免=不可撤回的•撤回
impervious•penetrate=ineluctable•avoid =untenable•defend
密封的无法穿透=无法逃避的无法逃避=无法防卫的无法防卫
【注】untenable:being such that defense or maintenance is impossible
(同)incommunicable, indefinable

inept [] adj. 不适当的;无能的,笨拙的(generally incompetent)
(类)inept ◆ judicious/ proficient/ masterful愚笨的 ◆ 明智的/ 精通的/ 技术精湛的
finesse ◆ ineptitude 灵巧 ◆ 愚笨
(记)in(不)+ept(熟练的) 参考:eptitude能力
(同)awkward, gauche, lumbering, maladroit

inert [] adj. 惰性的,行动迟钝的(deficient in active properties)
(类)inertia•react=persistence•vacillate惯性•反应=坚持•犹豫 (反面特征)
ephemeral•endure=inert•react {ineffectual•proceed}
生命短暂的(事物)难以持久=惰性的(事物)难以反应
(反)inert ◆ active / dynamic 惰性的 ◆ 充满活力
inertia ◆ activity/ tendency to change motion 惯性 ◆ 活力/ 改变方向的趋势
reactant ◆ inert material 反应物 ◆ 惰性物质
(记)inertia(物理中的惯性)
(同)inactive, idle, passive, quiet

inevitable [] adj. 不可避免的,必然的(incapable of being avoided or evaded)
(类)inevitable•chance=absolute•variability 必然的•偶然性=绝对的•可变性(反面)
impervious•penetrate=inetable•avoid =untenable•defend
密封的无法穿透=无法逃避的无法逃避=无法防卫的无法防卫
(记)in(不)+evitable(逃避)不可逃避的
(同) ineluctable, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible

inexorable [] adj. 无情的,无法说服的(not to be persuaded by entreaty)
(类)inexorable•dissuasion=indomitable•conquest 无法说服的•说服=无法征服的•征服
(反)inexorable ◆ relenting 无情的 ◆ 怜惜的
(记)ora(口,说)exorable可说服的 参考:oration演说
(同) adamant, obdurate, relentless, rigid, unyielding

infamy [] n. 声名狼藉(evil reputation)
(反)infamy ◆ good repute 声名狼藉 ◆ 好名声
(记)in(不好)+fame(名声)→不好的名声→声名狼藉 参考:famous著名的
(同)disesteem, disrepute, ignominy, obloquy, odium

infatuate [] vt. 使迷恋,使糊涂(to cause to be foolish)
(类)sabbatical•leave=flattering•infatuation
周期性休息的•休假=讨人喜欢的•令人痴迷之物(后者的正面特征是前者)
(反)odium ◆ infatuation憎恨 ◆ 迷恋
(记)in(使)+fatu(糊涂)ate人常说爱情使一个人糊涂 参考:fatuous愚昧的,糊涂的
(同)besotted, dotty, enamored

inferno [] n.火海,地狱般的场所(a place that resembles or suggests hell)
(类)fire•inferno=storm•hurricane 火•火海=暴风•飓风(程度)
(记) infer(低下)→低下的地方→地狱 参考:inferior下等的,次级的
(同)hell, blazes, netherworld, perdition

infiltrate [] v. 渗透;秘密潜入(to passsurreptitiously into enemy-held territory)
(类)infiltrate•enter=conspire•plan=insinuate•say=stalk•follow
秘密潜入•进入=阴谋•计划=含沙射影的说•说=暗中追踪•跟随(秘密•正常)
(记)filtr(滤器) 参考:filtrate渗透 filter 过滤,渗透;过滤器

infinite [] adj. 无穷的(immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive)
(类)infinite•end =unique•precedent 无穷的没有结束=独一无二的没有前例
infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap 无穷的无法用尽=离散的无法重叠
infinity ◆ bounded space 无限 ◆ 有限空间
(记)in(不)+fini(限制)→无限制的→无穷的 参考:finish完成
(同)eternal, illimitable, perdurable, supertemporal
(例)the idea of an infinite universe

infirm [] adj. 虚弱的(of poor or deteriorated vitality)
(反)hale ◆ infirm 强壮的 ◆ 柔弱的
(记)in(不)+firm(结实的,强壮的)→不强壮的→虚弱的
(同)weak, decrepit, feeble, flimsy, fragile

inflame [] v. 使燃烧,激怒(某人)(to excite to uncontrollable action or feeling)
(反)inflame ◆ assuage/ subdue 激怒 ◆ 缓和/ 减弱
(记)in(进入)+flame(燃烧)
(同)aggravate, provoke, rile, roil

infelicitous [] adj. 不幸的;不适当的(not appropriate in application)
(反)infelicity ◆ appropriateness 不合适 ◆ 合适
happy ◆ infelicitous 幸福的 ◆ 不幸的
(记)in+felicitous(幸福的)
(同)wkward, graceless, inept, unfortunate
(例)made a very infelicitous remark

influx [] n. 涌入(a coming in)
(反)exodus ◆ influx 大批的离去 ◆ 涌入
(同)inflow, influxion, inpour, inpouring, inrush

infuse [] vt. 灌输,使…充满,鼓舞
(类)inspire•infuse=obliterate•remove 鼓舞•鼓舞=删除•除去(同义)
(反)infuse ◆ drain away/extract 注入 ◆ 排空/ 榨出,提取
(记)in+fuse(流)流进去→灌输

infuriate [] vt. 激怒(to make furious; enrage)
(类)infuriate•rage=commend•esteem 激怒引起愤怒=赞美引起尊重(行为及其影响)
infuriate•rage=nonplus•perplexity 激怒使人大怒=使困惑使人困惑(行为及其影响)
(干扰:scrounge•possession乞讨,搜寻•占有(目的关系))
(同)enrage, incense, umbrage
(记)in(使)+furi(=fury愤怒)→使愤怒→激怒

ingenious [] adj. 聪明的,有独创性的(marked by originality, resourcefulness, and
cleverness in conception or execution)
(类)ingenious ◆ awkward 机灵的 ◆ 笨拙的
ingenious ◆ prosaic 有独创性的 ◆ 平凡的
(同)adroit, canny, cunning, dexterous

ingenuous [] adj.直率的,单纯的(showing innocent simplicity and candidness)
(类)ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
直率的•掩饰=粗俗的•打扮=礼貌的•怠慢(事物及其反面特征)
fabricate•ingenuous =discompose•placid 捏造•直率的=使不安•平息的(反面特征)
ingratiating•win favor=disingenuous•deceive 逢迎的•使喜欢=虚伪的•欺骗(目的)
pernicious•injure=disingenuous•mislead 有害的•伤害=虚伪的•欺骗(正面特征)
ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness阅历不深者•老练=悲愤嫉俗者•信赖(反特)
(反)ingenuous ◆ cunning/ sly/ hypocritical 直率的 ◆ 狡猾的/ 狡猾的/ 伪善的
disingenuousness ◆ guilelessness 无诚意 ◆ 坦诚
(记)ingenious和ingenuous 区别在中间的 i和 u 联想:i 聪明,you 单纯
(同)naturalL,artless,naive, unaffected, unsophisticated

ingest [] vt. 摄取,咽下,吸收(to take in for or as if for digestion)
(反)ingest ◆ expel 摄取 ◆ 排出

ingrained [] adj. 根深蒂固的(to work indelibly into the natural texture)
(反)ingrained ◆ easily to change/ extrinsic 根深蒂固的 ◆ 易于改变/外表的
(记)in+grain(木头的纹理)+ed入木三分-根深蒂固的
(同)congenital, constitutional, inbred, indwelling, innate

ingrate [] n. 忘恩负义者(an ungrateful person)adj. 不知恩的,忘恩的
(反)ingrate ◆ thankful person 忘恩负义者 ◆ 感恩的人
(记)in(不)+ grate感激→不感激的→忘恩负义 参考:grateful感激的,感谢的

ingratiating [] adj. 讨人喜欢的(agreeable)逢迎的,讨人欢心的
(类)ingratiating•win favor=disingenuous•deceive 迷人的•赢得喜欢=虚伪的•欺骗(正面特征)
(记)in+grati(感激)+ate使(观众等)感激;联想:讨人喜欢的作品或演员让读者和观众感激。
(同)deferential, ingratiatory, insinuating
(例)Reading requires an effort…Print is not as ingratiating as television
阅读是要费劲的…印刷品终究不如电视那么讨人喜欢

inherent [] adj. 固有的, 内在的(belonging by nature or habit)
(反)extrinsic ◆ inherent 外在的 ◆ 内在的
(同)congenital, essential, inborn, ingrained, innate, intrinsic

inimical [] adj.敌意的(having the disposition of an enemy)
(反)inimical ◆ friendly/amiable/amicable/amenable 敌意的 ◆ 友好的/亲切的/友善的/服从的
(记)inimi(=enemy敌人)+cal →敌意的
(同)hostile, inimicable, unfriendly

inimitable [] adj. 无法模仿的,独特的(not capable of being imitated)
(类)indubitable•question=inimitable•copy 不容置疑的•怀疑=无法模仿的•模仿
(反)inimitable ◆ commonplace/ordinary 独特的 ◆ 平凡的
(记)in(不能)+imitable(模仿的)

iniquity [] n. 邪恶,不公正(gross injustice)
(反)iniquity ◆ rectitude/disinterestedness 不公正 ◆ 公正
(同)evil, crime sin, tort

initiate [] vt. 开始,发动,传授(to cause or facilitate the beginning of)
(类)catalysis•initiate=supervisor•oversight 催化剂•发动=管理者•小心照顾
eccentric•conventional=doyen•initiated 行为古怪者•常规的=老前辈•刚入门的(反面特征)
(反)initiate ◆ follow up 开始 ◆ 跟随
inveterate ◆ uninitiated 熟练的 ◆ 无经验的

inkling [] n. 略知,模糊概念(a slight knowledge or vague notion)
(类)inkling•indication=lapse•error 略知•知识=小错误•错误 (少与正常)
inkling•knowledge=modicum•quantity 略知•知识=小量•量 (少与正常)
(记)ink(墨水)+ling淡的墨水印记-略知
(同)clue, indication, notion
(例)had not the faintest inkling of what it was all about

innocuous [] adj.(行为,言论等)无害的(not likely to give offense)
(类)placebo•innocuous=salve•unctuous=venom•toxious
安慰剂•无害的=油膏•油质的=毒液•有毒的(事物典型特征)
(反)innocuous ◆ injurious/noxious 无害的 ◆ 有害的
(记)in(没有)+nocuous(有毒的)参考:noxious有害的
(同)blameless, guiltless, inculpable, irreproachable

innovation [] n. 改革,创新(the introduction of something new)
(类)contumaciou•authority=reactionary•innovation 顽固的反对权威=反动的反对革新
(同)change, mutation, novelty, permutation

inquisitive [] adj. 过分好奇的(improperly curious about the affairs of others)
(类)inquisitive•curious=painful•agonizing
好奇的•过分好奇的=疼痛的•疼痛难忍的(程度)

insight [] n. 洞察力(the capacity to discern the true nature of a situation;penetration)
(类)insight• discern=mettle• endure 洞察力•洞悉=毅力•忍耐 (正面特征)
【注】mettle :staying quality : STAMINA毅力,持久力(还有勇气的意思)
insight• discerning=deadpan•impassive 洞察力•洞悉=无表情•消极(正面特征)
(记)in(加强)+sight(视力)

insipid [] adj. 平淡的(lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate);难吃的
(类)insipid•invention=prosaic•imagination 平淡的•创造=平淡的•想象力(缺乏关系)
(反)insipid ◆ piquant 难吃的 ◆ 开胃的
(记)in+sip(吸吮)+id →没法吸(吃)的→平淡,难吃的
(同)vapid, flat, jejune, banal, inane ,arid, tedious, uninteresting
(例)an insipid romance with platitudes on every page

insolent [] adj. 粗野的,无礼的(exhibiting boldness or effrontery)
(类)insolently•veneration=perfunctorily•inspiration
无礼地不会让人尊敬=例行公事地不会激发灵感
【注】perfunctory :characterized by routine or superficiality:MECHANICAL
例行公事的,机械的,敷衍的 如:a perfunctory smile一个敷衍的笑
(反)insolent ◆ polite/courteous 无礼的 ◆ 有礼貌的
insolent ◆ respectful 粗野的 ◆ 恭敬的,有礼貌的
(例)an insolent child with no respect or regard for anyone

insouciant [] adj. 无忧无虑的(lighthearted unconcern)
(类)tenacious•yield=insouciant•worry 不屈不挠的•屈服=无忧无虑的•担忧
(同)carefree, lighthearted, lightsome
(记)in+souci(= solicit恳求)+ant→万事不求人→无忧无虑的

instate [] vt. 任命(to set or establish in a rank or office)
(反)instate ◆ oust 任命 ◆ 剥夺
(记)in(进入)+state(政府)进入政府任职→任命
(同)inaugurate, induct, install, invest

instigate [] vt. 教唆,怂恿,煽动(to goad or urge forward)
(类)instigator•incite=bully•browbeat 煽动者• 煽动=欺凌弱小者•欺凌(人物及其动作)
(反)quell ◆ foment/ instigate/ rouse 镇压 ◆ 煽动/ 教唆 /煽动
(同)abet, foment, provoke

instill [] v. 滴注,慢慢地灌输(to impart gradually)
(反)instill ◆ drain away 慢慢地灌输 ◆ 渐渐枯竭
instill ◆ remove 慢慢地灌输 ◆ 移开
(记)in(进入)+still=(drop 滴)→一滴一滴的进入 参考:distill 蒸馏
(同)inculcate, infix, inseminate

institute [] n. 学院 vt. 创立,开始,制定(to originate and get established)
(反)institute ◆ abrogate / rescind / efface 创立 ◆ 废除
(记)最著名的是MIT(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
(同)constitute, create, establish, organize

instrumentalist [] n. 乐器演奏家
(类)instrumentalist•orchestra=actor•troupe 乐器演奏家•管弦乐队=演员•剧团 
instrumentalist•symphony=dancer•ballet 乐器演奏家•交响乐=舞蹈家•芭蕾舞
(记)instrumenta+list

insubordinate [] adj.不服从的,反抗的(disobedient to authority)
(类)insubordinate•submissive=capricious•deliberate不顺从的•顺从的=易冲动的•深思熟虑的
【注】capricious:characterized by or subject to whim;impulsive and unpredictable
(反)tractable ◆ insubordinate/ intransigent/ incorrigible/ obstinate
易于管教的 ◆ 反抗的/ 不妥协的/ 顽固的/ 倔强的
(同)contumacious, insurgent, rebellious, seditious
(记)in(不)+subordinate(服从)不服从的→反抗的

insular [] adj. 岛的,孤立的,岛特有的
(反)insular ◆ cosmopolitan 孤立的 ◆ 世界性的
insularity ◆ cosmopolitanism 岛国性质 ◆ 世界大同主义
(同)parochial, provincial, sectarian

insulate [] v. 使绝缘,使隔离(to place in a detached situation)
(反)insulate ◆ expose 使隔离 ◆ 暴露
(记)insul(词根:岛)+ate 使成为岛,隔离
(同)isolate, island, separate, sequester

insurgent [] adj. 叛乱的,起事的n. 叛乱分子
(类)insurgent•rebel=incendiary•agitate 叛乱分子•叛乱=煽动者•煽动 (人及其正面动作)
rebelliousness•insurgent=parsimony•miser 叛乱的•叛乱分子=吝啬•吝啬鬼(正面)
(记)in(加强)+surge(=rise升起)→叛乱 参考:insurrection n. 造反;surgent 汹涌的

intangible [] adj. 难以明了的,无形的(incapable of being perceived by the senses)
(类)impracticable•effected=intangible•known不可行的•有效的=难以明了的•知道的 (反义)
(反)corporeal ◆ intangible 有形的 ◆ 无形的
(记)in(不能)+tangible(触摸的)不可触摸的引申为无形的,难以明了的
(同)impalpable, imponderable, inappreciable, indiscernible, invisible

integral [] adj. 完整的,应有的(essential to completeness)
(反)integral ◆ superfluous /redundant 完整的 ◆ 多余的
(记)动词形式是integrate数学上这是积分的意思
(同)whole, complete, entire, full, perfect

integrity [] n. 正直,诚实,完整(the quality or state of being complete or undivided)
(类)entire•integrity =ecumenical•generality=genuine•authenticity
完整的•完整=一般的•一般性=真实的•真实性(形名同义)
(反)taint ◆ integrity / wholesomeness 污点 ◆ 正直/健康
integrity ◆ incompleteness 完整 ◆ 不完全
(记)和integrate(使成为整体)
(同)honesty, honestness, honor, incorruption

intelligible [] adj. 可理解的,易理解的(capable of being understood)
(类)garble•unintelligible=correct•accurate 正确•精确=混淆•难解的(正面特征)
(记)注意和intelligent(聪明的)区别
(同)apprehensible, comprehendible, graspable, lucid, luminous

intemperate [] adj. 无节制的,放纵的(not temperate especially)
(反)intemperate ◆ equable/ constrained 放纵的 ◆ 平静的/ 受约束的
(记)in(无)+temperate(有节制的)
(同)excessive, inordinate, unrestrained, untempered

intensify [] vi. 加强(to make intense or more intensive)
(类)abate•intensity=taper•width 减轻•强度=逐渐变细•宽度(减轻关系)
alleviate•intensity=abate•tax 减轻•强度=降低•税 (动宾)
moderate•intensity=extenuate•seriousness 缓和•强度=减轻•严重性(动宾)
(反)intensify ◆ abate/ assuage/ attenuate 加强 ◆ 减轻/ 减缓/ 削弱
(同)aggravate, enhance, intensate, magnify, rise

inter [] vt. 埋葬(to deposit(a dead body)in the earth or in a tomb)
(类)inter•burial=obliterate•removal 埋葬•葬礼=擦去•移动(事件及其关联动作)
(记)意大利绿荫豪门国际米兰

intercede [] vi. 仲裁,调解(to intervene between parties to reconciling differences)
(类)intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret/ augur•prediction
仲裁者•调解=翻译•解释/ 占卜者•预言(人物及其本征动作)
(记)inter(中间)+cede(放弃)在中间让双方放弃各自的立场,调解
(同)interfere, intermediate, intervene, mediate

interdict [] v. 阻断,禁止(to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner)
(反)interdict ◆ authorize 禁止 ◆ 批准
(记)inter(在中间)+dict(说)

interim [] n. 中间时期,过渡时期,暂定(an intervening time)adj. 暂时的
(类)respite•labor=interim•concert {mediate•confliction} 间歇•劳动=中间间隔•音乐会
(反)interim ◆ permanent 暂时的 ◆ 永恒
(同)forbid, enjoin, inhibit, prohibit

interlock [] adj. 联锁的(to become locked together or interconnected)
(反)interlocking ◆ independent 联锁的 ◆ 独立
(记)inter+lock(锁)

interminable [] adj. 无尽头的(having or seeming to have no end)
(类)innumerable•number=interminable•duration
无尽的•数目•无限的•持续时间 (形容词修饰名词)
interminable•lengthy =boundless•extensive 无限的•冗长的=无限的•宽广的(程度)
countless/ innumerable/ myriad/ untold•number=everlasting/ interminable•duration
无尽的/ 无数的/ 无数的/ 无法说出的•数量=永恒/ 无尽的•持续时间 (事物的反面特征)
(记)in(无)+terminable(可终止的)不可终止的-无尽头的

intermittent [] adj. 断断续续的,间歇的(coming and going at intervals)
(反)intermittent ◆ constant 间歇的 ◆ 持续的
(记)和interminable(无尽的)一起记忆
(同)isochronal, periodic, recurrent
(例)they predict intermittent rain throughout the day

interregnum [] n. 过渡期政府或统治(a period during which the normal functions of
government or control are suspended)
(类)interregnum•government=hibernation•activity过渡期政府没有政府=冬眠停止活动

interrogate [] vt. 质问,讯问,审问(to question formally and systematically)
(类)inquiry•interrogatory =confidence•arrogant 调查•质问=自信•傲慢(程度)
question•interrogative=order•imperative 提问•质问=命令•强制的命令(程度)
(记)inter(在内部)+rog(问)+ate在内部问-审讯,质问

intimate [] adj. 亲密的 n. 密友(a friend or confidant)
(类)clique•intimates=flock•sheep 朋党集团•密友=一群•羊(组成关系)
intimate•close= engrossed•absorbed =obsessed•attracted
亲密的:紧密的=全神贯注的:入神的=着迷的:吸引的(程度)
(同)friend, acquaintance, confidant, familiar

intimate [] vt. 宣布,明白表示(to make known especially publicly or formally)
(类)intimate•communicate=allude•refer 宣布•通信=暗指•提及(行为及其特殊方式)
(同)connote, hint, imply, insinuate

intimidate [] vt. 威胁,胁迫(to make timid or fearful)
(类)dauntless•intimidate=irrepressible•restrain 无畏的难以胁迫=无法抑制的难以抑制
bully•intimidate=stupid•gullibility 欺凌弱小者威吓别人=笨人轻信别人
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation 阴谋破坏目的是颠覆=暴力强迫目的是胁迫
cowardice•intimidate=choler•antagonize 懦弱者容易被胁迫=易怒者容易招致敌对
(同)browbeat, bully, cow, hector, terrorize
(例)intimidated by so many other bright freshmen 被这么多聪明的年轻人所威胁
(记)timid 本身是一个词;胆小的,羞怯的

intransigent [] adj.不妥协的,固执的(refusing to compromise or to abandon an
extreme position or attitude;irreconcilable)
(类)intransigent•acquiesce=deferential•offend 不妥协的不会勉强同意=恭敬的不会冒犯
(反)intransigent ◆ open to compromise 固执的 ◆ 妥协的
intransigent ◆ pliant/tractable 固执的 ◆ 柔顺的/容易驾驭的
(同)obstinate, incompliant, intractable, pertinacious, tough, stubborn, willful, unpliable, unyielding

intrepid [] adj. 无畏的,刚毅的(characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and
endurance)
(类)genteel•vulgarity=intrepid•fear 优雅的•粗俗=无畏的•害怕 (反义)
intrepid•deter=rapt•distract 无畏难以威慑=全神贯注难以分心
(反)intrepid ◆ apprehensive 无畏的 ◆ 忧惧的
(记)trep (害怕)参考:trepidation 害怕,颤抖

intrigue [] vt. 激起…的兴趣, 用诡计取得 (to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of)
(类)interesting•intriguing=bootless•futile 有趣的•有趣的=无用的•无用的(同义)
(反)pall ◆ interest/intrigue 厌倦 ◆ 兴趣
(记)trigue=trigger (扳机,引起)引申为“引起兴趣”。

intrinsic [] adj. 固有的,内在的(the essential nature or constitution of a thing)
(反)intrinsic ◆ extraneous 内在的 ◆ 无关的

intuitive [] n. 直觉的(known or perceived by intuition • directly apprehended)
(反)extraneous ◆ intuitive 外来的 ◆ 直觉的
【注:直觉的认知由自身得来,而外来的认知由外部得来 extraneous:inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand;existing on or coming from the outside】
(例) had an intuitive awareness of his sister's feelings

inundate [] v. 淹没(to cover with a flood:overflow;overwhelm)
(反)inundate ◆ drain 淹没 ◆ 排干
(同)deluge, engulf, overflow, overwhelm, submerge, swamp, whelm
(记)unda(=wave波浪)→在波浪之中→淹没 参考:undulate v. 波动,起伏

inure [] vt. 使习惯(to accustom to accept something undesirable)
(类)inured•tolerance=addicted•dependency
习惯的•耐性=上瘾的•依赖性(前者有后者特征)
(同)accustom, familiarize, habituate, wont

invective [] n. 谩骂(insulting or abusive language)adj. 谩骂的
(类)exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit 劝告•促进=谩骂•使丢脸(目的)
polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive 争论的•争论的=谩骂的•谩骂的(同义)
(反)invective ◆ flatter 谩骂 ◆ 奉承
invective ◆ laudatory speech/ laudatory words 谩骂 ◆ 赞美之词
(同)abusive, contumelious, opprobrious, scurrile

inveigh [] vi. 痛骂,漫骂,臭骂(to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently:rail)
(反)inveigh ◆ verbally provide support 漫骂 ◆ 口头支持
(同)inveigh against =object, except, expostulate, kick, protest, remonstrate

inveigle [] v. 诱骗,诱使 (to win over by wiles:entice;to acquire by ingenuity or flattery)
(类)plot•plan=inveigle•interest 密谋•谋划=诱骗•使感兴趣(不正当•正常)
(反)inveigle ◆ request directly 诱骗 ◆ 直接要求
inveigle ◆ openly seek to persuade 诱骗 ◆ 公开劝说
(同)lure, allure, bait, decoy, entice, entrap, lead on, seduce, tempt, toll
list 19 inventory-------lethal
inventory [] n. 存货清单(an itemized list of current assets)
(类)census•population=inventory•stock 人口普查•人口数=存货清单•库存
inventory•merchandise=manifest•cargo 存货清单•存货=运货单•货物

inveterate [] adj. 根深的,成癖的,积习的(firmly established by long persistence)
(反)inveterate ◆ uninitiated 根深蒂固的 ◆ 无经验的
inveterate ◆ one-time 根深蒂固的 ◆ 一次,偶尔
(同)confirmed, entrenched,irradicable,settled, sworn

invidious [] adj. 容易引起不满的,招人嫉妒的(tending to cause discontent,animosity,or
envy)
(反)invidious ◆ beneficial 容易引起不满的 ◆ 有益个人或社会的
【注:beneficial :conducive to personal or social well-being】
(同)calumnious, defamatory, detracting
(例)the invidious task of arbitration 这个容易引起不满的裁决

invigorate [] v. 使有活力,激励 (to give life and energy to•animate; also:stimulate)
(类)tonic•invigorate=analgesic•deaden 补品•使健壮=止痛剂•使麻木(正面特征)
(反)debilitate ◆ invigorate 使衰弱 ◆ 使健壮
demoralize ◆ invigorate 士气受挫 ◆ 鼓舞
emaciate ◆ invigorate 使憔悴 ◆ 使生气勃勃
sap ◆ invigorate 使衰竭 ◆ 使生气勃勃

invincible [] adj. 不能征服的,无敌的(incapable of being overcome or defeated;
unconquerable)
(类)invincible•conquer=negligible•perceive 不能征服的不易被征服=可以忽略的不易被察觉
invincible•subdue=impervious•damage 不能征服的•征服=不会受到损伤的•损坏
(同)impregnable, inconquerable, indomitable, invulnerable, unassailable, undefeatable
(例)the team proved to be invincible 这个团队被证明是无法战胜的

invoke [] vt. 恳求,调用(程序等),实施(to put into effect or operation:implement)
(反)invoke ◆ suspend 实施 ◆ 暂停

irascible [] adj. 易发怒的(marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger)
(类)irascible•placate=insensate•conscious 易怒的难以安抚=没感觉难以察觉
(反)affable ◆ irascible 和蔼的 ◆ 易怒的
(同)choleric, cranky, hot-tempered, ireful, passionate, peppery, temperish, testy, touchy
(例)an irascible fellow and hard to get along with

irate [] adj. 发怒的,生气的(arising from anger)
(类)gush•effusive=rage•irate 喷涌•流出的=暴怒•愤怒的(形容词与动词的同义)
(同) angry, choleric, ireful, mad, wrathful
(记)i(谐音“爱”)+rate(责骂)→爱责骂 联想:爱责骂时当然是发怒的 参考:berate责骂

iridescence [] n. 彩虹色(a lustrous rainbowlike play of color)
(反)iridescent ◆ monochromatic 彩色 ◆ 单色

irk [] v.使苦恼,厌烦(to make weary, irritated, or bored)
(类)irk•enrage=suggest•urge 使苦恼•激怒=建议•力劝(目的)
pest•irksome=expert•proficient 让人讨厌的人/事•让人讨厌的=专家•精通的(正面特征)
(反)irk ◆ make someone pleased 使不愉快 ◆ 使愉快
(同)annoy, abrade, bother, exercise, fret, gall, provoke, ruffle, vex
(记)谐音:饿渴。联想:又饿又渴,使人烦恼。

ironclad [] adj. 装铁甲的,无懈可击的(so firm or secure as to be unbreakable)
(类)ironclad•firm=jammed•full=brilliant•smart
装甲的•坚固=拥挤的•满的=才华横溢的•聪明的(程度)
(同)inflexible, constant, fixed, immovable, immutable, inalterable
(例)an ironclad case against the defendant 一项针对被告的无懈可击的诉讼

irradicable [] adj. 不能根除的, 根深蒂固的(impossible to eradicate:deep-rooted)
(类)ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate 不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除(抬杠关系)
incorrigible•amend=irradicable•remove 无可救药的•改正=不能根除的•删除(抬杠关系)
(同)inveterate, confirmed, deep-rooted, deep-seated, entrenched, hard-shell, settled

irreducible [] adj. (数)不可约的
(反)factorable ◆ irreducible 可约的 ◆ 不可约的

irritate [] n. 刺激,烦恼,刺激物(to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in:annoy)
(类)antidote•poisoning=balm•irritation 解毒•毒=温和物质•刺激物 (名词反义)
haunt•familiar=harass•irritating 常去的地方是熟悉的=烦扰是烦人的
(反)balm ◆ irritant 温和的 ◆ 刺激的
salve ◆ irritant 药膏 ◆ 刺激物
(同)aggravate, exasperate, gall, grate, inflame, nettle, peeve, pique, provoke, rile, roil

isthmus [] n.地峡 (a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas)
(类)isthmus•land=strait•water 地峡联结陆地=海峡联结水

itinerary [] n. 旅行日记,旅行指南(a travel diary;a traveler's guidebook)
(类)itinerary•trip=syllabus•course 旅行日记•旅行=课程提纲•课程(安排关系)

jabber [] v. 快而不清楚地说(to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly)
(反)jabber ◆ speak slowly 快而不清楚地说 ◆ 慢慢地说
(同)gibber, babble, chatter, gabble

jaded [] adj.疲惫的,过度的,厌倦的(fatigued by overwork:exhausted)
(类)overexposure•jaded=vaccination•immune
曝光过度•过度的=疫苗接种•免疫的(前者造成后者)
(反)jaded ◆ keen 厌倦的 ◆ 热心的
(同)tired, fatigued, wearied, weary, worn

jape [] n. v. 嘲弄(to make mocking fun of)
(反)revere ◆ jape at 尊敬 ◆ 嘲笑
(同)joke, crack, jest, quip
(记)谐音:雅皮。联想:雅皮很爱嘲笑别人俗气。

jargon [] n. 行话(specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, similar group)
(类)vernacular•place=jargon•profession 方言•地方=行话•行业
(记)谐音:扎根。联想:扎根基层是所有行业的行话。

jarring [] adj. 刺耳的
(类)malodorous•smell=jarring•sound 恶臭的•气味=刺耳的•声音
(反)melodious ◆ jarring 音调优美的 ◆ 刺耳的
(同)harsh, grating, hoarse, rasping, raucous, rough, strident

jaundice [] vt. 使怀偏见(to affect with envy, jealousy, prejudice, or hostility)
(反)jaundice ◆ dispose favorably 使怀偏见 ◆ 好意的处理
jaundiced ◆ unprejudiced/candid 有偏见的 ◆ 公正的
【注:jaundiced :yellowed; prejudiced; envious 黄疸的;偏见的;嫉妒的】
(记)jaundice本意是黄疸。中国有红眼病,西方是黄眼病,所有引申为因嫉妒引发的偏见。

jaunty [] adj.愉快的,满足的(sprightly in manner or appearance:lively)
(反)staid ◆ jaunty 沉静的 ◆ 轻快的
(记)来自genteel adj. 上流社会的

jejune [•n] adj. 空洞的,不成熟的 (devoid of significance or interest•dull)
(类)labyrinthine•simplicity=jejune•interest 迷宫•简单的=内容空洞的•有趣的
(反)jejune ◆ thought provoking 内容空洞的 ◆ 促人思考的
(记)je 谐音:摘。June 六月。联想:六月摘的果子,当然是不成熟的。

jest [] n. v. 说笑,玩笑(an utterance intended to be taken as mockery or humor)
(类)jeer•derision=reprimand•censure 嘲笑•嘲笑=.申斥•责难(同义)
(反)jest ◆ solemnity 玩笑 ◆ 严肃
jest ◆ solemn utterance 玩笑 ◆ 严肃的话
(同)joke, crack, drollery, jape, quip, waggery

jeopardy [] n. 危险(exposure to or imminence of death, loss, or injury:danger)
(类)uninformative•fathom=jeopardy•overcome信息贫乏的难以彻底了解=危险难以克服
【注:uninformative :providing little or no information; not informative】
(记)谐音:窄坡地。联想:又窄又有坡的地方当然危险。

jettison [] vt. 丢弃(to get rid of as superfluous or encumbering • discard)
(反)jettison ◆ retain 丢弃 ◆ 保留
(例)must be prepared to jettison many romantic notions 必须准备抛弃一些浪漫的想法。

jibe [] vi.一致(to be in accord:agree)嘲笑
(反)jibe ◆ conflict 一致 ◆ 冲突
(同)agree, accord, conform, correspond

jingoist [] n. 沙文主义者
(类)nepotism•kinship=jingoist•nationality 偏袒亲戚•亲戚=沙文主义者•国家
(反)dove ◆ warmonger/jingoist 鸽派 ◆ 鹰派/沙文主义者
(记)jingo 谐音:靖国。联想:靖国神社是沙文主义的体现。

jitter [] vi. 神经过敏,战战兢兢(to be nervous or act in a nervous way)
(反)jittery ◆ resolute 战战兢兢 ◆ 坚定的

jocular [ ] adj. 诙谐的(given to jesting•habitually jolly or jocund; playful)
(反)jocular ◆ lachrymose/serious 诙谐的 ◆ 爱哭的/严肃的
(同)witty, facetious, humorous, jocose

jocund [] adj. 快乐的,高兴的(suggestive of high spirits and lively mirthfulness)
(反)jocund ◆ dour/ dreary/ morose/ serious 欢乐的 ◆ 阴郁的/ 沉闷的/ 郁闷的/ 严肃的
(同)merry, blithe, blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful

jog [] n. 慢跑(a movement, pace, or instance of jogging as for exercise)
(类)jog•exercise=barter•trade 慢跑•运动=以物易物•交易(种属)
(记)观察一下,词形象不象自行车。

jolt [] vi. 颠簸而行,震摇(to cause to move with a sudden jerky motion)
(类)jolt•move=check•stop 颠簸•运动=突然中断•停止(动作程度)
(同)shock, startle

jot [] vt. 略记,摘要(to write briefly or hurriedly•set down in the form of a note)
(类)nip•eat=jot•write 小口吃•吃=略记•记下(前者是后者的小量)
(同)particle, bit, grain, iota, minim, modicum, speck, tittle, whit

jovial [] adj. 快活(markedly good-humored esp. as evidenced by jollity and conviviality)
(反)jovial ◆ drab/ lachrymose/ lugubrious/ maudlin/ morose/ mournful/ saturnine
愉快的 ◆ 悲惨的/ 悲哀的/ 伤感的/ 郁闷的/ 哀伤的/ 忧郁的
joviality ◆ moroseness 快活 ◆ 郁闷
(同)merry, blithe, festive, gleeful, jocund, jolly, lighthearted, mirthful

jubilant [] adj. 喜悦的,喜洋洋的(exultant)
(反)dolorous ◆ jubilant 悲哀的 ◆ 喜悦的
(同)exultant, exulting, triumphant
(记)谐音“卓别林”联想:喜剧大师卓别林给人带来欢乐。

judicious [] adj. 明智的,慎重的(sound judgment•discreet)
(类)miser•stingy=sage•judicious 吝啬鬼•吝啬=贤人•明智的
(反)judicious ◆ daft/ unwise 明智的 ◆ 愚蠢的/无智的
judicious ◆ imprudent 慎重的 ◆ 轻率的
politic ◆ injudicious 慎重的 ◆ 不慎重的
judiciousness ◆ indiscretion 慎重 ◆ 不慎重
(同)wise, judgmatic, prudent, sage, sane, sapient, sensible

juggernaut [] n. 势不可挡的力量(a massive inexorable force that crushes everything
in its path)
(类)juggernaut•unstoppable=enigma•impenetrable
势不可挡的力量是无法阻碍的=迷是难以理解的
juggernaut•stoppable=exacting•satisfied
不可挡的力量是难以可阻止的=苛求的是难以使满意的
siren•unresist=juggernaut•unstop 海妖的魅力无法抗拒=势不可挡的力量无法阻止
juggernaut•crush=charlatan•deceive=quisling•betray
势不可挡的力量•碾碎=江湖骗子•行骗=卖国贼•背叛(正面特征)

kangaroo [] n. 袋鼠
(类)kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent 袋鼠 •有袋类动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物 (种属)

ken [] n. 视野范围(the range of vision)
(类)earshot•hear=ken•see 听力范围•听=视野范围•看
(记)谐音:看。

kidnap [] vt. 诱拐,绑架,勒赎(to seize and detain by unlawful force or fraud or carry away
and often with a demand for ransom)
(类)kidnap:detainment=extortion:retribution 绑架是强行拘留=勒索是强求回报
(记)kid 小孩 nap 小睡,疏忽 联想:趁小孩小睡疏忽的时候将他绑架。

kindle [] vt. 点燃 vi. 着火(to stir up•arouse)
(反)extinguish ◆ kindle/ rekindle 熄灭 ◆ 点燃/重新点燃
(同)stir, arouse, awaken, bestir, challenge, rally, rouse, wake, waken, whet
(记)由candle (蜡烛)变化而来。

kindred [] adj. 同族的, 类似的(of a similar nature or character)
(反)kindred ◆ dissimilar 相似的 ◆ 不相似的
(记)kind本身就有种类的意思。

knack [] n. 诀窍 (a clever trick or stratagem)
(反)knack ◆ foolish 诀窍 ◆ 愚蠢
(记)与knock一起记。联想:敲脑袋让人开窍。

knave [] n. 流氓(a tricky deceitful fellow)
(类)sage•judgement=knave•deceive 贤哲•判断=流氓•行骗(正面特征)
(同)villian, miscreant, rascal
(记)记住这个词与扑克牌中的老K有关。联想:老K是个流氓无赖。

knead [] vt. 揉捏(to work and press into a mass with or as if with the hands)
(类)knead•malleable=penetrate•permeable 揉捏•可塑的=渗透•可渗透的
(记)谐音:泥的。联想:泥的当然可以揉捏了。

knit [] v. 编织(to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles)
(类)knit•yarn=plait•hair 编织•纱线=编辫子•头发(用后者实现前者)
needle•knit=loom•weave 针•编织=织布机•纺织
(反)ravel ◆ knit 解开 ◆ 编织

knotty [] adj. 多节的,棘手的(intricate; difficult; tangled)
(反)knotty ◆ easy/ simple 棘手的 ◆ 容易的/简单的
(同)complicated, elaborate, intricate, labyrinthine, sophisticated

kudos [] n. 名望, 荣誉, 声誉(award, honor; compliment, praise)
(反)kudos ◆ disparage 荣誉 ◆ 贬损
(同)accolade, badge, decoration, distinction, laurels
(例)to all three should go some kind of special kudo for refusing to succumb
(记)谐音:ku 酷。联想:很酷的DOS(微软最早的操作系统)为微软赢得了荣誉。

labile [] adj. 易变的,不稳定的(likely to change ;unstable)
(反)labile ◆ stable 不稳定的 ◆ 稳定的
(记)lab 实验室。联想:实验室里的元素性质是不稳定的。

labored [] adj. 表达困难的(lacking ease of expression)
(反)glib ◆ labored 口齿伶俐的 ◆ 表达困难的
(记)来自labor 劳动。

labyrinth [] n. 迷宫,难解的事物,迷路(maze;something extremely complex or tortuous in
structure, arrangement, or character:intricacy, perplexity)
(类)labyrinthine•simplicity=jejune•interest 迷宫不简单=空洞的不有趣
ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct 下流的•适宜的=迷宫似的•直接的 (反义)
labyrinth•tortuous=ornament•decorative 迷宫•曲折的=装饰物•装饰的(正面特征)

lackluster [] n. 无光泽, 暗淡(lacking in sheen, brilliance, or vitality:dull, mediocre)
(反)lackluster ◆ radiant 无光泽 ◆ 发光的
(记)lack+luster缺乏光泽。

laconic [] adj.(用字)简洁的
(类)audacious•trepidation=laconic•volubility 大胆的•胆怯=简洁的•冗长(反义)
laconic•speech=austere•design 简洁的• 演说=简朴的•设计(形修饰名)
(反)laconic ◆ garrulous/ loquacious/ voluble/ verbose 简洁的 ◆ 饶舌的/ 多话的/ 冗长的
laconism ◆ verbosity 简洁 ◆ 罗嗦
(同)concise, breviloquent, brief, compendiary

lachrymose [] adj. 爱哭的, 悲哀的(tearful; mournful)
(反)lacrimose ◆ gladness 悲哀的 ◆ 快乐的
(同)tearful, teary, weeping, weepy

lambaste [] vt. 痛打(to assault violently),严责(to attack verbally:censure)
(反)lambaste ◆ extol 严责 ◆ 表扬
(同)baste, hammer, paste, pelt, thrash
(记)lam(鞭打;谐音:栏→拦住就打)+ baste(在烤肉上涂油;狠揍)→痛打,严责
参考:baste=bake+toast/ roast 三烤合一

lament [] n/vt.vi. 哀悼(mourn);悔恨,悲叹(to regret deeply; deplore)
(类)celebrate•lament=slight•show respect 庆祝•哀悼=轻视•尊敬(反义)

lamentable [] adj. 忧郁的,不快的(expressing grief)
(类)lamentable•pity=responsible•censure 令人惋惜的令人可惜=应责斥的应该责斥(正面特征)
(同)melancholy, doleful, dolesome

lampoon [•n] n.讽刺文章v.讽刺(a harsh satire usually directed against an individual)
(类)panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize 颂词•赞扬=讽刺文章•讽刺(同义)
satire•lampoon=diligence•effort 讽刺•讽刺=勤奋•努力 (同义)
(反)paean ◆ harshly lampoon 颂歌 ◆ 尖刻的讽刺

landfill [`] n. 垃圾堆(a system of trash and garbage disposal)
(类)cistern•liquids=landfill•refuse 蓄水池储存液体=垃圾堆储存垃圾

languid [] adj.没精打采的,怠倦的(drooping or flagging from or as if from exhaustion:weak)
(类)desultory•plan=languid•energy 断断续续的缺乏计划=没精打采的缺乏精力
(反)languid ◆ energetic 懒散的 ◆ 有精力的
languid ◆ vehement/ vivacious 没精打采的 ◆ 激烈的/快活的
(例)doing the job in a slow and languid manner
(记)谐音:懒鬼。联想:懒鬼总是没精打采的。

languish [] v.衰弱,变得消瘦(to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated)
(反)languish ◆ thrive 萧条,衰败 ◆ 欣欣向荣
(同)fail, decline, deteriorate, fade, flag, weaken

languor [] n. 衰弱无力(listless indolence or inertia)
(反)languor ◆ thriveness 衰弱 ◆ 兴旺
(同)lethargy, coma, dullness, lassitude, slumber, stupor, torpor
(记)谐音:懒哥。联想:懒哥衰弱无力。

lank [] adj. 瘦弱的,稀疏的(not well filled out:slender, thin)
(反)lank ◆ stalwart 瘦弱的 ◆ 强壮的
(记)比较:lark百灵鸟 联想:百灵鸟又小又弱。参考:lanky adj. 瘦长的

lapse [] n. 过失,小错(a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention)
(类)lapse•error=misbehavior•criminality 小过错•错误=轻罪•犯罪(程度)
misdemeanor•crime=lapse•error 轻罪•罪行=小错•错误 (程度)

larder [] n. 食物贮藏室,食品橱(a place where food is stored:pantry)
(类)larder•food=wardrobe•clothes 食物柜储存食物=衣柜储存衣物
larder•provisions=vault•valuables 食物柜储存供应品=地窖储存贵重物品
larder•food••armory•munitions 食品橱:食物=军械库:军需品

largesse [] n.慷慨(generosity)
(反)largesse ◆ parsimony 慷慨 ◆ 小气
largesse ◆ penury 慷慨 ◆ 贫穷

lariat [] n.套索(a long light rope used with a running noose to catch livestock or tether grazing animals:lasso)
(类)lariat•wrangler=crook•shepherd 套索•牧马者=牧杖•牧羊者(职业及其工具)

lash [] v. 捆扎,绑紧(to bind with or as if with a line)
(反)lash ◆ unbind 捆住 ◆ 解开

lassitude [d] n.疲乏无力,没精打采(a condition of weariness or debility:fatigue)
(类)arrogance•defer=lassitude•stir 傲慢难以服从=疲乏难以激起
(反)lassitude ◆ verve/vim/animation 倦怠 ◆ 活力/活力/精力
lassitude ◆ vitality/ebullience 疲倦 ◆ 活力/热情
lassitude ◆ a feeling of vigor 疲倦 ◆ 活力
lassitude ◆ effervesce 疲乏 ◆ 兴奋
(记)注意观察词的开头L+ass(驴) 联想:懒驴总是没精打采。

latent [] adj. 潜伏的,潜在的(present and capable of becoming though not now visible)
(类)latency•response=incubation•disease 潜伏过后发生反应=潜伏过后疾病发作
(反)latent ◆ menifest 潜在的 ◆ 明显的
(同)abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent, quiescent

lathe [] n. 车床
(类)lathe•shape=clasp•fasten 车床用来成型•扣子用来扣紧

latitude [•d] n. 行动或言论的自由(freedom from normal limitations, or regulations)
(反)latitude ◆ strict limitation 自由 ◆ 严格的限制
latitude ◆ constrained 自由 ◆ 被限制的

laudatory [] adj. 赞美的,赞赏的(expressing praise)
(类)consel•advice=laud•homage 劝告是表达建议=赞美是表达敬意
(反)execrable ◆ commendable/ laudable 极坏的 ◆ 值得赞扬的
pejorative ◆ laudatory 贬低的 ◆ 赞美的
(同)eulogistic, encomiastic, laudative, panegyrical, praiseful

lavish [] adj. 浪费的,过度的(expended or produced in abundance)v.浪费
(反)lavish ◆ hoard/stint 浪费 ◆ 储藏/吝啬
impecunious ◆ lavish/prosperous 贫穷的 ◆ 过分丰富的/繁荣的
lavish ◆ austere/ economical/ mean/ parsimonious/ penurious
浪费的 ◆ 朴素的/ 节约的/ 吝啬的/ 吝啬的/ 吝啬的
(同)exuberant, lush, luxuriant, opulent, prodigal, profusive

leaven [] vt. 使发酵,影响(to raise as bread with a leaven)
(类)distill•purity=leaven•volume 蒸馏提高纯度=发酵扩张体积

leer [] vi. 斜视,一瞥(to cast a sidelong glance)
(类)stare•leer=peruse•smatter 凝视•斜视=精读•涉猎(反义)

leery [] adj. 可疑的,怀疑的;机警的(suspicious or distrustful;wary)
(反)leery ◆ showing no doubt 怀疑的 ◆ 毫不怀疑的
(记) 来自leer,怀疑的时候往往会斜着眼看

legacy [i] n.遗产(money or property bequeathed to another by will)
(类)legacy•predecessor=gift•donor 遗产来自先人=赠品来自捐赠者
legacy•predecessor=endowment•patron 遗产来自前辈=捐赠来自捐赠者

legend [] n. 传奇,图例(an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart)
(类)glossary•text=legend•map 文本注释文字列表•文本=地图说明文字列表•地图
(反)legendary ◆ obscure 传奇的,杰出的 ◆ 无名的,不杰出的
(记)联想集团的英文名。

legion [] n. 兵团;众多,大量(a very large number:multitude)
(反)legion ◆ lack in number 大量 ◆ 少量
(记)[来自]古罗马的一个兵团人数非常众多,有3000到6000人。

lenient [] adj. 不苛刻的(inclined not to be strict)仁慈的,宽厚的(merciful)
(类)martinet•leniency=dabbler•dedication 严格者缺乏宽厚态度=涉猎者缺乏投入精神
(同)gentle, balmy, bland, mild
(记)谐音:列宁。联想:列宁是多么的宽厚。

lethal [] adj. 致命的 (capable of causing death)
(类)disagreeable•hateful=harmful•lethal 令人不快的•可憎的=有害的•致命的(程度)
(同)deadly, fatal, mortal
(记)谐音:离骚。联想:屈原遭到致命的打击后写出《离骚》。
list 20 lethargic---------maudlin
lethargic [] adj. 昏睡的,没精打采的(being lazy, sluggish, or indifferent)
(类)antidote:poison=tonic:lethargy 中毒需要解毒药=缺乏精力需要补品
lethargic•stimulate=skeptical•convince 没精打采的•激励=好怀疑的•使信服
(反)lethargy ◆ vigor 缺乏精力 ◆ 精力
(同)coma, dullness, languor, lassitude,slumber, torpidity, torpor
(例)became lethargic after taking the drug
(记)leth=死,引申为死气沉沉,无精打采

levee [] n. 防洪堤(an embankment for preventing flooding)
(类)levee•river=cordon•crowd 防波堤防止河水涌入=警界线防止人群涌入
rampart•invasion=levee•flood 堡垒防止入侵=防洪堤防止洪水
padding•damage=levee•flooding 填塞物防止损伤=防洪堤防止洪水

levelheaded [] adj. 明智的,有判断力的 (having sound judgment:sensible)
(反)levelheaded ◆ foolish 明智的 ◆ 愚蠢的

levity [] n. 轻浮 多变(excessive or unseemly frivolity;lack of steadiness)
(反)levity ◆ gravity/ seriousness 轻浮 ◆ 严肃
(同) lightness, flightiness, flippancy, frivolity, volatility
(记)lev(上升)参考:levy 征税。 Levitate使浮于空中。

lexicographer [] n. 辞典编纂者(an author or editor of a dictionary)
(类)cartographer•map=weaver•cloth=lexicographer•dictionary
制图家•地图=织布者•布=编辞典者•辞典 (人及其工作成品)
(记)lex(词语)参考:lexicon 辞典。

liability [] n. 责任,债务(something for which one is liable; esp. pecuniary obligation)
(类)exempt•liability=pardon•penalty 免除债务=宽恕罪过(消除关系)
(反)asset ◆ liability 资产 ◆ 负债
liability ◆ immunity 责任 ◆ 豁免权

liberalist [] n. 自由者(the quality or state of being liberal)
(反)liberalist ◆ enfetterist 自由者 ◆ 被束缚者

libertine [n] n. 放荡不羁者(a person who is unrestrained by convention or morality;
specifically:one leading a dissolute life)
(类)caviler•carping=libertine•licentious 吹毛求疵者•吹毛求疵的=放荡不羁者•放肆的
libertine•dissolute=sycophant•obsequious 放荡不羁者•放荡的=谄媚者•谄媚的
ludicrous•buffoon=dissolute•libertine=humorous•wag
滑稽的•小丑=放荡的•放荡者•幽默的•诙谐者
(反)libertine ◆ ascetic 放荡不羁者 ◆ 禁欲者

libretto [] n. 剧本(the text of a work as an opera for the musical theater)
(类)libretto•opera=lyrics•song 剧本•歌剧=歌词•歌曲
(记)以o为结尾多与音乐有关

licentious [] adj.放纵的,纵欲的(lacking legal or moral restraints)
(类)voluble•verbosity=licentious•dissoluteness 健谈的•多话=放荡的•放荡
(反)licentiousness ◆ moral restrain 放纵而不受道德限制 ◆ 道德限制
(同)abandoned, dissolute, profligate

lien [] n.扣押权,留置权(legal claim until a debt on it is repaid)
(类)lien•claim=subpoena•command 扣押权是法律意义上的权利=传票是法律意义上的命令

liken [] vt. 把…比作 (compare)
(类)liken•similarity=discriminate•difference 比拟依靠相似性=区别依靠差异性

limber [] adj. 可塑的,柔软的(capable of being shaped•flexible)
(类)limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty 柔软的•弹性=脆弱的•脆弱

limerick [] n. 打油诗
(类)farce•performance=limerick•poem 闹剧是一种滑稽表演=打油诗是一种幽默短诗
limerick•poem=lampoon•satire 打油诗•诗=讽刺文•讽刺文学 (种属)

limousine [] n. 豪华轿车
(类)mansion•residence=limousine•automobile 大厦,毫宅•居所=豪华小轿车•汽车

limp [] adj. 松软的 v. 跛行(lacking firm texture, substance, or structure)
(类)limp•walk=stutter•talk 跛行•行走=口吃•说话
(反)limp ◆ firm 松软的 ◆ 坚硬

limpid [] adj. 透明的,清澈的(marked by transparency:pellucid)
(反)limpid ◆ murky/ unclear/ turbid 透明的 ◆ 模糊不清的/浑浊的

linen [] n. 亚麻布
(类)clay•porcelain=flax•linen 粘土制成陶器=亚麻制成亚麻布
flannel•cloth=linen•fabric 法兰绒•布=亚麻布•织物(种属)

linger [] v. 逗留, 闲荡, 拖延(tarry;saunter; to be slow to act:procrastinate)
(反)lingering ◆ fleeting 漫步的 ◆ 飞速的

linoleum [] n. 油布
(类)varnish•wood=wax•linoleum 清漆•木头=蜡•油布(保护和修饰作用)

lint [] n. 绷带用麻布,皮棉(fuzz consisting of fine ravelings and short fibers of yarn and fabric)
(类)lint•covering=tarpaulin•garment 皮棉•覆盖物=油布雨衣•衣服(种属)

lissome [] adj. 柔软的,敏捷的(easily bent;supple)
(反)lissome ◆ solid 柔软的 ◆ 坚硬的
lissome ◆ ungainly 敏捷的 ◆ 笨拙的
(同)supple, limber, lithe, lithesome;nimble

list [] n. vi. 倾斜(a deviation from the vertical:tilt; to tilt to one side)
(反)list ◆ upright/ be upright 倾斜 ◆ 垂直
(记)由倾斜引申倾向,再引申渴望。参考:listless 无渴望的,无精打采的。

lithe [] adj. 柔软的,优雅的(characterized by easy flexibility and grace)
(反)lithe ◆ awkward 优雅的 ◆ 笨拙的
lithe ◆ inelastic 柔软的 ◆ 无弹性的
(同)supple, limber, lissome, lithesome
(例)treading with a lithe silent step

loath [] adj. 不情愿的,勉强的(unwilling to do something contrary to one's ways of thinking)
(反)loath ◆ eager 不情愿的 ◆ 渴望的
loathsome ◆ delectable 讨厌的 ◆ 使人愉快的
(同)disinclined, afraid, averse, hesitant, indisposed, reluctant, uneager

loathe [] vt. 厌恶, 憎恶(to dislike someone or something greatly; abhor)
(反)loathe ◆ 【amusing】 讨厌 ◆ 有趣的 (注:应该是干扰选项)
MW:Contrasted Words:covet, crave, desire, want, wish;Antonyms: tolerate
(同)hate, abhor, abominate, detest, execrate
(例)I loathe washing dishes. 我讨厌洗盘子。

loathing [] n. 极端厌恶,憎恶(extreme disgust:detestation)
(类)castigation•reproof=loathing•dislike 苛责•责备=极端厌恶•不喜欢(程度)
dislike•loathing=pleasure•bliss 讨厌•极度厌恶=快乐•天赐之福 (程度)
(记)谐音“鲁迅”→鲁迅憎恶一切反动派;网友 anifly 提供
有意思的是loathing有ing反而是名词。loath(不情愿的)则是形容词,意思也有较大差别。

lode [] n. 矿脉(an ore deposit)
(类)shale•lode=well•aquifer 页岩•矿脉=源泉•含水土层 (事物及其发源地)

lofty [] adj. 高的,崇高的(elevated in status:superior)
(反)lofty ◆ ignominious/ mean 崇高的 ◆ 可耻的/ 卑鄙的
lofty ◆ cast down 提高的 ◆ 下降的
(记)源自loft 阁楼,楼上的房间,天空+y→高的

loll [] vi. 懒洋洋的(to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner:lounge)
(反)loll ◆ move vigorously 懒洋洋的 ◆ 精力旺盛的

lopsided [] adj. 倾向一方的,不平衡的(lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion)
(反)even handed ◆ lopsided 平衡 ◆ 不平衡的

loquacious [] adj. 多嘴的,饶舌的(given to fluent or excessive talk•garrulous)
(类)flatter•praise=loquacious•talkative 奉承是过分赞扬=饶舌是过分喜欢说话
loquacious•succinct=adroit•ungainly 饶舌的•简洁的=熟练的•笨拙的 (反义)
loquacious•talkative=rash•adventurous 饶舌的•多话的=鲁莽的•大胆的(同义)
loquacious•word=profligate•money 饶舌的人不吝惜话=浪费的人不吝惜钱(动宾)
(反)loquacious ◆ taciturn/reticent /laconic 饶舌的 ◆ 沉默寡言的/用词简洁的
loquacity ◆ disinclination to speak /reluctance to speak 多话 ◆ 不愿说话
(同)talkative, babblative, chatty, gabby, garrulous,

lottery [] n. 抽彩,抓阄(contest in which winners are selected in a drawing of lots)
(类)lottery•raffle= ?? 抽彩•抽彩(同义)
干扰:ticket•admission =入场券•入场(行为动作及其凭证)
【注】raffle :a lottery in which a number of persons buy chances to win a prize
此题谬种流传很长时间。lottery并无奖券的意思。这个意思的词是lots,chances。

loutish [`] adj. 粗鲁的(resembling or befitting a clumsy,stupid fellow)
(类)coltish•discipline=loutish•grace 不受拘束的人不会守纪律=粗鲁的人不会优雅
(反)genteel ◆ loutish 有教养的 ◆ 粗鲁的
(同)boorish, churlish, cloddish

lubricate [] vt. 使润滑(to make smooth or slippery)
(类)oil•lubricate=antiseptic•disinfect 油用来润滑=杀菌剂用来消毒
lubricate•abrasion=seal•leakage 润滑防止磨损=密封防止渗漏

lucid [] adj. 清澈的,明晰易懂的(clear to the understanding•intelligible)
(类)lucid•perceive=transparent•understand=prominent•notice
明晰的容易觉察=明显的容易理解=杰出的容易注意
(反)lucid ◆ murky / vague / obfuscated 清晰的 ◆ 模糊的

lucubration [] n. 刻苦钻研,苦心的著作laborious or intensive study
(反)lucubration ◆ cursory consideration 刻苦钻研 ◆ 草草了事

lug [] v. 拖,拉(to carry laboriously)
(类)lug•carry=trudge•walk 拖拉是艰难地运送=跋涉是艰难地走

lugubrious [] adj. 悲哀的(尤指装出来的)(mournful;esp. affectedly mournful)
(反)lugubrious ◆ facetious/jovial 悲哀的 ◆ 幽默的/快乐的
lugubriousness ◆ cheerfulness 悲哀 ◆ 高兴
(例)dark, dramatic and lugubrious brooding
(记)谐音:露骨。联想:装作悲哀的样子很露骨。

lull [] vt. 麻痹,使安静 (to cause to sleep or rest•soothe)
(反)lull ◆ startle/ galvanize 使安静 ◆ 使震惊/ 刺激
lull ◆ hectic period暂停期 ◆ 狂热的时期
lull ◆ revive 使安静 ◆ 使复兴
lull ◆ increased activity 平静 ◆ 增加的行为

lullaby [] n. 摇篮曲 (a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep)
(类)lullaby•song=diatribe•discourse 摇篮曲•歌曲=谩骂•谈话(种属)

lumber [] vi. 笨重地行动(to move ponderously; stumble)
(类)lumber•grace=waver•resolution 笨重地行动不优雅=犹豫没有决心
(反)lumber ◆ glide 笨重地行动 ◆ 平滑不费力地滑动
(例)the tired old man slowly lumbered home

lumen [] n. 流明(亮度单位)(a unit of luminous)
(类)lumen•light=decibel•sound=volt•electricity=watt•power
分贝•声音=伏•电流=瓦•功率=流明•亮度

luminary [] n. 杰出人物,名人(a person of prominence or brilliant achievement)
(类)master/maven•experience=luminary•eminence 专家/ 行家有经验=杰出人物显赫

lurch [] vi. 举步蹒跚 (to move forward unsteadily while swaying from side to side)
(反)lurch ◆ progress smoothly 举步蹒跚 ◆ 平稳前进
(例)the sodden drunk lurched uncertainly toward the door

lurk [] vi. 潜藏,潜伏(to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose)
(类)lurk•wait=abscond•depart=hoard•save 潜伏•等候=潜逃•离开=密藏•保存
(干扰:purloin•appropriate 偷窃•盗用)
lurk•concealment=espouse•marriage=purloin•appropriation
潜伏•潜藏=嫁娶•结婚=偷窃•占用(种属)
(同)sneak, creep, gumshoe, pussyfoot, skulk, slide, slink, slip

lush [] adj. 苍翠繁茂的(growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage)
(反)sere ◆ lush 干枯的 ◆ 苍翠繁茂的

lustrous [] adj. 有光泽的,光辉的(reflecting light evenly and efficiently without glitter or sparkle)
(类)numb•insensible=burnish•lustrous 麻木使无知觉=磨光使有光泽
lustrous•polish=pure•refine 擦亮就会有光泽的=精炼就会纯净的
(同)burnished, gleaming, glistening, glossy, polished
(例)the lustrous glow of an opal

luxury [] adj. 奢侈,奢华(a condition of abundance or great ease and comfort)
(类)ascetic•luxury=teetotaler•alcohol 禁欲者不嗜奢华=禁酒者不嗜饮酒
luxuriant/luxuriouss ◆ partan 奢华的 ◆ 简朴的
(例)the poor cannot even afford the essentials, let alone occasional luxuries

lyric [] n. 抒情诗, 歌词
(类)pleasurable•paradisical=melodious•lyrical
愉快的•天堂般的=曲调优美的•抒情诗般的(程度)
ballad•song=lyric•poem=comedian•actor
民谣•歌曲=抒情诗•诗歌=喜剧演员•演员(种属)

macabre adj.恐怖的(gruesome; grisly)以死亡为主题的(having death as a subject)
(类)macabre•shudder=hilarious•laugh 恐怖的•颤栗=高兴的•笑(因为前者所以后者)
(记)观察:cab 谐音 恐怖。

macerate [] v. 浸软(steep, soak)
(反)macerate ◆ harden by drying 浸软 ◆ 烘干变硬

maculate [] adj. 有斑点的(marked with spots:blotched ;impure, besmirched)
(反)maculated ◆ unspotted 玷污的 ◆ 清白的
(记)mac=mark→痕迹→斑点

maelstrom [] n.大漩涡,灾祸(violent whirlpool; violent or tublent situation)
(类)maelstrom•turbulent=mirage•illusory 大漩涡是狂暴的=海市蜃楼是错觉的
(同)eddy, whirl, whirlpool
(记)mael(坏的)+strom(=storm,暴风雨)联想:大旋涡,灾祸。

magnificent [] adj. 高尚的,宏伟的(grand or noble in thought or deed; exalted.)
(反)magnificent ◆ base 高尚的 ◆ 卑鄙的
(同)grandiose, imposing, lordly, magnific, majestic, noble
(记)词根magni- 表示大、长 参考:magnific 庄严的,崇高的magnification 放大

maladroit [] adj. 笨拙的(lacking adroitness:inept)
(类)complaisance•intractable=adeptness•maladroit 柔顺•倔强的=灵巧•笨拙的
maladroit•deft=voluble•terse 笨拙的•灵巧的=冗长的•简洁的
maladroit•skill=glib•profundity 不灵巧的•技巧=口齿伶俐的•深度 (缺乏关系)
(反)maladroit ◆ deft/dextrous 笨拙的 ◆ 灵巧的
(同)awkward, clumsy, gauche, inept, lumbering
(记)mal(坏)+adroit(熟练的,灵巧的)

malaise [] n. 不舒服(uneasiness; vague feeling of ill health)
(反)malaise ◆ cheerful feeling  不舒服 ◆ 舒服
(记)mal(坏)+aise

malcontent [] adj. 不满的,不服的 n. 不满者(dissatisfied ;discontented)
(类)dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain 拖拉的•耽搁=不满的•抱怨
sycophant•fawn=malcontent•complaint 谄媚者爱奉承=不满者爱抱怨
(同)disgruntled, ungratified
(记)mal(坏)+content(满意的)

malicious [] adj. 怀恶意的,恶毒的(given to, marked by, or arising from malice)
(类)malicious•ill will=diligent•effort=exaggerating•hyperbole
恶毒的•恶意=勤勉的•努力=夸大的•夸张
(反)expansive ◆ malicious 宽容的 ◆ 恶毒的
(同)despiteful, evil, hateful, malevolent, malign, rancorous, vicious, wicked

malign [] adj. 有恶意的 vt. 诽谤(intense often vicious ill will•malevolent)
(反)malign ◆ extol/ laud 诽谤 ◆ 赞美
(记)参考:benign 仁慈的,良好的

malinger [] v.假装不适以逃避工作 (to pretend incapacity as illness to avoid duty or work)
(类)parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk 吝啬的•吝啬=逃避工作的•逃避
hoard•miser=shirk•malinger 秘藏•守财奴=逃避•逃避工作者
malinger•duty=camoflage/disemble•detection 逃避工作是逃避职责=掩饰是逃避侦察
malingerer•duty=recluse•humanity 装病者逃避责任=隐遁者逃避人类
malinger•ail=flatter•appreciate 装病是假装生病=阿谀是假装欣赏
【注:ail:vi. to suffer ill health 生病】

malleable [] adj. 可塑的,易改变的(capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces)
(类)friable•crumble=malleable•alter 易碎的容易被弄碎=有延展性的容易被改变
knead•malleable=penetrate•permeable 揉捏•可延展性的=穿透•能透过的
malleable•shape=irresolute•opinion 有延展性的•形状=无决断的•主张(前修饰后)
(反)malleable ◆ hard to shape 可延展性的 ◆ 难以变形的
(同)plastic, adaptable, ductile, moldable, pliable, pliant, supple

malodor [] n. 恶臭(an offensive odor)
(类)cacophony•sound=malodor•scent 刺耳的声音•语音=恶臭•气味
malodorous•smell=jarring•sound 恶臭的•气味=刺耳的•声音
(记)mal(坏)+odor(气味)

mandatory [] adj. 命令的,强制的(containing or constituting a command:obligatory)
(类)mandatory•comply=forbidden•abstain 强制的必须被遵守=禁止的必须被戒绝
(反)discretionary ◆ mandatory 任意的 ◆ 强制的
(同) compulsory, imperative, imperious, obligatory, required

mangle [] vt. 破坏, 毁损(to spoil, injure, or make incoherent especially through ineptitude)
(反)mangle ◆ praise extravagantly 毁损 ◆ 过分赞美
(同)batter , maul
(例)a story mangled beyond recognition

mangy [] adj. 污秽的,褴褛的(having many worn or bare spots•seedy, shabby)
(反)mangy ◆ decorous 褴褛的 ◆ 优雅的
(记)mang 谐音:盲→盲流→盲流衣衫褴褛

mania [] n. 狂躁,热衷,狂热(excessive or unreasonable enthusiasm)
(类)enthusiasm•mania=suspicion•paranoia 热情•狂热=怀疑•偏执狂 (程度)
mania•enthusiasm=doting•fondness 狂热•热情=溺爱•喜爱(程度)
hidebound•conservative=manic•interested/excited
顽固的•保守的=疯狂的•感兴趣的/激动的(以上程度关系都有有褒贬意味)

manifest [] n. 载货清单
(类)repertoire•performance=manifest•cargo=agenda•meeting=inventory•merchandise
全部剧目•演出=载货清单•货物=议程•会议=存货清单•存货

manifest2 [] adj. 显然的,明显的(easily understood or recognized by the mind:obvious)
(类)manifest•perceive=brittle•break=transparent•understand
明显的•觉察=易碎的•破碎=透彻的•理解(容易关系)
audible•stentorian=discernible•manifest=palatable•savory
听得见的•声音洪亮的=可辨别的•明显的=美味的•风味极佳的(程度)
(反)manifest ◆ latent/ occult 明显的 ◆ 潜在的/神秘的
(同)clear, apparent, distinct, evident

manipulate [] vt. 巧妙操作 (control or change by artful means)
(类)dexterous•manipulate=prescient•predict
灵巧的•巧妙操作=预见性的•预言(前者是后者的性质)
(反)manipulate ◆ guileless 假造 ◆ 不狡猾的 (词性不符)
manipulative ◆ guileless 暗中操纵的 ◆ 坦率正直的
(例)How do you manipulate these puppets? 你是怎么巧妙操作这些木偶的?

manumit [] v. 解放(奴隶)(to release from slavery)
(反)manumit ◆ detain /enslave 解放 ◆ 拘留/奴役
(记)manu(手)+mit(释放)参考:emit 发出,放射

manuscript [] n. 手稿
(类)archive•manuscript=arsenal•weapon 档案室•手稿=武器库•武器

mar [] v. 损坏,破坏(to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil)
(类)burnish•dull=mar•flawless 磨光消除暗淡=破坏消除完美
(反)mar ◆ enhance 损坏 ◆ 加强

marsh [] n. 沼泽,湿地
(类)marsh•sodden=desert•arid 沼泽•湿的=沙漠•干燥的
(反)marshy ◆ arid 潮湿的 ◆ 干旱的

marsupial [] n.有袋类动物
(类)kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent 袋鼠•有袋类动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物(种属)

martial [] adj. 战争的, 军事的
(类)martial•military=runic•mysterious 军事的:军事的=神秘的:神秘的
【注:rune :n.古代北欧文字,神秘(MYSTERY)。Runic:adj.神秘的】

martinet [] n. 纪律严明之人(a strict disciplinarian)
(类)martinet•discipline=pedant•learning 纪律严明之人执着于纪律=学究执着于学问
(反)martinet ◆ indulgent person/ individual 要求严格之人 ◆ 纵容之人

marvel [] n. 奇迹(something that causes wonder or astonishment)
(反)marvel ◆ mean 奇迹 ◆ 平庸
pedestrian ◆ marvelous 平凡的 ◆ 非凡的
(同)miracle, phenomenon, prodigy

masquerade [] v. 伪装,掩饰(to disguise oneself)
(类)dissemble•information=masquerade•feeling 掩盖•事实=掩饰•感情
(记)来自mask,面具

masticate [] v. 咀嚼(chew)
(类)lung•respire=tooth•masticate 肺•呼吸=牙齿•咀嚼

matriculate [] vt. 入学
(类)inauguration•official=matriculation•student 就职•官员=入学•学生
inception•termination=matriculation•graduation 开始•结束=入学•毕业
commencement ◆ matriculation 毕业典礼 ◆ 入学
(记)matri(母亲)参考:matrix 子宫 matriarchy 女家长制

mattress [] n. 床垫
(类)tablecloth•table=sheet•mattress 桌布•桌子=床单•床垫

maudlin [] adj. 多愁善感的,感情脆弱的(weakly and effusively sentimental)
(类)maudlin•sentiment=pedantic•scholarship
感情脆弱的形容过分脆弱的对待感情=书生气的形容过分迂腐的对待学问
maudlin•sentimental=obsequious•deferential (干扰:peeved•annoyed 同义)
感情脆弱的•多愁善感的=谄媚的•恭顺的(褒贬+程度)
【注:deference:respect and esteem due a superior or an elder ; also:affected or
ingratiating regard for another's wishes 恭敬,迎合】
(反)maudlin ◆ jovial 感伤的 ◆ 高兴的
(同)sentimental, bathetic, mawkish

list 21 maven ---------mordant
maven [] n. 专家,行家 (one who is experienced or knowledgeable:expert)
(类)maven•experience=luminary•eminence=augur•prediction
专家•经验=权威者•显赫=预言者•预言(人物正面特征)
(同)expert, authority, master, virtuoso

maverick [] n. 特立独行之人(an independent individual not go along with a group)
(类)dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group 持不同政见者背离正统=特立独行者背离团体
maverick•conformity=extrovert•reserve 特立独行者不和别人一致=性格外向者不内敛
(反)maverick ◆ follower 特立独行之人 ◆ 追随者
maverick ◆ conform to tradition 特立独行的 ◆ 遵从传统的
(记)NBA小牛队的名称就是maverick

mawkish [] adj. 自作多情的,令人厌恶的 (sickly or puerilely sentimental)
(类)mawkish•sentimental=gullible•trust 感情脆弱的•感伤的=易上当的•信任 (程度)
(反)mawkish ◆ unsentimental 自作多情的 ◆ 不动情感的
(同)sentimental, bathetic, maudlin, romantic

meager [] adj. 贫乏的,稀少的(deficient in quality or quantity)
(反)amplitude ◆ meagerness 广阔,丰富 ◆ 贫乏,稀少
liberal ◆ meager 慷慨的 ◆ 贫乏的
(记)m+eager 没有希望,因为太穷困了。

meander [] vi. 蜿蜒而流,闲逛(to wander aimlessly without urgent destination • ramble)
(反)meander ◆ move purposively 无目的的闲逛 ◆ 有目的的走动
(同)wander, drift, ramble, roam, rove, stray, vagabond
(记)来自米安得河,美洲一条著名的河流。联想:河流是蜿蜒而流的。

measly [] adj. 低贱的(contemptibly small)
(类)measly•contemptibly=puny•weakly 低贱的•可鄙地=微弱的•微弱地 (形副同义)
(反)measly ◆ grand 卑贱的 ◆ 重要的
(同)petty, paltry, piddling, puny, trifling, trivial

measured [] adj. 标准的(marked by due proportion)
(反)measured ◆ inappropriate 标准的 ◆ 不适当的

meddle [] vi. 干涉,管闲事(interfere without right or propriety)
(类)officious•meddle=disaffected•rebel 好管闲事的•管闲事=有叛意的•反叛
meddlesome•pry=contentious•argue 好管闲事的人喜欢打探=好争吵的人喜欢争吵
attentive•meddlesome=envious•jealous 留意的•好管闲事的=羡慕的•嫉妒的(褒贬程度)
(同)busybody, interfere, interlope, intermeddle, tamper(with)
(例)continually meddling in other people's affairs

media [] n. 媒体,营养基(a nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of cells or bacteria)
(类)plantation•tobacco=media•bacteria 种植园种植烟草=营养基培养细菌

mediate [] vt. 调解,调停
(类)intercessor•mediate=translator•interpret 调解者•调解=翻译•翻译
mediation•compromise=prosecution•conviction 调解•妥协=起诉•定罪 (目的)

mediocre [] adj. 平庸的,平凡的(of moderate or low quality,value, ability, or performance)
(反)virtuosity ◆ mediocrity 大师 ◆ 平庸之才
(同)medium, indifferent, intermediate, mean, ordinary, so-so

medley [] n. 混合,混杂;集成曲(a musical composition made up of a series of songs)
(类)montage•images=medley•songs 蒙太奇•图像=集成曲•歌曲 (组成关系)

meet [] adj. 合适的(very proper)
(反)meet ◆ inappropriate/unsuitable 合适的 ◆ 不合适的

meliorism [] n.世界改良论(the belief of tendency toward improvement)
(类)meliorism•progress=egalitarian•equity 世界改良论主张进步=平等主义主张平等

mellifluous [] adj.曲调优美的(having a smooth rich flow)
(类)mellifluous•music=ambrosial•food 曲调优美的的音乐=天赐美味的食物
mellifluous•sound=savory•taste 悦耳的•声音=美味的•味道 (形容词及其修饰对象)
(反)mellifluous ◆ cacophonous/ raspy 悦耳的 ◆ 刺耳的
(同)golden, mellifluent

melody [] n. 曲子,美的音乐,曲调(tunefulness)
(类)cacophony•melody=genteel•churl 刺耳音调•悦耳音调=绅士的•粗野的人(反义)
(反)melodious ◆ jarring 音调优美的 ◆ 不和谐的

melodrama [] n. 情节剧(a work as a movie or play characterized by extravagant theatricality and by the predominance of plot and physical action over characterization)
(类)melodrama•subtlety=chimera•authenticity 情节剧缺乏微妙之处=梦幻缺乏真实性

membrane [] n.薄膜,细胞膜(a thin soft pliable sheet or layer especially of animal or plant origin)
(类)pore•membrane=door•room 气孔是薄膜的入口=门是房间的入口
cell•membrane=seed•hull 细胞•细胞膜=种子•外壳

menace [] v. 恐吓,威胁(to make a show of intention to harm)
(类)odious•disgust=menacing•fear=blatant•arrest
令人作呕的•引起恶心反感=威胁的•害怕=炫耀的•吸引(因果)
odious•repugnance=menacing•fear 可厌的令人反感=威胁的令人害怕
(同)compromise, hazard, imperil, jeopard

mendacious [] adj. 虚假的,说谎的(deception/falsehood/divergence from absolute truth)
(类)ambiguous•clarity=mendacious•truth 模糊的不清楚=虚假的非事实
(反)mendacious ◆ honest/veracious 虚假的 ◆ 诚实的
mendacity ◆ veracity/ honesty/ candor/ truthfulness 虚假 ◆ 诚实/ 坦白
(同)dishonest, deceitful, knavish, lying, roguish, shifty, unhonest, untruthful
(例)mendacious tales of his adventures
(记)mend (修理)说话修修补补—>说谎的

mentor [] n. 良师益友, 贤明的顾问, 导师, 指导者(a trusted counselor or guide•tutor, coach)
(类)mentor•guidance=oracle•prophecy=prevaricator•deceive(或mislead)
导师能够指导=神谕者能够预言=说话搪塞的人能欺骗

mercenary [] adj.唯利是图的 n.雇佣兵(one that serves merely for wages)
(类)mercenary•money=vindictive•revenge 唯利是图的•金钱=有报仇心的•报仇
mercenary•soldier=hack•writer 雇佣兵:士兵=雇用作家:作家

mercurial [] adj.情绪善变的,活泼的(rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood)
(类)mercurial•mood=fickle•affection=whimsical•behavior
情绪善变的•情绪=变幻无常的•情感=行为古怪的•行为
scurrilous•propriety=mercurial•constancy 下流的•适当=易变的•一致(反面特征)
(反)mercurial ◆ constant 善变 ◆ 不变
(同)inconstant, capricious, changeable, fickle, temperamental, ticklish, unstable

merited [] adj. 应得的, 理所当然的 (deserved, be worthy of or entitled or liable to)
(反)merited ◆ gratuitous/unsuitable 理所当然的 ◆ 无理由的/不适合的

mesh [] vt. 啮合(to cause as gears to engage)
(反)disengage ◆ mesh 解开 ◆ 啮合

mesmerism [] n. 催眠,着迷
(类)zeal•dedication=mesmerism•interest 热衷•奉献=着迷•兴趣(程度)
exhaustive•careful=mesmerized•interesting 详尽的•仔细的=着迷•兴趣(程度)

metaphor [] n. 隐喻,暗喻 (figurative language)
(类)metaphor•literal=melody•spoken 比喻•文字上的=悦耳音调•口头的(前者比后者美丽)
insect•butterfly=philosophy•metaphysics 昆虫•蝴蝶=哲学•形而上学(种属)

metamorphose [] vt.变形,变质,改变(change strikingly the appearance of• transform)
(反)metamorphose ◆ remain unaltered 改变 ◆ 保持不变
metamorphosis ◆ continuation without change 变形 ◆ 保持原形
(例)You are so metamorphosed i can hardly think you my master.

meteoric [] adj. 流星的,昙花一现(resembling a meteor in speed or in sudden and temporary brilliance)
(类)fleeting•pass=meteoric•rise 飞逝的很快经过又消失=流星般的很快发生又消失
meteoric•constancy=archaic•currency 昙花一现的•恒久不变=过时的•现存
(反)meteoric ◆ plodding 疾速的 ◆ 沉重缓慢的
meteoric ◆ gradual 昙花一现的 ◆ 逐渐的
(例)a meteoric rise to fame
(记)meteor (流星)met (相遇)联想:人丛中两人的相遇就象流星闪过一样匆匆而过。

meteorology [] n. 气象学(a science that deals with weather and weather forecasting)

(类)demography • population=meteorology • weather=pathology • disease
人口统计学研究人口=气象学研究天气=病理学研究疾病
(记)根据meteoric(流星的)而来,研究流星的学问—>气象学

meticulous [] adj.非常仔细的,细心的(extreme care in the consideration of details)
(类)interested•agog=careful•meticulous 感兴趣的•热切的=仔细的•小心翼翼的(程度)
(反)meticulous ◆ carelessness 细心的 ◆ 粗心的
(同)careful, conscientious, exact, fussy, punctilious, punctual, scrupulous

metrical [] adj. 韵律的,有韵律的,测量的 (of, relating to, or composed in meter)
(类)scan•metrical=parse•grammatical 分析韵律•韵律的=解析语法•文法的 (动宾)

mettle [] n. 勇气(staying quality • stamina)
(类)insight•discern=mettle•endure 洞察力•洞悉=毅力•忍耐(同义)
(例)trucks had proved their mettle in army transport

miff [] n. 小争执,微怒 vt. 使恼怒 (a trivial quarrel)
(类)miff•quarrel=foible•flaw 小争吵•争吵=小缺点•缺点(小和正常)
(反)miff ◆ please {compliment/commend} 使恼怒 ◆ 讨好,和解

migratory [] adj. 迁移的,流浪的(wandering, roving)
(反)migratory ◆ sedentary 迁移的 ◆ 不迁移的
(同)migrative, mobile
(例)the study of migratory birds

mime [] vt. vi. 摸拟表演(to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words)
(类)parody•style=mime•gesture 拙劣的模仿•样式=哑剧•手势(事物及其特征化方式)
charade•word=mime•story 用手势表示的字谜•字=哑剧•故事
mimicry•camouflage=mutation•variation 模仿:伪装=变化:变化(同义)
注:无论是模仿还是伪装都是取事物的相似之处加以利用。

minaret [] n. 尖塔(a tall slender tower of a mosque)
(类)spire•church=minaret•mosque 塔尖•教堂=尖塔•清真寺 (建筑物及其顶端)

minatory [] adj.威胁的,恫吓的(having a menacing quality•threatening)
(反)minatory ◆ nonthreatening 威胁的 ◆ 无威胁性的
minatory ◆ reassuring/ unthreatening 威胁的 ◆ 安心的 /无威胁的

mince [] vi. 小步走(to walk with short steps in a prim affected manner)
(类)mince•walk=sip•drink 小步走•走=小口饮•喝
(类)stride•mince=quaff•sip 迈大步走•碎步走=大口喝•啜饮(程度)

mindful adj. 留心的(inclined to be aware)
(反)mindful ◆ unaware 留心的 ◆ 没察觉到的

mingle [] v. 混合(to bring or mix together)
(反)mingle ◆ separate 混合 ◆ 分离
(同)mix , commingle, immingle, intermingle, meld, merge

minion [] n. 奴才(a servile dependent, follower, or underling)
(类)minion•dependent=groveler•petitioner 奴才•依赖者=卑恭屈节者•请求者

mint [] vt. 铸造;n. 巨额
(类)strike•medal=mint•coin 打造•奖牌=铸造•硬币
(反)mint ◆ modicum 巨额 ◆ 少量

minuscule [] adj. 极小的 n. 小写字(very small)
(类)small•minuscule=moist•saturated 小•微小=湿的•饱和的(程度)
minuscule•letter=minnow•fish 小写字•字母=小鱼•鱼 (种属)

minutia [] n. 细节,琐事(a minute or minor detail)
(类)minutia•details=quibbles•objections 小细节•详情=小反对•放对
(反)minutia ◆ essential point/vital feature 琐事 ◆ 要点/重要特征
minutia ◆ lengthy account 细节 ◆ 冗长的说明
minute ◆ gargantuan 微小的 ◆ 巨大的
minutia ◆ crucial aspects 琐事 ◆ 重要方面
(同) trivia, triviality

miraculous [] adj. 奇迹的, 不可思议的(of the nature of a miracle:supernatural)
(反)ordinary ◆ miraculous 平凡的 ◆ 奇迹的
(同)supernatural, numinous, preternatural, superhuman, unearthly
(记)由下面的mirage 海市蜃楼而来 联想:海市蜃楼的美是不可思议的。

mirage [] n.幻影,海市蜃楼(something illusory and unattainable)
(类)maelstrom•turbulent=mirage•illusory 大漩涡•混乱的=海市蜃楼•幻影的(正面特征)
(记)mira=mirror 镜子 联想:镜子里看到的都是幻影→欢迎,海市蜃楼

mire [] vt. 使陷于泥泞,使陷入困境(to hamper or hold back as if by mire:entangle)
(反)mire ◆ extricate 使陷入困境 ◆ 使解脱
(记)mire=admire(崇拜)去掉ad(广告),联想:被崇拜的明星如果没了广告就会陷入困境。

mirth [] n.欢乐,欢笑(gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter)
(类)mirth•laughter=approval•applause 因欢乐而笑=因赞成而鼓掌
(例)a man of contentment, but seldom of mirth
(记)mirth看成my+birth 联想:我的生日充满欢笑(韦青网友提供)

misanthrope [] n. 厌恶人类者(a person who hates or distrusts mankind)
(类)misanthrope•humane=ascetic•voluptuary 厌恶人类者•人道的=苦行者•耽于酒色的
misanthrope•people=xenophobe•strangers 厌恶人类者:人=仇外者:外人,陌生人
(记)mis 不+ anthrope人类学→厌恶人类
【注:mis 作为前缀有三层意思。1、bad, wrong 2、not 3、强调 】

misbehave [] v. 行为不端(to behave badly)
(类)castigation•disapproval= crime• misbehave 苛责•不赞成=犯罪• 行为不端(程度)
lapse•error=misbehavior•criminality 小错•差错=不正当的行为•犯罪行为(程度)
reprobate•misbehave=sycophant•fawn 堕落的人•行为不端=马屁精•奉承(典型特征)
(记)mis(=bad)+ behave行为,不好的行为

mischievous [] adj. 调皮的,恶作剧的,有害的(able to cause trouble, or minor injury)
(类)insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp 不老练的•粗野之人=淘气的•顽童(典型特征)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous 吝啬的• 吝啬的=淘气的•淘气的
rapscallion•mischievous=sluggard•lazy 流氓•为害的=懒鬼•懒惰 (人物典型特征)
(同)naughty, bad, ill-behaved, misbehaving
(记)chiev (=chief) 达到顶端 参考:chief 首领(达到顶端的人)achieve 取得
mis+chiev 联想:用坏的方法达到顶端→恶作剧的

misconstrue [] vt. 误解, 曲解(misinterpret)
(类)misjudge•assess=misconstrue•interpret 判断错误作出错误评估=误解作出错误解释
(记)mis错误 + construe v. 解释, 分析, 直译→误解,曲解

miscreant [] n. 恶棍 adj. 堕落的(one who behaves criminally or viciously)
(类)miscreant•criminal=visionary•delusion 堕落的•罪犯=幻觉的•幻觉 (典特)
(反)miscreant ◆ law-abiding individual/saint 有罪恶的人 ◆ 遵守法纪的人/圣人
(记)mis+cre(=credible 可信的)+ant →不可信的人→恶棍 参考:credit n.信任, 信用

misdemeanor [] n.不轨的行为,轻罪(a crime less serious than a felony)
(类)crime•misdemeanor=commitment•decision 犯罪•轻罪=承诺•决心 (程度)
misdemeanor•crime=lapse•error 轻罪•罪=小错误•谬误,差错(程度)
  (记)mis错+ demeanor行为,风度→行为不当,轻罪

miser [] n. 守财奴,吝啬鬼(one who is extremely stingy with money)
(类)miser•munificent=zealot•blase 吝啬鬼•慷慨的=热心者•冷漠的
miser•parsimonious=spendthrift•prodigal 吝啬鬼•吝啬的=挥霍者•奢侈的(典特)
miser•hoard=dandy•preen 守财奴好贮藏=花花公子好打扮
parsimony•miser=rebelliousness•insurgent 吝啬•守财奴=造反•暴动者
miser•thrift••chauvinist•patriotism 吝啬鬼过分的节约=盲目的爱国主义者盲目爱国
(反)spendthrift ◆ miser 挥霍者 ◆ 守财奴

misfortune [] n. 不幸(a distressing or unfortunate incident or event)
(反)boon ◆ misfortune 幸运 ◆ 不幸
(记)mis + fortune(运气)→坏运气

misgiving [] n. 疑虑,担心(a feeling of suspicion especially concerning a future event)
(反)misgiving ◆ certainty 疑虑 ◆ 必定
(反)compunction ◆ absence of misgiving 后悔 ◆ 没有疑虑
(记)参考:forgive 原谅;一起记:have a misgiving without being forgived担心不被原谅。

mishap [] n. 不幸之事(an unfortunate accident)
(类)catastrophe•mishap=humiliation•embarrassment 大祸•不幸=耻辱:困窘
mishap•accident=peccadillo•offence 不幸•事故=小罪•犯罪(种属)
(记)mis不+ hap(=hapness幸运)

misrepresent [] vt. 不如实的叙述,误传(to give a false or misleading representation
of usually with an intent to deceive or be unfair)
(类)tamper•adjust=misrepresent•communicate 篡改是错误的修改=误传是错误的传达

mite [] n. 微生物,螨虫
(类)mite•creature=speck•amount 微生物•生物=少量•量 (种属)
(记)螨虫非常非常小,所以每个人都有螨虫的。

mitigate [] v. 减轻,使缓和(to make less severe or painful)
(类)mitigate•severe=qualify•general 使严重的减轻=使普通的具有资格
(反)mitigate ◆ exacerbate 缓和,减轻 ◆ 使加剧
(同)relieve, allay, alleviate, assuage, mollify
(记)miti(谐音:媒体)联想:媒体给人们带来信息和欢乐,能够减轻人们的焦虑和痛苦。

mnemonics [] n. 记忆术(a technique of improving the memory)
(类)regiment•health=mnemonics•memory 养生法为了促进健康=助记法为了促进记忆
mnemonics•remember=staff•walk 助记法帮助记忆=拐杖帮助行走

mobility [] n. 灵活性
(类)splint•mobility=ballast•instability=purchase•slippery
夹板•灵活性=压舱物•不稳定性=支点•滑动(消除关系)
splint•immobilize=duct•convey 夹板用来固定=导管用来传送
splint•immobilize=sling•support(干扰sieve•flow)夹板用来固定=吊带用来支撑
(记)来自mobile 机动的,可移动的 mobile phone 移动电话 参考:motile 能动的,有活力的

mockery [] n. 嘲弄,笑柄,歪曲 (a subject of laughter, derision, or sport)
(类)diatribe•abuse=burlesque•mockery 抨击•咒骂=用文字模仿以讽刺•嘲弄(程度)
mock•imitate=taunt•challenge (以模仿方式)嘲弄:模仿=(以挑战方式)嘲弄:挑战
(同)burlesque, caricature, farce, mock, sham, travesty
(例)arbitrary methods make a mockery of justice. 专断的方法是对正义的嘲弄
(记)mock 嘲笑+ -ery 名词后缀 比较monk 联想:和尚经常成为嘲笑的对象

moderate [] vt. 节制,使稳定,使缓和(to lessen the intensity or extremeness of)
(类)exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty 过分的•温和的=不忠的•忠心
moderate• intensity =extenuate•seriousness 缓和•强度=减轻•严重性
(记)moderate 也做形容词,中等的,适量的

modicum [] n. 少量(a small portion:a limited quantity)
(类)inkling•knowledge=modicum•quantity 小知识•知识=小量•量(程度)
(反)modicum ◆ large amount 少量 ◆ 大量
(同)particle, atom, grain, iota, minim, molecule, ounce, scrap

molar [] n. 臼齿, 磨牙(a tooth with a broad crown used to grind food)
(类)rib•bone=molar•tooth 肋骨•骨头=臼齿•牙齿 (种属)
(记)谐音:毛驴。联想:毛驴拉磨;由磨联想磨牙,臼齿。

molding [] n. 嵌线(a decorative plane or curved strip used for ornamentation or finishing)
(类)hem•garment=molding•cabinet 褶边•衣服=嵌线•橱柜

mollify [] v. 平息,缓和,使变软(to soothe in temper or disposition:appease)
(类)mollification•soothe=indemnity•secure 安抚是为了使安心=保险是为了保护
mollify•anger=heart•dejection 缓和消除怒火=鼓励消除颓丧
(反)antagonize 使敌对反对 ire忿怒 rouse唤醒 vex使恼怒 pique激怒
discomfit 挠乱 exasperate激怒 bait使生气 disaffect使敌对 nettle激怒
rankle激怒 incite to anger /rouse to anger 激怒/惹怒
mollification ◆ inflammation 缓和 ◆ 怒火

mollycoddle [] vt. 溺爱 (a pampered or effeminate man or boy)
(类)chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle 叱责•示众=迁就•溺爱(程度)
(反)mollycoddle ◆ treat harshly 溺爱 ◆ 粗鲁的对待

molt [] n. v. 换毛,脱皮(ecdysis)
(类)molt•bird=slough•snake 鸟换毛=蛇蜕皮
molt•feathers=shed•hair 脱毛掉羽毛=脱发掉头发
【注:to cast off some natural covering(as fur or skin)
例:the cat is shedding 猫正在脱毛】
(反)fledging ◆ molt 长羽毛 ◆ 换毛

momentous [] adj. 极重要的(important, consequential)
(类)atrocious•bad=momentous•important 极坏的:坏的=极重要的:重要的

momentum [] n. 势头,动力(a property of a moving body that the body has by virtue of its mass and motion and that is equal to the product of the body's mass and velocity)
(类)vacillate•swing=momentum•scutter 犹豫•动摇=动力•疾走(因果关系)
oscillation•swing=momentum•scooter 振荡•秋千=动力•划板(后者运动需要前者)

mongrel [] n. 杂种,混血儿 adj. 杂种的, 混血儿的
(反)mongrel ◆ purebred 杂种的 ◆ 纯种的

monochromatic [] adj. 单色的(having or consisting of one color or hue)
(反)iridescent ◆ monochromatic 彩色的 ◆ 单色的
chromatic ◆ colorless 彩色的 ◆ 无色的

monocle [] n.单片眼镜(an eyeglass for one eye)
(类)monocle•eye 单片眼镜•眼睛

monologue [] n. 独白, 独脚戏(soliloquy; a dramatic sketch performed by one actor)
(类)opera•aria=play•monologue 歌剧•独唱曲=戏剧•独白

monotone [] adj. 单调的(monotonic)
(类)stammer•halting=drone•monotonous
结巴的说•犹豫=单调而低沉地说•单调的(行为及正特)
(反)monotonous ◆ piebald/ vociferous 单调的 ◆ 花斑的/嘈杂的

montage n. 蒙太奇(the production of a rapid succession of images in a motion picture to illustrate an association of ideas)
(类)zigzag:turns=montage:images 之字型:转弯=蒙太奇:图画(后者组成前者)

moratorium [] n. 延期,暂缓施行(a suspension of an ongoing or planned activity)
(类)reprieve•punishment=moratorium•activity 缓刑是暂缓实施惩罚=延期是暂缓实施行为
fast•eat=moratorium•act 斋戒是暂停吃饭=延期是暂停行动
moratorium•activity=respite•labor=tourniquet•bleeding
延期是暂停活动=休息是暂停劳动=止血器使出血暂停(延期和正常)

morbid [•bid] adj. 疾病的,病态的
(反)morbid ◆ hale/ salubrious/ wholesome 病态的 ◆ 健康的
morbid ◆ verdant 病态的 ◆ 青翠的
(记)谐音:毛病

mordant [] adj. 讥讽的,尖酸的(biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style•incisive)
(反)mordant ◆ genial 尖酸的 ◆ 和蔼的
(同)caustic, scathing, trenchant

list 22 moribund ---------obsess
moribund [] adj. 即将结束的,垂死的(being in the state of dying•approaching death)
(反)moribund ◆ beginning/nascent 即将结束的 ◆ 开端/初生的
moribund ◆ increasingly vital 垂死的 ◆ 日益充满生机的
moribund ◆ current 垂死的 ◆ 现存的(occurring in or existing at the present time)

morose [] adj.脾气坏的,不高兴的 (having a sullen and gloomy disposition)
(反)morose ◆ cheerful/ jovial/ jocund/sanguine/ lighthearted
郁闷的 ◆ 高兴的/ 快活的/ 欢乐的/ 乐天的/ 快乐的
rejoiced ◆ morose 高兴的 ◆ 忧郁的
(同)sullen, crabbed, dour, gloomy, glum, saturnine, sulky, surly

mortar [] n. 小臼,乳钵(a strong vessel in which material is pounded/rubbed with a pestle)
(类)hammer•anvil=pestle•mortar 铁锤•铁砧=杵•小臼(配对工具)
mortar•grind=vat•dye 小臼:碾碎=染缸:染色(容器及其用途)

mosaic [] n.镶嵌图案(一种装饰品由某种材料拼成的图)
(类)mosaic•tile=image•pixel=jigsaw• piece
镶嵌图案•(装饰用)瓷砖=图象•象素=拼板玩具•板块(组成关系)
(记)音译:马赛克,意为瓷砖。

mosque [] n. 清真寺(a building used for public worship by muslims)
(类)spire•church=minaret•mosque 塔尖•教堂=尖塔•清真寺(顶和建筑物)

moth-eaten adj. 虫蛀的,过时的
(反)moth-eaten ◆ fresh and new 虫蛀的, 破旧的, 过时的 ◆ 崭新的

motile [] adj. 能动的,有自动力的(exhibiting or capable of movement)
(反)motility ◆ stasis 运动 ◆ 静止

motivate [] v. 促使,激发(to provide with a motive•impel)
(类)exculpatory•absolve=motivational•stir 辩明无罪的•赦免=激发的•激动(行为及结果)
exhortation•motivate=invective•discredit 规劝•激励=痛骂•不信任(前者表达后者)
fungi•ecologist=motivation•psychologist 菌类•生态学者=行为的动机•心理学家
(同)provoke, excite, galvanize, innervate, innerve, move, pique, quicken, rouse, stimulate
(例)questions that excite and motivate youth

motley [] adj. 杂色的,混杂的(variegated in colorcomposed of diverse elements)
(反)motley ◆ colorless/unique/ unvaried 杂色的 ◆ 无色的/唯一的,单色/没变化的
(同) variegated, dappled, discolor, multicolor, multihued, versicolored

mottle [] vt. 使成杂色 (to mark with spots of different color or shades of color as if stained)
(类)striated•groove=mottled•spot 有条纹的•条纹=斑驳的•斑点(形修饰名)
(反)mottle ◆ blanch 使成杂色 ◆ 使变白
mottled ◆ homogenious/ solidary 斑驳的 ◆ 均匀的/ 一致的

mournful [] adj. 悲恸的,悲哀的(causing sorrow or melancholy•gloomy)
(反)jovial ◆ mournful 快活的 ◆ 悲恸的
revelry ◆ mournfulness 狂欢 ◆ 悲哀

movement [] n. 乐章
(类)stanza•poem=movement•orchestra
诗节是诗歌写作的一种结构方式=乐章是管弦乐队演奏的一种结构方式

muddy [] adj. 浑浊的,不明晰的(lacking in clarity or brightness)
(反)muddy ◆ clarity 浑浊的 ◆ 清晰
(同)cloudy, dull
(例)playing in the wet field, he got his shoes all muddy

muffle [] vt. 围裹(to wrap up so as to conceal or protect)压低声音(to deaden the sound of)
(类)muffle•sound=assuage•grief 压低声音•声音=缓和•悲痛
muffler•neck=mitten•hand 围巾•脖子=手套•手
【注:muffler :a scarf worn around the neck】
(反)muffled ◆ plangent/ resonant 声音低沉的 ◆ 轰鸣的/声音洪亮的

mulish [] adj. 骡的,执拗的,顽固的(unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate)
(类)despicable•value=mulish•flexible 可鄙的•重要性=执拗的•灵活的 (反义)
(反)mulish ◆ flexible/pliant 顽固的 ◆ 灵活的/易受影响的
(同)obstinate,bullheaded, headstrong, refractory, self-willed, stiff-necked, stubborn, wrongheaded

mumble [] vt. vi. 喃喃而语,咕哝(to utter with a low inarticulate voice)
(反)enunciate ◆ mumble (清楚地)表达 ◆ 咕哝
(同)murmur
(例)embarrassed, he mumbled an apology

mundane [] adj. 尘世的,世俗的(worldly as opposed to spiritual); 平凡的( commonplace)
(反)mundane ◆ extraordinary/ exotic/unusual 平凡的 ◆ 非凡的/ 奇异的 /不寻常的
mundane ◆ spiritual / unearthly 世俗的 ◆ 精神的/ 非尘世的,怪异的
(同)commonplace ,earthly, earthy, terrene, terrestrial, uncelestial, worldly
(例)the mundane concerns of day-to-day life

munificent [] adj. 慷慨的,丰厚的(characterized by great liberality or generosity)
(类)miser•munificent=zealot•blasé 守财奴•慷慨的=热心者•厌烦于亨乐(反面特征)
(反)munificence ◆ stinginess 慷慨 ◆ 小气
(同)liberal, bounteous, freehanded, generous

mural [] adj. 墙壁的n. 壁画,壁饰(a mural work of art as a painting)
(类)petrography•rock=mural•wall 岩相学•岩石=壁画•墙 (事物及其对象)

murky [] adj. 黑暗的,朦胧的(dark and gloomy; thick with fog; vague)
(反)murky ◆ clear/ limpid/ pellucid 朦胧的 ◆ 清澈的,清晰的

murmur [] n. v. 低语(a low indistinct but often continuous sound)
(类)croon•sing=murmur•speak 低声歌唱•歌唱=低声说话•说话
glimmer•dazzle=murmur•resound 闪光•受强光而目眩=低声说话•响亮地说出(程度)

mutate [] v. (使)改变(to cause to undergo change)
(反)mutate ◆ remain the same 改变 ◆ 不变
(同)transform, commute, metamorphose, transfigure, transmute

mute [] vt. 减弱…的声音(to muffle, reduce, or eliminate the sound of)使柔和(to tone down:soften, subdue)
(类)muted•color=muffled•sound 使颜色柔和=使声音降低
mutter•indistinct=drone•monotonous 嘀咕•不清楚的=嗡嗡声•单调的(典型特征)
(反)mute ◆ amplify 减弱声音 ◆ 扩大声音

mutter [] v. 咕哝, 嘀咕(to utter sounds or words indistinctly or with a low voice)
(反)mutter ◆ speak distinctly 说话嘀咕不清楚 ◆ 说话清楚

myopic [] adj. 近视的,缺乏远见的(a lack of foresight or discernment)
(反)myopic ◆ discerning 缺乏远见的 ◆ 有辨别力的
myopia ◆ prescience 短见 ◆ 预见
(例)so myopic that he used glasses even to read

myriad [] adj. 无数的,大量的(having innumerable aspects or elements)
(类)myriad•number=everlasting•duration 无数的•数字=永恒的•持续时间
(反)myriad ◆ few/scarce/scanty 无数的 ◆ 很少的/缺乏的

nadir [] n. 最低点(the lowest point)
(反)nadir ◆ summit/acme 最低点 ◆ 顶点
nadir ◆ topmost point 最低点 ◆ 最高点

naive [] adj. 天真的,纯朴的(deficient in worldly wisdom or informed judgment; credulous)
(类)guile•naif=tardy•prompt 狡诈•天真=拖拉•迅速
(反)worldly ◆ naïve 世故的 ◆ 纯朴的

narcissism [] n. 自恋(love of or sexual desire for one's own body)
(类)narcissist•self absorbed=sycophant•obsequious 自恋者•自我迷恋的=马屁精•谄媚的
narcissism•love=guilt•blame 自恋是爱自己=自责是谴责自己

nascent [] adj. 新生的(coming or having recently come into existence)
(反)nascent ◆ fully established/ nascent 新生的 ◆ 完全确立的/ 将死的

natty [] adj. 整洁的,时髦的(trimly neat and tidy•smart)
(反)natty ◆ sloppy/ slovenly 整洁的 ◆ 邋遢的

nauseate [] v. 使厌恶,使作呕(to feel disgust)
(类)vertigo•nauseate= treat•cure 眩晕•恶心=治疗•痊愈(动作及其结果)

naysay [] n. 拒绝(denial, refusal)
(反)concur ◆ naysay 同意 ◆ 拒绝

nebulous [] adj. 模糊的(indistinct, vague),星云的
(反)nebulous ◆ distinct/ unambiguous/ clear cut 模糊的 ◆ 明显的/ 明确的/ 清楚的

needy [] adj. 贫困的(being in want)
(反)affluent ◆ needy 富有的 ◆ 贫困的

nefarious [] adj.违法的,邪恶的(flagrantly wicked or impious•evil)
(类)nefarious•wickedness=generous•liberality 邪恶的•邪恶=慷慨的•心胸开阔 (同义)
(反)nefarious ◆ above reproach/virtuous/ beneficial/ exemplary
邪恶的 ◆ 无可指责的/品德高尚的/ 仁慈的/ 模范的

negation [] n. 否定, 拒绝(a negative statement, judgment, or doctrine; especially:a logical proposition formed by asserting the falsity of a given proposition)
(反)negation ◆ affirmation 否定 ◆ 肯定

negligence [] n. 疏忽(the quality or state of being not taking prudent care)
(反)negligence ◆ care 疏忽 ◆ 注意
(例)negligent about writing a note of thanks

neologism [] n. 新语(新词, 新用法,新表达法)(a new word, usage, or expression)
(反)neologism ◆ archaism/ well-established expression 新语 ◆ 古语/ 旧表达法

negotiate [] vi. 商议,谈判,交涉(to confer with another so as to arrive at the settlement of some matter)
(类)clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations
堵塞•下水道=胶着状态•谈判,协商 (事物及其特殊状态)
negotiator•aggrement= mediation•compromise 谈判者•协议=调停者•妥协(目的)
(反)tenacious ◆ negotiable 固执的 ◆ 可商量的
(例)negotiate a treaty

neophyte [] n.初学者,新信徒(a new convert•proselyte)
(类)inexperience•neophyte=irresponsibility•wastrel
无经验•新信徒,开始者=不承担责任的人•败家子
neophyte•experience=boor•sensitivity 新信徒无阅历=粗野的人不敏感

nepotism [] n.裙带关系,偏袒亲属(favoritism as in appointment to a job based on
kinship)
(类)nepotism•relative=cronyism•friend 裙带关系•亲戚=任人唯亲•朋友(动宾)
nepotism•kinship=jingoist•nationality
裙带关系是不正常爱亲戚=沙文主义是不正常爱国家

nerve [] vt. 鼓起勇气(to give strength or courage to ) n. 神经,胆量
(反)appall ◆ nerve 使胆寒 ◆ 鼓起勇气
nervy ◆ diffident 有勇气的 ◆ 缺乏自信的

nettle [] v. 烦忧,激恼(to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger)
(反)nettle ◆ conciliate/ mollify 激怒 ◆ 安抚

nexus [] n. 连结,连系,核心,中心(connection,link; a connected group or series; center,
focus)
(反)nexus ◆ disconnected components 相互连结的一组,一系列 ◆ 不连贯的成分
nexus ◆ trivial point 核心 ◆ 微不足道的问题

nibble [] v. 小口咬(to eat or chew in small bits)
(类)quaff•sip=gobble•nibble 痛饮•啜饮=狼吞虎咽•小口咬

nil [] n.. 零(NOTHING, ZERO)
(类)nil•quantity=vacuum•matter 零没有数量=真空没有:物质

nip [] v. 一口饮酒(to take liquor in nips)
(类)nip•eat=jot•write 小口饮酒•吃=略记•写(程度)

nitpick [] v. 挑剔,吹毛求疵
(类)fluent•glib=meticulous•nitpick/finicky
流利的•口齿伶俐的=很仔细的•吹毛求疵/苛求的(褒贬程度)
nitpick•criticize=cavil•object 吹毛求疵•批评=苛责•反对(过分的后者导致前者)
nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
吹毛求疵者•责备=传教士•布道=吹毛求疵的人•吹毛求疵(人物典型特征)

nocturnal [] adj. 夜间发生的,夜曲的(of, relating to, or occurring in the night)
(反)nocturnal ◆ happen during daytime/ diurnal 夜间发生的 ◆ 白天发生的/ 每日的,昼间的

noisome [] adj. 有害的,有毒的(noxious, harmful) 恶臭的(offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell) 非常讨厌的(highly obnoxious or objectionable)
(反)noisome ◆ appealing/ pleasant 令人讨厌的 ◆ 有吸引力的/令人愉快的
noisome ◆ attractively fragrant 恶臭的 ◆ 具有迷人香味的
noisome ◆ beneficial/ healthy 有害的 ◆ 有益的/令人愉快的/健康的

nomad [] n. 流浪者, 游牧民(a member of a people who have no fixed residence)
(类)nomad•domicile=freelancer•employer 游牧民无固定住所=自由作家无顾主
(反)nomadic ◆ settled 游牧的 ◆ 定居的

nominal [] adj. 名义上的,不重要的(trifling, insignificant)
(类)nominal•significance=disjunctive•unity 有名无实的缺乏重要性=分离的缺乏统一
nominal•figurehead=absolute•autocrat 不重要的•有名无实的领袖=绝对的•独裁者

nonchalant [] adj. 冷漠的(having an air of easy unconcern or indifference)
(类)anonymous•identify=nonchalant•excite 匿名的难以识别=冷漠的难以激动

nondescript [] adj. 没有特征的,平凡的(lacking distinctive or interesting qualities)
(反)nondescript ◆ conspicuous/ remarkable/striking 平凡的 ◆ 引人注目的/非凡的/惊人的

nonentity [] n. 不存在,不重要之人(a person of little consequence or significance)
(类)dilettante•commitment=nonentity•consequenc
业余爱好者缺乏义务=不重要之人缺乏重要性
(反)mogul ◆ nonentity 显要人物 ◆ 不重要的人

nonplus [] vt. 使困惑,使进退两难(to put at a loss as to what to do;bewilder)
(类)infuriate•rage=nonplus•perplexity 激怒使人大怒=使困惑使人困惑(行为及其影响)

nonsense [] n. 胡言乱语(words or language having no meaning or conveying no
intelligible ideas)
(类)nonsensical•drivel=pompous•bombast 胡言乱语的•胡言乱语=虚夸的•夸大的言词

notch [] vt. 刻痕(to cut or make a notcha usually v-shaped depression in an edge or surface)
(反)serrated ◆ without notches 齿状的 ◆ 没有刻痕的
(例)There was a notch “早”in the table of Luxun.

novelty [] n. 新奇(something new or unusual)
(类)threadbare/timeworn•novelty=labyrinthine•directness 陈旧的•新奇事物=曲折的•笔直
ballad•stanza=novel•chapter 民歌•节,段=小说•章;回 (组成关系)
(反)novel ◆ banal/ timeworn 新颖的 ◆ 陈腐的/ 陈旧的

noxious [] adj. 有害的,有毒的(physically harmful or destructive to living beings)
(反)noxious ◆ beneficial/salubrious 有害的 ◆ 有益的/有益健康的
(例)noxious wastes that poison our streams

nuance [] n. 细微的差异(a subtle distinction or variation)
(类)nuance•distinction=hint•suggestion 细微差异•差别=暗示•显示 (程度)
(反)nuance ◆ patent difference/ lack of subtlety/ sharp distinction/ patent
细微的差异 ◆ 明显的差别/ 缺乏精妙/ 明显的差别/ 明显的

nucleate [] v. 使…聚集成核(to form into a nucleus)
(反)nucleate ◆ disseminate/ scatter 聚集成核 ◆ 散布/ 分散

nudge [] n. v. 用肘轻推,引起注意(seek the attention of by a push of the elbow)
(类)doze•sleep=nudge•prod 瞌睡•睡觉=轻推•推动 (程度)
butt•head=nudge•elbow 以头抵撞•头=用肘轻推•肘 (动作及其身体部位)

nugatory [] adj. 无关紧要的(of little or no consequence;trifling, inconsequential)
(反)nugatory ◆ consequential 无关紧要的 ◆ 重要的

nurture [] vt. 抚育,给…营养(to supply with nourishment)
(类)nurture•child••cultivate•crop 抚育:小孩=培养:农作物
(反)nurture ◆ withhold sustenance from 提供营养物 ◆ 停止提供营养物
nurture ◆ impede/ stunt 抚育 ◆ 阻止/阻碍生长
disregard ◆ nurture 忽略,漠视 ◆ 培育,教育

oasis [] n. 沙漠绿洲 (a fertile or green area in an arid region as a desert)
(类)glade•wood=oasis•desert 林间空地•树林=绿洲•沙漠

oath [] n. 誓言, 宣誓(solemn promise)
(类)oath•promise=contract•agreement 誓言•允诺=合同•协议(前者比后者正式)
(例)something as a promise corroborated by an oath

obdurate [] adj. 固执的,执拗的(resistant to persuasion or softening influences);冷酷的
(类)energetic•frenetic=firm•obdurate=frugal•penurious
精力旺盛的•狂乱的=坚定的•顽固的=节俭的•吝啬的(褒贬程度)
firmness•obdurate=carefulness•meticulous
坚定•执迷不悟的=仔细的•谨小慎微的(褒贬程度)
penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous 悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的(不容易)
obdurate•budge=lachrymose•cheer 固执的•移动=爱哭的•欢呼
obdurate•move=irrepressible•quell 冷酷无情的难以打动=镇压不住的难以镇压
(反)obdurate ◆ amenable/ complaisant/flexible/pliable 执拗的 ◆ 温顺的
toward ◆ obdurate 和顺的 ◆ 顽固的
【注:toward :propitious, favoring 顺利的,和顺的 例a toward breeze 和顺的微风】

obedient [] adj. 服从的,顺从的(submissive to the restraint or command of authority)
(反)obedient ◆ contumacious/ imperial 顺从的 ◆ 顽固的/最高权力的

obeisance [] n. 鞠躬,敬礼(a movement of the body made in token of 表示respect or submission)
(类)obeisant•esteem=embrace•affection 鞠躬•尊敬=拥抱•爱 (行为及其表达内容)
(反)obeisant ◆ impertinent/ impudent/ imperious 恭敬的 ◆ 不礼貌的/放肆无礼的/专横的
(同)bow , honor, deference, homage, reverence

obfuscate [] v. 使困惑,使迷惑(to make obscure)
(类)equivocation•truth=euphemism•offense=obfuscation•clarity
说模棱两可的话•真理=委婉的说法•攻击,伤感情=使模糊•清楚(反面特征)
headstrong•willfulness=obfuscate•confusing 顽固•任性=使困惑•胡涂(同义)
rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible(干扰:equivocation•definite)
自圆其说•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)【注:plausible :giving a deceptive
impression of truth, acceptability, or reliability;specious 给人假象的,华而不实的
rationalize:vi. to provide plausible but untrue reasons for conduct 找借口,自圆其说,文过饰非】
cowardice•intimidate=perplexity•obfuscate 懦弱容易被胁迫=困惑容易被迷惑
(反)obfuscate ◆ demystify/ elucidate/ illuminate/ clarify / explain clearly 使迷惑 ◆ 澄清,阐明
(反)obfuscated/ obfusticated ◆ lucid 困惑的 ◆ 清晰的
(同)obscure, adumbrate, becloud, befog, darken, dim, gloom
(记)ob(强调)+fusc(=dark黑暗)+ate→黑暗中摸索→迷惑,困惑
参考:confuse 使糊涂 fuscous暗褐色的

obituary [] n. 讣告(a notice of a person's death usually with a short biographical account)
(类)roster•staff=obituary•death 花名册记录职员=讣告记录死亡

obligatory [] adj. 强制性的,必须的(binding in law or conscience; mandatory, required)
(反)obligatory ◆ discretionary/ selective/ elective 强制性的 ◆ 自由选择的
(记)来自 oblige v. 迫使 参考:obligation义务

obliging [] adj. 乐于助人的(willing to do favors)
(类)visionary•idealistic=officious•obliging
空想的•空想主义的=好管闲事的•乐于助人的(褒贬)
(同)amiable, complaisant, good-humored, good-natured, good-tempered, lenient, mild
(记)由obligation“义务”而来。由被迫和义务转为乐于助人大家不要奇怪,汉语也有这样的用法,
如:义务为大家修车。不是被迫而是出于乐于助人。

oblique [] adj. 倾斜的,间接的(not straightforward:indirect)
(反)oblique ◆ direct 倾斜的 ◆ 笔直的
(记)ob(不)+ lique(谐音:立刻)→不立刻→不直接→间接的

obliterate [] v. 涂掉,删除(to remove from existence)
(类)inspire•infuse=obliterate•remove 鼓舞•鼓舞=删除•除去(同义)
ineffable•description=irradicable•obliterate 不能说的•描述=不能根除的•删除
inexpurgate ◆ obliterate 无法除去 ◆ 除去
(同)erase, efface, expunge, wipe (out)
(记)ob(=over在…之上)+liter(=letter字母)→在字母之上覆盖东西→涂掉,删掉

oblivious [] adj. 健忘的,忘记的(lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention)
(类)erudite•fathom=oblivious•neglect 博学的•看穿=健忘的•忽略(正面特征)
【注】fathom :v. to penetrate and come to understand 看穿,看透
例如:He couldn't fathom the problem 他不能看透这个问题
(反)oblivious ◆ mindful/ vigilant 缺乏注意的 ◆ 留意的/机警的
oblivious ◆ cognizant 忘记的 ◆ 知晓的(fully informed)
(同)ignorant, incognizant, inconversant, unacquainted, unaware, uninformed
(例)She was oblivious to our warnings. 她忘了我们的提醒
(记)ob(不)+livi(=live活跃的)→大脑不活跃的→健忘的,忘记的

obloquy [] n. 谩骂,诽谤(abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny)
(反)adulation ◆ obloquy 奉承 ◆ 漫骂
(同)abuse, contumely, invective, scurrility, vituperation

obscure [] adj. 暗的,模糊的,无名的(not clearly seen or easily distinguished)v. 使模糊
(反)obscure ◆ explicit/ manifest 模糊的 ◆ 明晰的/明显的
obscure ◆ elucidate 使含糊 ◆ 阐明
legendary ◆ obscure 有名的 ◆ 无名的
obscurity ◆ celebrity 默默无闻的 ◆ 名人
obscurity ◆ clarity 模糊 ◆ 清晰
certitude ◆ obscurity 确实 ◆ 含糊
(同)faint, dark, vague, enigmatic, cryptic, ambiguous, equivocal
(例)an obscure textual reference

obsequious [] adj. 谄媚的,奉承的,顺从的(marked by or a fawning attentiveness)
(类)condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn 屈尊的• 屈尊=顺从的•巴结 (形动同义)
libertine•dissolute=sycophant•obsequious=narcissist•self absorbed
淫荡者•放荡的=马屁精•顺从的=自我陶醉者•自我吸引(人物典型特征)
sycophantic•obsequious=rebellious•resurgent
阿谀的•奉承的=反叛的•起义的(同义)
obsequious•fawn=compliant•yield
顺从的•巴结=顺从的•屈服的 (褒贬程度)
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive
谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•有进取心的(褒贬程度)
obsequious•attentiveness=parsimonious•frugality
献媚的•关心的=吝啬•节俭(褒贬程度)
(反)supercilious ◆ obsequious 傲慢的 ◆ 顺从的
(同)subservient, menial, obeisant, servile

observatory [] n. 天文台
(类)conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院•音乐=神学院•神学=天文台•天文学

obsess [] vt .迷住;使困窘,使烦扰(to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of)
(类)agonized•distress=obsessed•concern 使苦恼•苦恼=使困扰•困扰
firm•intransigent=concerned•obsessed 坚定的:不妥协的=担心的:关心的 (同义)
obsessed•attracted=rash•adventurous 着迷•被吸引的=轻率的•冒险的
obsessed•attracted=intimate•close 着迷的•被吸引的=亲密的•接近的 (程度)
(反)obsession ◆ intense disgust 迷住 ◆ 极度厌恶

list 23 obstinate -------parrot
obstinate [] adj. 固执的, 倔强的(perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course)
(类)obstinate•preserve=tactless/insensitive•offend 固执的•坚持=无礼的•冒犯(不容易)
unflappable•upset=obstinate•persuade 镇定的•慌乱=倔强的•说服 (不容易被)
firm• obstinate=supple•spineless=thin•emaciated
坚定•顽固=逢迎的•没有勇气的=瘦的•瘦弱的(程度)
(反)obstinacy ◆ tractability 固执 ◆ 温顺
obstinate ◆ tractable 固执的 ◆ 温顺的
(同)bullheaded, closed-minded, hardheaded, headstrong, intractable, intransigent, mulish, pertinacious, perverse, pervicacious, refractory, stubborn, unpliable, unpliant, unyielding

obstruct [] v. 阻碍,阻塞(to hinder from passage, action, or operation)
(反)obstruct ◆ facilitate 阻碍 ◆ 促进
occluded ◆ unobstructed 闭塞的 ◆ 开放的
obstructed ◆ unocclude 阻塞的 ◆ 开放的
abet ◆ obstruct 教唆 ◆ 阻止
obstructionist ◆ one who facilitates 防碍者 ◆ 促进者
(同)hinder, bar, block, brake, dam, impede, overslaugh

obtuse [] adj. 愚笨的,不锐利的(lacking sharpness or quickness of sensibility or intellect)
(类)parsimonious•liberal=obtuse•keen=restive•calmness
吝啬的•慷慨的=钝的•锋利的=失控的•镇静(反义)
impertinent•propriety=keen•obtuseness 鲁莽的•适当=敏锐的•迟钝(形名反义)
(反)obtuse ◆ insightful 愚笨的 ◆ 有深刻见解的
(同)dull, blunt

obviate [] vt. 除去,排除
(类)emulate•exemplary=obviate•unnecessary 效仿•可效仿的=除去•不必要的

occlude [] vt. 阻塞,闭塞(to close up or block off•obstruct)
(反)occluded ◆ unobstructed 闭塞的 ◆ 不闭塞的
obstructed ◆ unocclude 阻碍的 ◆ 不阻塞的
(同)choke, clog, close, congest, obstruct

occult [] adj. 神秘的,不可思议的(not easily apprehended or understood)
(反)occult ◆ bare/ manifest/ patent/ readily fathomable
神秘的 ◆ 暴露的/ 明显的/ 明显的/ 可理解的
(同)recondite, abstruse, esoteric, hermetic, profound, secret

ode [] n. 颂诗,赋(a lyric poem marked by exaltation of feeling and style, varying length of line, and complexity of stanza forms)
(类)chord•tone=ode•poem 和弦•曲调=颂诗•诗 (种属)
ode•poetry=spoof•parody 颂诗•诗=讽刺诗•讽刺作品

odium [] n. 憎恶,讨厌(hatred and condemnation accompanied by loathing or contempt)
(反)odium ◆ esteem/ hankering / infatuation 憎恨 ◆ 迷恋/ 渴望/ 着迷
(同)detestation disgrace, discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, ignominy, infamy, obloquy, opprobrium

offbeat [] adj. 不平常的,离奇的(eccentric, unconventional)
(反)offbeat ◆ conventional 反传统的 ◆ 传统的
offbeat ◆ bathetic/ hackneyed 离奇的 ◆ 平庸的

offhand [] adj. 即席的,无准备的(without premeditation or preparation•extempore)
(反)offhand ◆ premeditated 即兴的 ◆ 事先谋划的
(同)extemporary, extempore, impromptu, improvised

officious [] adj.多管嫌事的,好忠告人的(meddlesome)
(类)attentive•officious=refined•snobbish 留意的•多管闲事的=雅致的•俗不可耐的
officious•meddle=disaffected•rebel 多管闲事的•干涉=有叛意的•背叛
visionary•idealistic=officious•obliging 空想的•空想主义的=多管闲事的•乐于助人的
officious•attentive=parsimony•frugal 多管闲事的•留意的=吝啬•节俭(褒贬程度)

offish [] adj. 冷淡的(somewhat cold and reserved•standoffish)
(反)offish ◆ sociable 冷漠的 ◆ 友善的
(同)aloof, insociable, reserved, solitary, standoffish, unapproachable, withdrawn

off-key adj. 走调的(varying in pitch from the proper tone of a melody)不规则的(irregular)
(反)off-key ◆ at the proper pitch 走调的 ◆ 调子正确的

olfaction [] n. 嗅觉(the sense of smell)
(类)olfaction•odor=gustation•flavor 嗅觉能闻到气味=味觉能品尝滋味

ominous [] adj.预兆的, 恶兆的, 不吉利的(being or exhibiting an omen:portentous; especially:
foreboding or foreshowing evil:inauspicious)
(反)auspicious ◆ ominous 吉兆的 ◆ 不吉利的
(同)apocalyptic, baleful, baneful, inauspicious, threatening, unpropitious

omniscient [] adj. 全知的,无所不知的(having infinite awareness/understanding/ insight)
(反)vacuous ◆ omniscient 空洞的 ◆ 全知的

onerous [] adj. 繁重的,费力的(involving, imposing, or constituting a burden:troublesome)
(反)onerous ◆ requiring little effort 费力的 ◆ 省力气的

opaque [] adj. 不透明的(exhibiting opacity),难懂的
(类)slack•tension=opaque•translucence 松弛的•拉紧=不透明的•半透明(形名反义)
opacity•light=impermeability•fluid=nonporous•liquid
不透明•光线=不可渗透•流体=无孔的•液体(不可穿越关系)
(反)opacity ◆ clarity/diaphanous/transparency 不透明 ◆ 透明
opaqueness ◆ clarity 不透明性 ◆ 透明
(同)obscure, ambiguous, equivocal, nubilous, uncertain, unintelligible, vague
(记)谐音:欧佩克 联想:欧佩克石油组织生产石油,由石油推出“不透明的”

opine [] vt. 表达观点(to express opinions)
(类)augur•predict=pundit•opine= recidivism•relapse
占卜师•预言=权威•表达观点=重犯•再发(人物及其特征行为)

opportune [] adj. 合适的,适当的(suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence)
(类)opportune•convenience=impermanent•transience 适当的•方便=短暂的•顷刻
(反)opportune ◆ inappropriate/inconvenient/ untimely 适当的 ◆ 不适当的/不便的/不合时宜的

opprobrious [] adj. 无礼的,粗野的(expressive of opprobrium•scurrilous)
(反)opprobrious ◆ irreproachable 无礼的 ◆ 无过失的
opprobrium ◆ good repute 不名誉 ◆ 好名声
(同)invective, scurrile, scurrilous, , vituperative

oracle [] n. 神谕(a person through whom a deity is believed to speak)
(类)mentor•guidance=oracle•prophecy 导师•指导=神谕•预言
(同)revelation, apocalypse, prophecy, vision

oration [] n. 演说,致辞(an elaborate discourse delivered in a formal and dignified manner)
(类)oration•heard=novel•read 演说•能听到=小说•能读

orient [] vt. 使适应, 确定方向(get one's bearings; adjust; make familiar with a situation)
(反)orient ◆ confuse 使适应 ◆ 使迷惑

original [] adj. 最初的,原始的,有创意的(not secondary, derivative, or imitative)
(类)babble•sense=parrot•originality 胡言乱语缺乏理性=鹦鹉学舌缺乏创新
(反)original ◆ commonplace/ banal/trite 有创意的 ◆ 普通的/陈腐的
pastiche ◆ original work 仿作 ◆ 原创
(同)inventive, creative, deviceful, ingenious, innovational

ornithology [] n. 鸟类学(a branch of zoology dealing with birds)
(类)ornithology•eagle=astronomy•planet 鸟类学•鹰=天文学•行星

orthodoxy [] n. 信仰正统,正教(quality of being conforming to established doctrine)
(类)religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy
信仰•虔诚=正统经典•信仰正统(后者致力于前者)
【注:devout:devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises】
(类)dissenter•orthodox=maverick•group 反对者脱离正统=特立独行者脱离团体

oscillate [] v. 使振动,使动摇,犹豫(swing like a pendulum;vary between opposing beliefs,feelings,or theories)
(反)oscillate ◆ remain static 振动 ◆ 静止
oscillation ◆ absence of variation 犹豫 ◆ 不变
(同)swing, pendulate, sway

ossify [] v.硬化,僵化(to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change)
(类)depreciation•value=ossification•flexibility 贬值•重要=僵化•灵活 (反义)
ligneous•wood=osseous•bone 木质的:木头=骨质的:骨头
(反)ossified ◆ amenable to change 僵化的 ◆ 顺应变化的
ossify ◆ make pliant 硬化 ◆ 使柔软
ossify ◆ transcend conventions 僵化 ◆ 超越传统

ostentatious [] adj. 卖弄的,夸耀的(marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious display)
(反)ostensible ◆ inapparent 明显的 ◆ 不明显的
ostentation ◆ artlessness/ austerity/ modesty  卖弄 ◆ 朴实/ 朴素/ 谦逊
ostentatious ◆ modest 卖弄的 ◆ 谦让的
(同)showy, flamboyant, pretentious, splashy

ostracize [  ] n. 贝壳放逐,排斥(exclusion by general consent from common privileges)
(类)pariah•ostracize=prisoner•confine 贱民被驱逐=囚犯被囚禁
(反)ostracize ◆ take in 驱逐 ◆ 接纳
ostracize ◆ include/embrace/ welcome 排斥 ◆ 包容/包含/欢迎
(记)与oyster(牡蛎)同源ostra(贝壳、瓦片);古希腊将贝壳作为选票来决定是否驱逐某人

oust [] vt. 剥夺,驱逐(to remove from or dispossess of property by legal action or force)
(反)instate ◆ oust 任命 ◆ 剥夺
(同)deprive, bereave, dispossess, divest

outgoing [] a dj. 外向的,爱社交的(openly friendly and responsive•extroverted)
(类)extrovert•outgoing=perfectionist•exacting 好社交者•爱社交的=完美主义者•苛求的

outlandish [] adj. 古怪的, 奇异的(strikingly out of the ordinary:bizarre)
(反)outlandish ◆ conventional 古怪的 ◆ 常规的

outmaneuver [] v. 以策略制胜;智取(to maneuver with better effect than; outwit)
(反)outmaneuver ◆ yield 智取 ◆ 屈服
(同)outwit, outfox

outset [] n.开端, 开始(beginning, start)
(反)outset ◆ termination 开端 ◆ 终止

outwit [] v. 瞒骗, 以智取胜(to get the better of by superior cleverness)
(类)taunt•provoke=plot•outwit 逗弄目的是刺激=谋划目的是以智取胜

overbearing [] adj. 傲慢的(harshly and haughtily arrogant)
(反)overbearing ◆ meek/ unassuming 傲慢的 ◆ 谦逊的

overlap [] vt. 重叠,重复(to occupy the same area in part•lap over)
(类)infinite•exhaust=discrete•overlap 无限的•穷尽=离散的•重叠 (形动反义)
inconsonant•concord=scatter•overlap 不协调的•一致的=分散的•重叠的(反义)

overt [] adj.公开的,非秘密的(open to view:manifest)
(类)clandestine•secretly=overt•openly 秘密的•秘密地=公然的•公然地 (形副同义)
(反)shadowy ◆ overt 朦胧的 ◆ 明显的

overture [] n. 前奏曲,序曲(something introductory•prelude)
(类)veto•prohibitive=overture•introductory 否决•禁止的=序曲•开端的(名形同义)
overture/ preamble•introduction=caveat•warning/cautionary 序曲•介绍=警戒•警告
overture•symphony=preface•book 序曲•交响乐=前言•书(事物的开始)
overture•opera=preamble•statute 序曲•歌剧=导言•.法令
(反)coda ◆ overture 乐章结尾 ◆ 前奏
(同)introduction, foreword, preamble, preface, prelude, prologue

oxymoron [•] n. 矛盾修饰法(a combination of contradictory or incongruous words)
(类)apophasis•claim=oxymoron•paradox 委婉表述与表述有关=矛盾修饰法与矛盾有关
oxymoron•contradictory=mishap•catastrophic 矛盾修饰法•矛盾的=不幸•灾难的
equivocation•ambiguous=oxymoron•incongruous
模棱两可的话•暧昧的=矛盾修饰法•不调和的(正面特征)

pachyderm [] n. 厚皮类动物, 迟钝的人
(类)pachyderm•animal=ant•insect 厚皮类动物•动物=蚂蚁•昆虫(种属)
(例)as an elephant, a rhinoceros, or a pig
(记)词根derm 真皮,皮肤

pacify [] vt. 使平静,安慰(to allay the anger or agitation of•soothe)
(类)solace•grief=pacification•anger 安慰•痛楚=平定•愤怒 (消除关系)
(反)pacify ◆ incite/ rankle/ tantrum/ vex 安慰 ◆ 煽动/ 激怒/ 发怒/ 恼怒
discompose ◆ pacificate 使不安 ◆ 使镇静
pacific ◆ truculent 和平的 ◆ 好战的
(同)soothe, pacify, appease, ease, mollify
(例)pacify a crying child

pack [] n. 一群 (a group of often predatory animals of the same kind)
(类)orchestra•musician=pack•wolf 管弦乐队•音乐家=狼群•狼 (团体与个体)

padding [] n. 填塞物(material with which something is padded)
(类)padding•damage=disguise•recognition 填塞物•损伤=假面目•认识(防止关系)
padding•damage=levee•flooding 填塞物•损伤=防洪堤坝•洪水(防止关系)

paean [] n. 赞美歌(a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph)
(类)paean•song=elegy•poem 赞美歌•歌=挽诗•诗(种属)
paean•joy=dirge•grief 赞美歌表达欢乐=挽歌表达悲痛
(反)paean ◆ harshly lampoon 赞歌 ◆ 讽刺文章

painstaking [] adj. 艰苦的(taking pains)
(类)pain•analgesic=symptom•palliative 痛苦•止痛的=症状•减轻的
(反)cursory ◆ painstakingly thorough 粗略的 ◆ 十分详尽的
slipshod ◆ painstaking 漫不经心的 ◆ 艰苦的

palatable [] adj.美味的(agreeable to the palate or taste)
(类)palatable•savory=discernible•manifest 美味的•可口的=可分辨的•明显的
(同)palatable, appetizing, savory, tasty, toothsome
(例)butterflies that birds find palatable

palatial [] adj. 宫殿般的,豪华的(magnificent)
(类)hovel•palatial=city(metropolis)•bucolic
小屋•豪华的=城市(大城市)•田园生活的(反面特征)
(同)luxurious,deluxe,sumptuous
(记)来自palace 宫殿

palette [] n. 调色板,颜料(a particular range, quality, or use of color)
(类)palette•color=repertoire•play 调色板•颜色=节目单•节目(前者安排后者)

pall [] v. 感到腻烦,失去兴趣(to lose in interest or attraction)
(反)pall ◆ interest/intrigue 失去兴趣 ◆ 激发兴趣
(同)bore, ennui, tire, weary

palliate [] v. 减轻(痛苦)(to reduce the violence of (a disease))
(类)palliate•anger=enfeeble•vigor 减轻•愤怒=使衰弱•精力(动宾关系)
symptom•palliative=pain•analgesic 病症•减轻的=疼痛•止痛的(消除)
(反)palliate ◆ exacerbate/worsen/increase intensity 减轻 ◆ 加剧/恶化/增加强度
caustic ◆ palliating/genial 讽刺的 ◆ 缓和的/和蔼的
(同)extenuate, prettify, sugarcoat, varnish, veneer

pallid [] adj. 苍白的(面色)(having an abnormally pale complexion)
(反)rubicund红润的/ piquant 兴奋的
(同)pale, ashen, ashy, blanched, colorless,

palmy [] adj. 繁荣的(marked by prosperity)
(类)palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity 繁荣的•繁荣=苛刻的•严格(形名同义)
(同)flourishing, prosperous

palpable [] adj. 可触知的,明显的,易觉察的(easily perceived)
(类)palpable•touch=pliable•mold 可触知的•触摸=柔韧的•塑造
(反)palpable ◆ explicate/subtle 明显的 ◆ 隐晦的/细微的
impalpable ◆ clear 不易察觉的 ◆ 清楚的
(同)perceptible, appreciable, detectable, discernible
(例)i cannot understand how you could overlook such a palpable blunder.

palter [] vi. 欺骗(to act insincerely or deceitfully)
(类)palter•candor=diehard•budge 欺骗•诚挚=顽固•移动(反面特征)
【注:budge :to alter a position or attitude:改变立场或态度】
(反)palter ◆ candor 欺骗 ◆ 坦率
(同)lie, equivocate, falsify, fib, prevaricate

paltry [] adj. 无价值的;微不足道的(practically worthless; trifling)
(反)paltry ◆ significant/important 微不足道的 ◆ 意义重大的/重要的
(同)petty, measly, piddling, puny, trifling, trivial,
(例)This is a paltry sum to pay for such a masterpiece.

pan [] vt.【口语】严厉批评 (to criticize unfavorably, as in reviewing)
(类)pan•harsh=barb•caustic 严厉批评•严厉的=尖锐的批评•严厉的(同义)
(反)rave 过分赞扬 eulogize称赞 extol称赞

panache [] n. 羽饰;假威风,炫耀(dash or flamboyance in style)
(反)panache ◆ humility 炫耀 ◆ 谦逊
panache ◆ unremarkable behavior 炫耀 ◆ 寻常举止
panache ◆ dullness 华丽 ◆ 缺乏光彩(dull:lacking brilliance or luster)

pancreas [] n. 胰腺
(类)insulin•pancreas=bile•liver 胰岛素•胰腺=胆汁•肝脏(分泌关系)

pandemic [] adj. 全国流行的
(反)pandemic ◆ limited 流行的 ◆ 限制的
(记)pan(前缀,表示“全, 总, 泛”)+dem(=people)→全体人民→全国流行的

pandemonium [] n. 喧哗吵闹(wild uproar or noise)
(反)pandemonium ◆ serene 喧嚣 ◆ 安静
(同)din , hubbub, jangle, racket, tumult, uproar
(记)pan(全部)+demon(魔鬼)→群魔乱舞→喧哗,吵闹

panegyric [] n. 赞扬,夸大的颂词(a eulogistic oration or writing)
(类)panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize 颂词•称颂=讽刺文章•讽刺 (前者表达后者)
panegyric•praise=valediction•farewell 颂词•赞扬=临别致词•告别 (前者表达后者)
(反)anathema诅咒 denunciation谴责 condemnation谴责
(同)encomium, citation, eulogy, salutation, tribute
(例)the modest hero blushed to hear the speakers delivering panegyrics about his valorous act.
(记)pan (全)+egyric(集市)→在公众集会上演说正式的颂扬性文章→赞扬,颂词

panoramic [] n. 全景的(an complete view of an area in every direction)
(反)panoramic ◆ narrow 全景的 ◆ 狭窄的
(记)pan(全)+oram(视野)→全景

pantry [] n. 食品柜,餐具室(a room for preparation of foods on order)
(类)pantry•food=armory•weapons=closet(wardrobe)•clothes
餐具室•食物=军械库•武器=壁橱(衣柜)•衣服(存储地方与物品)
(同)larder, buttery 区别:pastry 面点

parable [] n. 寓言,比喻
(类)parable•story=homily•lecture 寓言•故事=说教•教训(种属)
(同)allegory, apologue, fable, myth
(记)para(侧面, 超越)。从侧面说道理→寓言

paradigm [] n. 典范, 范例(example, pattern)
(类)corrective•amends=paradigm•exemplify
矫正物•补偿=范例•作为…例子(事物作用)
paragon(paradigm)•imitate=reverence•regard
模范值得被效仿=应该尊敬的人值得被尊重
(同)moder, archetype, example, exemplar, pattern, standard
(记)para(侧面, 超越)。超越一般的→典范

paradise [] n. 天堂 (a place or state of bliss, felicity, or delight)
(类)pleasurable•paradisical=melodious•lyrical
愉悦的•极欢乐=曲调优美的•抒情诗调的 (同义)
(记)词头para-表示“侧面, 超越”之义。超乎寻常的感受,当然只能在天堂中体会

paradox [] n. 似是而非的论点,自相矛盾的话(a statement that is seemingly contradictory to common sense and yet is perhaps true)
(类)paradox•contradictory=epigram•wise
矛盾论点•对立的=警句•有智慧的(事物典型特征)
oxymoron•paradox=apophasis•claim
矛盾修饰法•矛盾的话=表面否认要说或正说的话•表述
(反)paradoxical ◆ common荒谬的 ◆ 普通的
(例)the paradox of her career was her achievement of her greatest intellectual authority at the very moment when she was bereft of a compelling subject.

paragon [] n. 模范,典型(a model of excellence or perfection)
(类)paragon•admire=pariah•contempt 典范常常被赞美=底层民众常常被轻蔑
paragon•excellent=hoax•fraudulent 模范•优秀的=愚弄•欺骗的(正面特征)
paragon•exemplary=corrected•amend 典范•示例=修正的•改正(同义)
(反)travesty ◆ paragon 曲解 ◆ 典范
(同)ideal, jewel, nonesuch, nonpareil, phoenix
(例)the class disliked him because the teacher was always pointing him out as a paragon of
virtue.

paramount [] adj. 最重要的,最高权力的(superior to all others)
(类)important•paramount=painful•agonizing 重要的•最重要的=痛苦的•痛苦难耐的(程度)
(反)paramount ◆ ancillary 最主要的 ◆ 辅助次要的
(同)ascendant, overbearing, predominant, predominate, preponderant
(例)Proper nutrition are of paramount importance in adolescent development and growth.
(记)美国好莱坞的派拉蒙公司就是这个商标。词头para-表示“侧面, 超越”之义。

paranoia [] n. 偏执狂(a tendency on the part of an individual or group toward excessive or irrational suspiciousness and distrustfulness of others)
(类)suspicion•paranoia=enthusiasm•mania 猜疑•偏执狂=热情•狂热(褒贬程度)
suspicious•paranoid=admiring•idolatrous 怀疑的•偏执狂的=钦佩的•盲目崇拜的(褒贬)
(例)Suffering from paranois, he claimed everyone was out to get him; ironically, his claim was accurate; even paranoids have enemies.

paraphrase [] vt. 简要重述,解释(to make a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form)
(类)paraphrase•verbatim=approximate•precise 简要重述•一字不差地=近似•精确的(反义)
(同)rephrase, restate, reword
(例)in 250 words or less, paraphrase this article. 用250词左右来简要复述一下这篇文章。
(记)词头para-表示“侧面, 超越”之义;对句子从另外角度阐述→扼要重述

parch [] vi. 烤干 (to dry or shrivel with cold)
(反)steep ◆ parch 浸泡 ◆ 烤干

parenthesis [] n.插入语;附带;插曲;圆括号
(类)enclose•parentheses=separate•comma 括号使围住=句号使隔开
parenthesis•explanation=ellipsis•omission 圆括号表示解释=省略号表示省略
(记)paren(=para侧面, 超越)+thesis

pariah n. 贱民,底层民众(a member of a low caste of southern india)
(类)pariah•ostracize=prisoner•confine 底层民众遭排斥=囚犯遭囚禁(人物典型特征)
(同)outcast,castaway,derelict
(记)pari谐音 巴黎。记住巴黎爆发的法国大革命就是这群所谓的贱民发动的。

parity [] n. 同等,平等(the quality or state of being equal)
(反)inequality不公平/ incommensurateness不平衡
(同)equivalence,adequation,equality
(例)I find your analogy inaccurate because i do not see the parity between the two illustrations.

parlance [] n. 说话的方式(manner or mode of speech)
(类)parlance•speak=gait•walk 说话的方式•说=步法•行走(动作与其方式)
(同)wording,diction, phrase, phraseology, phrasing
(记)parlan 谐音 巴朗。如果你知道巴朗词表就会知道它是来研究人们的说话方式的。

parody [] n.诙谐改编的诗文 v. 做模仿诗文
(类)parody•style=mime•gesture 诙谐改编模仿的是诗文风格=哑剧模仿的是姿态
【注:mime:to act a part with mimic gesture and action usually without words
parody:n. a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule v. to imitate in the manner of a parody】
spoof•parody=nicety•distinction 轻浮的改编•拙劣的模仿=细微差别•差别(种属)spoof•parody=ode•poetry 轻浮地讽刺模仿品•模仿作品=颂诗•诗(种属)
(同)burlesque, imitate, mock, take off, travesty

paroxysm [] n. 发作,突发(a sudden violent emotion or action)
(类)paroxysm•sudden=ruse•deceived 突发•突然的=诡计•欺骗的 (正面特征)

parquetry [] n. 镶木地板艺术或图案(inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, usually of
contrasting woods, used esp. in flooring)
(类)parquetry•floor=fresco•wall 镶木地板图案•地板=壁画•墙壁(事物安置位置)
parquet•wood=mosaic•glass 镶木地板•木头=镶嵌图案•玻璃
(例)in laying the floor, the carpenters combined redwood and oak in an elegant parquet.

parrot vt. 鹦鹉学舌,机械地模仿(to repeat by rote)
(类)parrot•originality=babble•sense 机械地模仿缺乏创意=胡说八道缺乏理智

list 24 parry --------pixel
parry v. 躲避(武器、问题等)(to evade especially by an adroit answer)
(类)parry•question=shirk•duty 躲避•问题=推卸•责任(逃避关系)
(同)dodge, duck, fence, shirk, sidestep
(例)he was content to wage a defensive battle and tried to parry his opponent's thrusts.
(记)p+arry(=arrow 箭) →避箭→躲避武器等

parse [] n./v. 从语法上分析
(类)parse•grammatical=scan•metrical
语法分析•合乎语法的=分析韵脚•有韵律的(行为及其相关对象)
sentence•parse=specimen•dissect 句子•语法分析=标本•解剖(行为及其对对象)

parsimony [] n. 过度节俭,吝啬(unreasonable economy; stinginess)
(类)parsimony•frugal=hubris•proud 节俭•节俭的=傲慢•高傲的(名形同义)
parsimonious•liberal=obtuse•keen 吝啬的•慷慨的=钝的•锋利的
parsimonious•profligacy=impetuous•hesitance 吝啬的•挥霍的=冲动的•犹豫的
parsimonious•resource=curt•words
吝啬的•资源=简略的•话语(形容词修饰名词,二重关系•简或少)
tightfisted•parsimonious=brattish•mischievous 吝啬的•吝啬的=宠坏的•淘气的(同义)
(反)parsimony ◆ largesse 吝啬 ◆ 慷慨
parsimonious ◆ wasteful/ liberal/ profligate/ prodigal/ munificent/ lavish/ generous
小气的 ◆ 浪费的/ 慷慨的/ 浪费的/ 挥霍的/ 慷慨大方的/ 浪费的/ 大方的
(同)stingy, miserly,niggardly, penurious
(记)parsi谐音 怕死+mony 谐音money 花钱 →怕死花钱→吝啬

partial [] adj. 偏袒的,偏爱的(inclined to favor one party more than the other:biased)
(反)partial ◆ dispassionate 偏袒的 ◆ 不动感情的
(同)jaundiced, prejudiced,tendentious,unindifferent,warped
(记)part 部分 只对部分人好→偏爱

particularize [] vt. vi. 详细说明,列举(to state in detail)
(类)particularize•details=illustrate•pictures
详细说明•细节=作图解•图片(行为及其相关对象)
(同)detail, specificate, specificize, stipulate
(记)part 部分 将整体分成部分详细说明

partisan [] n. 党羽,同党的人(a firm adherent to a party, faction)
(类)allegiance•partisans=authoritativeness•pundits
效忠•同党之人=权威•权威人士(人物典型特征)
patriot•country=partisan•course 爱国者•国家=党羽•方针(前者忠诚于后者)
(同)follower, adherent, cohort, disciple, henchman, supporter
(记)party 政党

pastiche [] n. 模仿 (的手法)(a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work)
(反)pastiche ◆ original work 模仿 ◆ 原创
(记)past 过去的,过时的+che 谐音 车→过时的车不值得模仿

partition [] n.分割,划分,瓜分 vt.区分,隔开,分割
(反)partition ◆ unify瓜分 ◆ 联合
(记)part 部分

patent [] adj. 专利的;显著的,新奇的(readily visible or intelligible)
(反)patent ◆ abstruse / not evident/ occult / recondite
明显的 ◆ 晦涩难懂的/ 不明显的/ 神秘的/ 深奥的
nuance ◆ patent difference 细微差别 ◆ 显著区别
(同)apparent, evident, manifest, obvious, palpable, unequivocal

pathology [] n. 病理学;病状
(类)stimulation•arousal=pathogen•diseasing 刺激物•激励= 病原体•疾病
(反)pathological ◆ normal 病态的 ◆ 正常的
(记)path谐音 怕死 →怕死是一种病态的心理(哈,其实不是)

patina [] n. 铜绿;薄层;光泽
(反)patina ◆ essential quality 薄层光泽 ◆ 本质

patrician n. 贵族,名门望族(a person of high birth•aristocrat)
(反)base ◆ patrician 底层社会 ◆ 贵族
(记)patri-表示“父”之义 联想:父辈荣耀,所以成了名门望族

patriot [] n. 爱国主义者(one who loves his or her country)
(类)patriot•country=partisan•course
爱国者忠于国家=党徒忠于(某一政党的)路线(人及其目标)
(记)patri-表示“父”之义 联想:国就是父

patronize [] vt. 资助,赞助,让人领情
(类)condescending•patronize=obsequious•fawn
使领情的•资助=谄媚的•奉承(形动同义)
patron•support=apologist•defend
赞助人•支援=辩护者•辩护(人物典型动作)
patronize•condescension=deride•mockery
资助•要人领情的态度=嘲弄•嘲笑(动名同义)
(例)experts in a field sometimes appear to patronize people who are less knowledgeable of the
subject.

paucity [] n. 少数,少量,缺乏(smallness of number:fewness)
(反)slew大量 plethora过剩 profusion丰富
(同)scarcity, insufficiency, poverty, scant, scarceness

paunchy [] dj. 大肚子的(having an enlarged or protruding abdomen)
(反)paunchy and awkward ◆ svelte 大腹便便的 ◆ 苗条的

pebble [] n. 小鹅卵石(a small usually rounded stone)
(类)droplet•deluge=pebble•landslid 小滴•洪水=小卵石•山崩泥石(小与大)

peccadillo [] n.小过失(a slight offense)
(类)peccadillo•error/sin/offense=glitch•flaw 小过失•错误/罪孽/犯罪=小故障•缺陷(程度)
peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation 小过失•错误=警告•惩罚
peccadillo•offense=cameo•sculpture 小过失•错误=贝雕•雕塑 (种属)
peccadillo•offence=mishap•accident 小罪•犯罪=不幸•事故(种属)
(记)pecc 斑点 参考:peccable 易犯罪的 speck 斑点,少量

peck [pek] n. 轻吻
(类)peck•kiss=glance•look 轻吻•吻=一瞥•看(轻和正常)
(记)和speck 少量 一起记→少量的吻→轻吻

pedagogue [] n. 教师,教育者(a dull, formal, or pedantic teacher)
(类)pedagogue•indoctrinate=stickler•exacting
教育者•灌输=坚持者•严格苛求(人物典型行为)

pedant [] n. 迂腐之人,书呆子,学究式人物
(类)pedant•learning=hack•writing
学究•学习=雇佣文人•写作(人物典型行为)
pedantic•learned=moralistic•principled
学究式的•有学问的=道学的•有原则的(褒贬对比)
scholarly•pedantic=modest•prudish (褒贬对比)
儒雅的•书呆的=谦虚的•假装正经
pedantic•scholar=histrionic•actor
学究的•学者=戏剧的•演员(人物典型属性)
(例)Her insistence that the book be memorized marked the teacher as a pedant rather than a
scholar.

pedestal [] n. 基架,底座,基础
(类)pedestal•statue=foundation•house 底座•雕像=地基•房子

predestine [] vt. 预定,注定
(反)predestine ◆ leave to chance 注定 ◆ 顺其自然
(记)pre 预先+destine 本身是动词“注定”参考:destiny 命运

pedestrian [] adj.缺乏想像的,呆板的(commonplace;unimaginative) (反)imaginative 富于想象的 marvelous非凡的 inspired有灵感的 rarefied 稀少的
(同)dull,dreary, humdrum, monotone, plodding,stodgy

pediatrics [] n. [医]小儿科
(类)pediatrics•children=dermatology•skin 小儿科•小孩=皮肤学•皮肤

peep [] n. 瞥见,偷看(to look cautiously or slyly)小鸟的吱吱叫声
(类)peck•kiss=peep•sound 啄•亲吻=小鸟的吱吱叫声•声音(种属)
(记)我们熟悉的bp机最早叫peep

peer [] n. 同等的人;贵族vi.凝视;窥视 vt.与...同等;封为贵族
(反)peer ◆ a subordinate person 同辈 ◆ 下级者

peerless [] adj. 出类拔萃的,无可匹敌的(matchless;imparable)
(反)peerlessness ◆ equality 出类拔萃 ◆ 同等
(同)matchless, unequaled, unique, unparagoned, unparalleled, unrivaled

peeve [] v. 使气恼,怨恨(to make peevish or resentful)
(类)peeved•annoyed=patronizing•condescending
气恼的•恼怒的=恩人自居的•使领情的(同义)
peeved•annoy=saturated•wet 恼怒的•骚挠=湿透的•弄湿(行为及结果)
(反)placate ◆ peeve 安抚 ◆ 使气恼
peevish ◆ good-natured 易恼怒的 ◆ 好脾气的
(同)irritate,aggravate, exasperate, nettle, pique, provoke
基本上可以确定:peeved•annoyed/ patronizing•condescending 是同义关系
maudlin•sentimental是程度关系

pejorative [] adj.轻蔑的,贬低的(having negative connotations)
(反)pejorative ◆ laudatory 贬低的 ◆ 赞美的
(同)derogatory, depreciative, detracting
(记)pejor(谐音:披着)+rat(老鼠)联想:披着鼠皮的人→让人轻蔑的

pelf [] n. 钱财(wealth or riches, especially when dishonestly acquired)
(类)pelf•impecunious=experience•green 钱财•贫穷的=经验•无经验的(缺乏关系)

pellucid [] adj.清晰的,易懂的(easy to understand)
(类)pellucid•understand=venial•excuse 易懂的•明白=可宽恕的•原谅(因果关系)
(反)pellucid ◆ murky 清楚的 ◆ 不清楚的
【注:murky :Lacking clarity or distinctness】
(同)transparent, clear, limpid, see-through, translucent

pen [] n. 雌天鹅(a female swan)
(类)swan•pen=sheep•ewe 天鹅•雌天鹅=羊•母羊(种属)

penalty [] n. 刑罚,罚款,报应
(类)pardon•penalty=exempt•liability 原谅•处罚=免责•责任(消除)
(记)penal刑事的

penchant [] n.强烈嗜好,倾向(a strong and continued inclination)
(反)penchant ◆ aversion/dislike爱好 ◆ 厌恶/讨厌
(同)disposition, inclination, predilection, predisposition
(记)谐音“盼唱”联想:盼着唱歌→强烈嗜好

penitent [] adj. 悔过的(feeling or expressing regretful pain)
(类)penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous 悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的
(反)impenitent ◆ contrite 不悔悟的 ◆ 后悔的
(同)apologetic, contrite, penitential, regretful, repentant 参考:repent v. 后悔,悔改
(例)when he realized the enormity of his crime, he became remorseful and penitent.

pensive [] adj. 沉思的,哀思的(musingly or dreamily thoughtful)
(类)lamentable•pensive=museful•ruminative 哀伤的•悲哀的=沉思的•沉思的(同义)
(同)meditative, pondering, reflecting, ruminative, speculative
(例)the pensive youth gazed at the painting for a long time and then sighed.

penury [] n. 贫困,贫穷(severe poverty)
(类)frugal•penurious=firm•obdurate 节俭的•吝啬的=坚定的•顽固的(褒贬)
(反)penury ◆ affluence 贫困 ◆ 富裕
penurious ◆ lavish/largesse 吝啬的 ◆ 非常大方的/慷慨的

perambulate [] v. 巡行
(类)foot•perambulate=eye•observe 脚•巡行=眼睛•观察(器官及其功能)

perceptible [] adj. 可察觉的(capable of being perceived)
(类)perceptible•obvious=relevant•crucial 可察觉的•明显的=相关的•至关紧要的(程度)
(反)appreciable ◆ imperceptible 可感知的 ◆ 不能感知的
(同)appreciable, detectable, discernible, observable, palpable, sensible, tangible

peremptory [] adj. 专横的(imperious or arrogant self-assurance)
(类)peremptory•fawn=parsimonious•spend 专横的不会奉承=吝啬的很少花费
peremptory•dispute=prohibitive•purchase
专横的•争辩=禁购的•购买(前者排斥、不容后者)
【注:prohibitive:tending to preclude use or purchase 禁购的,禁用的】
(反)peremptory ◆ open to challenge 不容反抗的 ◆ 接受挑战的

perfervid [] adj.非常热心的(marked by overwrought emotion)
(反)perfervid ◆ impassive 非常热心的 ◆ 冷漠的
(同)ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fiery, flaming

perfidy [] n. 不诚实(the quality or state of being faithless)
(类)exorbitant•moderation=perfidious•loyalty 过度的•适度的=背信的•忠诚的(褒贬对照)
(反)perfidy ◆ trustworthiness 不诚实 ◆ 可信赖
perfidious ◆ faithful/loyal 不诚实的 ◆ 忠实的/忠实的

perforate [] v. 打孔,穿透(to make a hole through)
(类)perforate•hole=pleat•fold 打孔•孔=打褶•褶皱 (行为及其作用结果)
(同)bore, drill, prick, punch, puncture

perfunctorily adv. 敷衍地,潦草地(lacking in interest or enthusiasm)
(类)perfunctorily•inspiration=insolently•veneration 敷衍难有灵感=傲漫难受尊敬
(例)the auditor's perfunctory inspection of the books overlooked many errors.

perimeter [] n. 周长,周界(the boundary of a closed plane figure)
(类)circle•perimeter=country•border 圆•周界周长=国土•边界

periodical [] adj. 周期的n. 期刊,杂志
(类)magazine•periodical=mystery•fiction 杂志属期刊=神秘故事属小说

peripatetic [] adj. 巡游的(moving or traveling from place to place)
(反)peripatetic ◆ rooted/ sedentary/ stationary 巡游的 ◆ 根深蒂固的/ 不迁徙的/固定的
(同)ambulant, itinerate, nomadic, perambulant, roving, vagabond

peripheral [] adj. 边缘的,周边的(a periphery or surface part)
(类)peripheral•center=immaterial•relevance 边缘的•中心的=非实质的•中肯的(反义)
(反)peripheral ◆ in essence 外围的 ◆ 核心
crux ◆ peripheral element 症结 ◆ 次要因素
periphery ◆ center/core/important part/central area 外围 ◆ 中央/核心/重要部分/中心地带

perish [] vi. 毁灭,死亡,腐烂,枯萎vt.毁坏;使麻木
(反)perish ◆ survive 死亡 ◆ 存活

perjury [] n.伪证(the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath )
(类)perjury•testimony=calumny•assertion(representation)
伪证•证词=中伤•声明(陈述)(种属)
(反)perjury ◆ truthful deposition 诽谤 ◆ 真实的证词
perjure ◆ depose 诽谤 ◆ 作证
(例)when several witnesses appeared to challenge his story, he was indicted for perjury.

permanence [] n. 永久(the quality or state of being permanent)
(类)evanescent•permanence=archaic•currency 短暂的•永久=陈旧的•流通
erratic•permanent=heroic•craven 不稳定•持久的=英勇的•胆小的
impermanent•transience=opportune•convenience
暂时的•短暂=恰好的•便利(同义)
transitory•permanence=achromatic•hue 短暂的•永久=无色的•色调
(反)permanence ◆ transience 永久 ◆ 短暂
extinction ◆ perpetuation 消失 ◆ 永久,不朽
permanent ◆ ephemeral/interim 永久的 ◆ 短暂的/暂时的
(同)diuturnal, durable, enduring, perdurable, perduring, stable

permeable [] adj. 有浸透性的,能透过的(penetrable;having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through)
(类)penetrate•permeable=knead•malleable
穿透•可穿透的=揉捏•有延展性的(动形同义)
penetrate•impermeable=change•immutable/ profane•inviolable
穿透•不能透过的=变化•不变的/ 亵渎•无法亵渎的(形动反义)
impermeability•fluid=opacity•light 不渗透•流体=不透明•光线
(反)permeable ◆ waterproof 能透过的 ◆ 不透水的
impermeable ◆ easily penetrated 不能渗透的 ◆ 容易渗透的
diaphanous ◆ impermeable of light 透明的 ◆ 不透光的
(同)penetrable, pervious, porose, porous

pernicious [] adj. 有害有毒的;致命的(highly injurious or destructive)
(类)pernicious•injure=disingenuous•mislead
有害的•伤害=没有诚意的•误导(行为典型特征)

peroration [] n.(演讲的)结束语;演讲高谈阔论
(类)peroration•speech=coda•sonata 结束语•演讲=尾声•奏鸣曲

perpetual [] adj. 永久的,不断的(continuing forever•everlasting)
(类)constant•perpetuate=transient•vanish 不变的•不朽=短暂的•消失
(反)perpetual ◆ ephemeral/transitory/intermittent 永久的 ◆ 短暂的/短暂的/暂时的
extinction ◆ perpetuation 消失 ◆ 永存
debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham 揭穿真相 ◆ 永远的伪装

persecute [] vt. 迫害,虐待,困扰(to come to mind continually)
(类)persecute•injure=haunt•remember 残害•损伤=经常想•记住(程度)
(同)aggrieve, oppress, outrage
(例)they were persecuted by the government because of their religion.

persevere [] vi. 坚持不懈,不屈不挠(to persist in a state)
(类)obstinate•preserve=tactless/insensitive•offend
固执的•坚持=不老练的/不懂事的•冒犯(个性及其结果)
【注:insensitive :lacking feeling or tact 缺乏感情或阅历,不懂事的
例:he is so insensitive as to laugh at someone in pain.他太不懂事了,竟去嘲笑痛苦中的人。】
(反)persevere ◆ give up 坚持 ◆ 放弃
perseverance ◆ cessation of effort 坚持不懈 ◆ 停止努力
(同)carry on, go on, hang on, persist

persiflage [] n. 挖苦,嘲弄(to provide with an incentive)
(类)persiflage•incite=exhortation•motivate
挖苦•激发=勉励•激发(动作及其结果)

persistence [] n. 坚持, 持续
(反)persistence ◆ inconstancy 持续 ◆ 反复无常

personable [] adj. 优雅的,貌美的(pleasant or amiable in person)
(反)personable ◆ unattractive 优雅的 ◆ 无魅力的

perspicacious [] adj. 敏锐的(of acute mental vision•keen)
(反)perspicacious ◆ obtuse/undiscerned/dull 敏锐的 ◆ 迟钝的/呆滞的
【注:干扰选项awkard 笨拙的 这个词形容人的动作而不是头脑】
(同)shrewd, argute, astucious, astute, heady,
(例)the brillant lawyer was known for his perspicacious deductions.

perspicuity [] n. 明晰,明了,简明(plain to the understanding)
(反)perspicuity ◆ opacity 明了的 ◆ 不透明
perspicuous ◆ dull 明了的 ◆ 阴暗的

pertain [] v. 适合,属于,有关联(To have reference; relate)
(反)pertain ◆ be irrelevant 有关 ◆ 无关

pertinacious [] adj. 顽固的(stubbornly unyielding or tenacious)
(类)pertinacity•refractory=inexperience•green 顽固•难控制的=无经验•无经验的(同义)
(反)pertinacious ◆ tractable / pliable/ irresolute/ capricious
顽固的 ◆ 易于管教的/ 易变的/ 犹豫不决的/ 反复无常的
pertinacity ◆ vacillation 顽固 ◆ 游移不定
(同)bullheaded, headstrong, mulish, perverse, refractory, stubborn

pertinent [] adj. 相关的,中肯的(having a clear decisive relevance)
(类)pertinent•relevance=redundant•superfluity
中肯的•中肯=多余的•多余(形名同义)
(反)pertinent ◆ irrelevant/immaterial/lack of relevance
相关的 ◆ 无关系的/非实质的/无关系的
(同)relevant, applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, material
(例)the lawyer wanted to know all the pertinent details.

perturb [] vt. 扰乱,使烦躁不安,使担忧(to disturb greatly in mind:disquiet)
(类)impassive•perturb=voracious•satisfy 冷漠的•使烦躁不安=贪婪的•使满意(难以关系)
perturb•serenity=reassure•doubt 扰乱•平静=使安心•疑虑(消除关系)
stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy 坚韧自制的难以被扰乱=贪婪的难以被满足
(反)perturbation ◆ equanimity 扰乱 ◆ 镇静
(记)turb混浊 参考:turbid adj. 混浊的,混乱的disturb扰乱turbulence骚乱

peruse [] v. 细读(to examine with attention and in detail)
(类)peruse•smattering=stare•leer 细读•略知=凝视•斜视(反义)
(反)peruse ◆ glance at 细读 ◆ 看一眼

pervade [] vt. 弥漫,充满,漫延(to become diffused)
(类)pervasive ◆ limited distribution 普遍的 ◆ 限量发送的

pesticide [] n. 杀虫剂(an agent used to destroy pests)
(类)insect•pesticide=plant•herbicide 虫子•杀虫剂=草•除草剂(消灭)
(记)pest害虫cide除掉 参考:suicide 自杀 herbicide 除草剂

pestle [] n. 杵,乳钵槌(grinding substances in a mortar)
(类)pestle•mortar=hammer•anvil 杵•臼=锤子•铁砧(配套工具)
pestle•grind=flint stone•sharpen 槌•研磨=硬石头•磨快(前是后的工具)
pestle•grind=whetstone•sharpen 槌•研磨=磨刀石•磨快
【注意:双重对应,除了工具的意味外还有磨的意味】
pestle•hash=awl•pierce 锥子•刺穿=杵•捣碎(动作关联名词)

petition [] vt. vi. 请求,请愿 n.请愿,请愿书(to make a request)
(类)groveler•petitioner=minion•dependent
卑恭屈节者•请求者=奴才•依赖者(褒贬类比)

petrify [  ] v.石化;吓呆
(类)petrify•stone=evaporate•vapor 使石化成石头=使蒸发成蒸气

petrography [] n. 岩石记述学(研究岩石分类和体系)
(类)petrography•rock=mural•wall 岩石记述学•岩石=壁画•墙壁

petty [] adj. 细微的,不重要的(having secondary rank or importance)
(类)petty•notice=mysterious•explain 细微的难以被注意=神秘的难以被解释
(同)inconsequent, inconsiderable, measly, ungenerous, unvital

phenomenal [] adj. 显著的,非凡的,杰出的
(反)phenomenal ◆ ordinary/ unexceptional/ commonplace 非凡的 ◆ 普通的/ 普通的/ 平凡的
(同)extraordinary, rare, remarkable, singular, unimaginable, unique
(例)that singer's new recording is a phenomenal success.

philanthropic [] adj. 博爱的(characterized by philanthropy)
(类)philanthropist•beneficence=comedian•humor
慈善家•善行=喜剧演员•幽默(人物典型特征)
philanthropist•endow=prevaricater•mislead
慈善家•捐赠=支吾搪塞者•误导(人物典型动作)
philanthropic•geniality=resourceful•inventiveness
慈善的•亲切=足智多谋•善于创造(人物典型特征)
(同)charitable , altruistic, benevolent, eleemosynary, humane

philatelist [] n. 集邮家
(类)philatelist•stamps=numismatist•coins 集邮家•邮票=钱币收藏家•钱币

philistine [] n. 庸人,对艺术很轻蔑的人(a person who is guided by materialism and is
usually disdainful of artistic values)
(反)philistine ◆ aesthete 庸人 ◆ 审美家

phlegmatic [] adj. 冷静的,冷淡的,无活力的(stolid temperament)
(类)phlegmatic•provoke=intractable•manage 冷淡的•激怒=难处理的•处理
(反)spirited生气勃勃的 / vivacious 活泼的 / sprightly轻快的
(同)apathetic, dry, matter-of-fact, stoic, stolid
(例)the nurse was a cheerful but phlegmatic person, unexcited in the face of sudden emergencies.

piddling [] adj. 无用的,琐屑的(trivial, paltry)
(类)piddling•considerable=restive•calm
微不足道的•可观的=烦躁的•平静的(反义)
(同)petty, measly, niggling, paltry, peanut, peddling, puny, trifling

piebald [] adj. 花斑的,斑驳的(spotted with black and white)
(反)piebald ◆ monotonous 花斑的 ◆ 单调的
pied ◆ solid-colored 斑驳的 ◆ 单色的

pixel [] n.(显示器或电视机图象的)象素
(类)image•pixel=mosaic•tile 图象•象素镶嵌=图案•瓷砖(组成关系)

list 25 pigment -------- preposterous
pigment [] n. 颜料,色料
(类)albino•pigment=prairie•tree白化病人•颜色=大草原•树(缺乏)
pigment•color=spice•flavor 颜料•颜色=调味品•味道(事物及时相关对象)

pilfer [] vt. vi. 偷窃(to steal stealthily in small amounts)
(类)pilfer•take=abscond•depart (干扰:purloin•appropriate 盗窃•盗用)
潜逃•离开=偷窃•拿取 (偷偷•正常)
(同)steal, appropriate, filch, pinch, purloin, thieve

pillar [] n. 柱子,栋梁;重要的支持者(a firm upright support)
(类)colonnade•pillar=queue•person 柱廊•柱子=队列•人(组成关系:强调列)
pillar•support=stockade•enclose 柱子•支持=栅栏•围住(事物及功用)
(反)derelict ◆ pillar of society 被遗弃的人 ◆ 栋梁

pillory [] n.被示众,被嘲弄(to expose to public contempt)
(类)chide•pillory=humor•mollycoddle 斥责•示众=牵就•溺爱(程度)
punish•pillory=admonish•denounce 惩罚•公开嘲弄=警告•公开指责
pillory•ridicule=guillotine•execute 示众• 嘲笑=断头台•处死(目的)
(反)pillory ◆ exalt/ praise publicly 嘲弄 ◆ 赞美/公开赞美

pilot [] n. 飞行员;领航员(one employed to steer a ship:helmsman)
(类)pilot•ship=conductor•orchestra 领航人•轮船=指挥•管弦乐队

pine [] n. 松树 vi. 消瘦;渴望(to yearn intensely and persistently)
(类)longing•pine=remorse•rue 渴望•盼望=后悔•懊悔(同义)
needle•pine=leaf•oak 针叶•松树=叶子•橡树
(反)pine ◆ become invigorated 憔悴 ◆ 受到鼓舞

pinnacle [] n. 小尖塔,顶点(an upright architectural member generally ending in a small spire and used especially in gothic construction to give weight especially to a buttress)
(反)pinnacle ◆ low point 顶点 ◆ 低处

pinpoint [] v. 精确定位或确认(to locate or aim with great precision)
(类)pinpoint ◆ exam cursorily 精确地定位 ◆ 粗略的检查
(同)identify, determinate, diagnose distinguish,finger,spot

piquant [] adj.辛辣的,开胃的(agreeably stimulating to the palate)
(反)vapid索然无味的 / flat 单调乏味的 / insipid平淡的 / pallid无生气的
(同)pungent, peppery, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty

pique [] n. 不满,愤怒vt.伤害...自尊心,使...生气
(反)pique ◆ mollify 使愤怒 ◆ 平息

pirate [] n. 海盗;盗版者 vt. 盗版,翻印;掠夺
(类)pirate•take=forge•copy 欺骗掠夺•拿走=伪造•复制(非法•正常)

pitch [] n.音品(Any of various standards for this quality associating each tone with a particular
frequency)
(类)pitch•sound=color•light 音品•声音=颜色•光线(都由波的频率决定)

pithy [] adj. 精练的,简洁的(having substance and point)
(类)pithiness•aphorism=exaggeration•caricature 精炼•格言=夸张•讽刺画
(反)pithy ◆ prolix/verbose/ diffuse/ wordy/ insubstantial/ insignificance
精练的 ◆ 冗长累赘的/ 无实质的/ 无关紧要
circumlocution ◆ pithy utters 累赘的话 ◆ 简练的话
(同)compact, epigrammatic, marrowy, meaty
(例)i enjoy reading his essays because they are always compact and pithy.

pitiless [] adj. 无情的,冷酷的(devoid of pity•merciless)
(反)pitiless ◆ clement 冷酷的 ◆ 仁慈的

pittance [] n. 施舍少量的钱;少量供应(a meager wage or remuneration)
(类)pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream 少量供应•定量供应=小溪•溪流
(反)pittance ◆ crop/ cornucopia 少量 ◆ 收获/富饶

placate [] vt. 安抚,和解(to soothe or mollify)
(类)irascible•placate=insensate•conscious暴躁的•安抚=没感觉的•有意识的
implacable•propitiated=inalienable•surrendered
无法平息的•劝解的=不可剥夺的•投降的(反义)
(反)placate ◆ peeve/ gall/ antagonize/ rile/ foment/ surprise
抚慰 ◆(使)气恼/ 使焦躁/ 使成敌人/ 激怒/ 刺激/ 使吃惊
(同)pacify, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify,

placebo [] n.安慰剂
(类)placebo•innocuous=venom•toxious=salve•unctuous
安慰剂•无害的=毒液•有毒的=药膏•油的(事物典型特征)
【placebo:an inert or innocuous substance used especially in controlled experiments testing the efficacy of another substance(as a drug)】
placebo•painkiller=backdrop•vista
安慰剂•止痛药=背景•远景(前者指思维后指实体)
【注:vista:an extensive or distant view 广阔而辽远的景色,远景
placebo:a medication prescribed more for the mental relief of the patient than for its actual effect on a disorder 】

plagiarize [] vt. vi. 剽窃,抄袭(to steal as one’s own)
(类)plagiarism•ideas=forgery•documents/rustling•cattle
剽窃•思想=伪造•文件/偷牛•牛(动宾关系)

plangent [] adj.轰鸣的(having a loud reverberating sound)
(反)plangent ◆ muffled 轰鸣的 ◆ 无声的
(同)consonant, orotund, resounding, rotund, sonorant, vibrant

plantation [] n. 大农场,种植园
(类)plantation•tobacco=media•bacteria 种植园•烟草=培养基•细菌

plasticity [] n.可塑性,塑性
(反)plasticity ◆ rigidity 可塑性 ◆ 僵硬性

plateau [] n. 高地,高原,平台期,稳定状态(a relatively stable level, period, or state)
(类)plateau•change=respite•activity 平台期暂时不会改变=暂缓暂时不会行动

platitude [] n. 陈词滥调,陈腐(a banal, trite, or stale remark)
(类)platitude•banal=equivocation•ambiguous
陈词滥调•陈腐的=含糊话•意思含糊的(事物典型特征)
(反)platitude ◆ original observation 陈词滥调 ◆ 新颖的观测

plausible [] adj. 似真实的,似合理的(superficially fair)
(类)rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible
文过饰非•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)
(反)implausible ◆ believable 难以置信的 ◆ 可相信的
(同)believeable,colorable,creditable

pleat [] n. 褶,褶状物 vt. 使...打褶(to arrange in pleats)
(类)pleat•fold=perforate•hole 使打褶•褶皱=打孔•孔(行为及作用结果)

plentitude [] n. 充分
(反)plentitude ◆ dearth 充分大量 ◆ 稀少

plethora [] n. 过量,过剩(excess, superflutty;profusion, abundance)
(反)dearth缺乏/ paucity 缺乏/ scarcity 缺乏
(同)excess, overabundance, superfluity, surfeit, surplus, surplusage
(例)she offered a plethora of excuses for her shortcomings.

pliable [] adj. 易曲折的,柔软的,易受影响的,温顺的
(类)pliable•inflexible=static•move 易弯曲的•不易弯曲的=静止的•移动的
(反)pliable ◆ rigid / difficult to crumble/ pertinacious 易曲折的 ◆ 坚定不变的/不易碎的/固执的
(同)adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliant, supple

pliant [] adj.易受影响的,易弯曲的,顺从的(easily influenced)
(类)pliant•indomitable=model•differentiated
顺从的•不屈的=模范的•不同的 (反义)
pliant•influence=ticklish•offend/ annoy 易受影响的容易被影响 =敏感的容易被冒犯/骚扰
【干扰:censorious•condemn 正面主动非被动】
pliant•yield=evanescent•disappear
易受影响的•屈服=容易消失的•消失(正面主动)
(反)pliant ◆ mulish/ intransigence/ intractable/ incorrigible/ unbending
顺从的 ◆ 固执的/ 不妥协/ 倔强的/ 无法修正的/ 难弯曲
pliant ◆ rigid 易弯曲的 ◆ 不灵活的
(同)adaptable, ductile, malleable, moldable, pliable, supple

plight [] n. 困境 (a situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one)
(反)plight ◆ favorable condition 困境 ◆ 有利的条件
(同)predicament, corner, dilemma, jam, pickle, scrape, spot
(记)本义婚约,誓约(pledge) 联想:婚姻让它进入困境

plodding [] adj. 沉重缓慢的,单调乏味的(working laboriously monotonously)
(反)plodding ◆ meteoric 沉重缓慢的 ◆ 疾速的
plod ◆ flit 缓慢移动 ◆ 迅速飞过
(同)dull, dreary, humdrum, monotonous, pedestrian, stodgy
(例)work in that government department plods along.

pluck [] n. 勇气,精力(courageous readiness to fight)
(类)pluck•quit=pride•grovel 勇气不放弃=骄傲不卑躬屈膝
(反)pluck ◆ cowardice/ coward/ spinelessness 勇气 ◆ 怯弱/ 胆小/ 没有勇气
(同)courage,dauntlessness, heart

pluck2 [] n. 猛拉;弹奏
(类)harp•pluck=horn•blow 竖琴•演奏=喇叭•吹(器具及其作用方式)
(反)plucky ◆ craven 勇敢 ◆ 懦弱

plumb [] vt. 用铅锤测定深度(to measure the depth of with a plumb)
(类)plumb•depth=assess•value=measure•dimensions=calibrate•diameter
测量•深度=评定•价值=测量•尺寸=校准•直径
plumb•depth =gauge•pressure=verify•accuracy
测量•深度=测量•压力=校验•精确性(动作及其相关对象)
(反)plumb ◆ examine cursorily superficially 用铅锤探测 ◆ 粗略地的检查
plumb ◆ horizontal 垂直的 ◆ 水平的

plummet [] v. 垂直或突然地堕下(to drop sharply and abruptly)
(类)fall descend•plummet=move•dart 降落•垂直落下=移动•飞奔(程度)
plummet•fall=swerve•turn 突然地堕下•落下=突然转向•转向
(反)plummet ◆ rise sharply 垂直下落的 ◆ 急剧上升的

plump [] adj. 丰满的(having a full rounded)
(反)svelte ◆ plump 苗条的 ◆ 丰满的

plutocracy [] n. 富豪统治
(类)plutocracy•wealth=geroncracy•age 富豪统治财富多=老人统治年龄大

podiatrist [] n. 足病医生
(类)podiatrist•feet=dermatologist•skin 足科病专家研究脚=皮肤病专家研究皮肤

polarize [] v.(使)对立,(使)两极分化(to break up into opposing factions or groupings)
(反)coalesce 合并 make compatible 使一致 unity 联合

polemic [] adj. 争论的(the art or practice of disputation)
(类)polemic•disputatious=invective•abusive 好争论的•好争辩的=漫骂的•辱骂的(同义)
(反)polemical ◆ compromising/ conciliatory 好争论的 ◆ 妥协的/ 调和的

polished [] adj.精练的,优美的,有教养的(highly developed, finished)
(反)polished ◆ rustic/ untutored/ gauche 优美的 ◆ 粗俗的/未受教育的/粗鲁的

politic [] adj. 精明的,圆滑的,慎重的,策略的
(类)politic•offend=aloof•associate 圆滑的•冒犯=孤僻的•交往(反面特征)
(反)politic ◆ unsophisticated/injudicious 精明的 ◆ 单纯的/判断不当的
(例)His inauguration as president marked the culmination of his political career.

pollster [] n. 民意测验专家
(类)pollster•canvass=exponent•advocate
民意测验者•民意测验=倡导者•提倡(人物典型动作)
【注:exponent :one that speaks for, represents, or advocates 拥护者,示范者,倡导者】

pompous [] adj. 傲慢的,自大的,夸大的(self-importance;arrogant)
(类)pompous•bombast=exaggerated•hyperbole
浮夸的•夸大的言辞=夸大的•夸张法 (事物典型特征)
pompous•bombast=nonsensical•drivel
华而不实的•夸大的言辞=言辞荒谬的•胡言乱语(事物及其特征)
pontificate•pompous=scoff•derisive=bluster•loud=prate•aimless
武断的说话•自负=嘲笑•嘲笑的=怒号•响亮=空谈•无目的(行为典型特征)

ponderable [] adj. 有价值的,有重量的(significant enoug:appreciable)
(反)ponderable ◆ inappreciable 有价值的 ◆ 微不足道的

ponderous [] adj. 笨重的,笨拙的(of very great weight)
(反)ponderous ◆ ethereal/ gossamer/ lively/ slight/ vibrant/ briskly
笨重的 ◆ 轻飘飘的/ 轻微的/ 活泼的
(同)heavy,cumbersome,hefty,massive,eighty

pontificate [] v. 自大武断地做,装模作样的说话(to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way)
(类)pontificate•speak=strut•walk=swagger•walk
傲慢的说•说话=大摇大摆的走•走=大摇大摆的走•走(程度)
(反)pontificate ◆ comment tentatively/ speak diffidently/ speak modestly
自大武断地说 ◆ 试探性的评论注释/ 缺乏自信地说/ 谦虚地说
(例)our boss pontificates about company rules at our meetings.

porcelain [] n. 瓷,瓷器
(类)glaze•porcelain=varnish•wood=veneer•furniture
釉•瓷器=表面清漆•木材=饰面•家具(事物及其表面装饰物质)
clay•porcelain=flax•linen 粘土•瓷器=亚麻•亚麻布(事物及其原料)

pore [] n. 毛孔,气孔,细孔
(类)pore•membrane =door•room 孔•隔膜=门•房间 (事物及其入口)

porous adj. 可渗透的(capable of being penetrated)
(类)porous•liquid=transparent•light 可渗透的• 液体=透明的• 光
porous•penetrate=fragile•break 可渗透的容易被穿透=易碎的容易被打破
(反)porous ◆ impenetrable 可渗透的 ◆ 无法穿透的

portentous [] adj. 前兆的,不寻常的(eliciting amazement or wonder)
(反)portentous ◆ regular 不寻常的 ◆ 规则的

portfolio [] n. 部长职务;公事包
(类)portfolio•securities=dossier•reports 公事包•债券保险=材料汇编•报告(组成关系)

poseur [] n. 装模作样的人(a person who pretends to be what he is not)
(类)poseur•sincerity=recluse•gregariousness
装摸做样的人•真诚=隐居者•群居 (缺乏关系)
poser•sincere=recluse•gregarious
装摸做样的人•真诚的=隐居者•社交(缺乏关系)
poseur•unaffected=stickler•derelict
装模做样的人•真挚的=坚持己见的人•缺乏责任感的(人物及反面特征)
(反)poseur ◆ sincere person 装模作样的人 ◆ 真诚的人

posit [] v.假设,假定(to assume or affirm the existence of•postuate)
(反)posit ◆ deny as false 假设假定 ◆ 否认

postulate [] v. 假定为真(depend upon or start from the postulate of)
(反)postulate ◆ deny as false 假定为真 ◆ 认定为假的
(同)assume, presuppose, posit, premise, presume

posture [] vi. 作姿势(to assume an artificial attitude)
(类)posturer•unaffected=bigot•tolerant 装腔作势的人不真挚=不容异己的人不容忍
(反)posture ◆ behave naturally 作姿势 ◆ 自然的举止

potable [] adj. 适于饮用的(suitable for drinking)
(类)potable•beverage=habitable•dwelling 适于饮用的•饮料=可以居住的•住处 (同义)
water•potable= meat•edible 水•可以饮用的= 食物•可以吃的
(反)potable ◆ undrinkable 适于饮用的 ◆ 不能饮用的

potboiler [] n. 粗制滥造的文艺作品(a literary or artistic work of poor quality, produced
quickly for profit)
(类)doggerel•verse=potboiler•article 歪诗•诗=粗制的作品•艺术品(种属)
(记)源自短语 boil(煮沸) the pot(壶)谋生,糊口

potentate [] n. 有权的人,统治者(one who wields great power or sway)
(类)potentate•power=virtuoso•skill 当权者•权力=艺术名家•技艺
(反)potentate ◆ subject/powerless person 统治者 ◆ 臣服者/无势力的人
(同)monarch, ruler, sovereign
(记)potent有力的,有效的 参考:impotent阳痿的

potentiate [] vt. 加强(to make more effective or more active)
(反)potentiate ◆ deactivate 加强 ◆ 使无效

pout [] vt. vi. 撅嘴,绷脸(to show displeasure by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression)
(类)pout•displeasure=wince•pain=smile•pleasure= sneer•contempt
撅嘴•不悦=退缩•疼痛=微笑•愉快=冷笑•蔑视 (动作体现情感)
(反)pout ◆ grin 绷脸 ◆ 露齿笑

prairie [] n. 大草原,牧场
(类)prairie•tree=albino•pigment 大草原•树=白化病•颜色(缺乏关系)

prate [] vi. 闲聊,空谈(to talk long and idly)
(类)prate•speak=saunter•walk 闲聊•说话=闲逛•行走(动作的闲和正常)
(同)chat, babble, chatter gabble, prattle, vaunt

preach [] vt. vi. 传道,讲道,鼓吹,宣讲,说教(to deliver a sermon)
(类)preacher•sermon=nitpicker•criticize= quibbler•cavil
传教士•布道=吹毛求疵者•挑剔=吹毛求疵者•挑剔(人物典型行为)
(同)evangelize, sermonize, preachify, sermonize

precarious [] adj. 不稳定的(characterized by a lack of security)
(类)precarious•stability=spent•efficacy 不稳定的•稳定=失去效能的•功效 (反义)
【注:spent由spend(花光,耗尽)而来。引申为:筋疲力尽的,衰竭的】
(反)precarious ◆ secure/ stable/ safe/ firmly grounded
不稳定的 ◆ 安全的/ 稳定的/ 安全的/ 稳定的
(同)doubtful, ambiguous, dubious, equivocal, impugnable, indecisive
(记)pre 提前+cari(=care当心)提前当心→危险的,不稳定的

precedent [] adj. 在先的,先前的 n. 先例,前例(prior in time, order)
(类)unique•precedent=unexceptionable•oppose 独一无二的没有先例=无懈可击的无法攻击
simpleton•precedent=turncoat•constancy 笨蛋不会成为典范=变节者不会忠诚不变
preempt•precedence=acquire•possession 取得优先权•优先权=占有•占有物(动宾)
(同)antecedent, anterior, former, past, previous, prior

precipice [] n. 悬崖(a very steep or overhanging place)
(类)precipice•steepness=defile•narrowness悬崖•险峻=隘路•狭窄(正面)
(反)precipitous ◆ level陡峭的 ◆ 平坦的

precipitate [] v. 加速 adj. 匆忙的,鲁莽的(to bring about abruptly)
(反)precipitate ◆ retard/dilatory/deliberate 加速的/匆忙的 ◆ 减速的/缓慢的/有准备的
(同)abrupt, headlong, impetuous, sudden

precipitation [] n.急躁;降雨(量)(something precipitated)
(类)snow•precipitation=hurricane•cyclone 雪•降水=飓风•气旋 (种属)
(同)haste,hastiness, hurriedness, precipitancy, rush

precipitous [] adj. 非常陡峭的(very steep, perpendicular)
(反)precipitous ◆ gradually sloping/slope slowly 非常陡峭的 ◆ 逐渐倾斜/慢慢倾斜
(同)abrupt, hasty, headlong, hurried, impetuous,

preclude [] v. 预防;阻止(prevent)
(反)preclude ◆ to make possible/enclose 阻止 ◆ 使可能/装入

precursor [] n. 先驱者,先导
(反)precursor ◆ sequela 先驱 ◆ 后继者
precursory ◆ derivative 先驱的 ◆ 衍生而来的
(同)ancestor, antecedent, foregoer, predecessor, prototype

predecessor [] n. 前任,先辈
(类)legacy•predecessor=gift•donor 遗产来自先辈=赠品来自捐赠人
(同)forerunner, ancestor, antecedent, foregoer, precursor

predilection [] n. 爱好,偏袒
(反)predilection ◆ propensity to dislike 爱好 ◆ 倾向于讨厌
(记)pre(倾向)+dilect(=delight 高兴)→爱好 参考: dilettante业余爱好者

preeminent [] adj. 优秀的,卓越的(having paramount rank,dignity)
(类)preeminence•importance=preponderance•weight 卓越具有重要性=优势具有分量
(反)preeminent ◆ negligibility 卓越的 ◆ 可忽略,不重要
efface ◆ bring to preeminent 抹去 ◆ 使出类拔萃
(同)incomparable, surpassing, transcendent, unequalable,unsurpassable
(例)the king traveled to boston because he wanted the preeminent surgeon in the field to perform the operation.

preempt [] v. 以先买权取得,取代(to replace with something considered to be of greater
value or priority:take precedence over)
(类)preempt•precedence=acquire•possession 取得优先权•优先权=占有•占有物(动宾)

preen [] v. 整理羽毛,(人)打扮修饰(to dress or smooth up:primp)
自满(to take pride or satisfaction in (oneself))
(类)preen•self-satisfaction=fume•anger 自满•自我满意=发怒• 愤怒(同义)
ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦白的不掩饰=粗俗的不打扮=有礼貌的不怠慢
(反)preen ◆ rumple 打扮 ◆ 弄皱
(同)pride, plume, pique

preface [] n. 序文,前言(the introductory remarks of a speaker)
(类)preface•book=overture•symphony 前言•书序=曲•交响乐(事物及开始)
(反)preface ◆ epilogue 前言 ◆ 尾声
prefatory ◆ conclusive 前言的 ◆ 结尾的

pregnant [] adj. 含有深意的;有创造力的(inventive)
(反)inane ◆ expressive/ meaningful/ pregnant/ significant/ weighty
空洞/空虚 ◆ 富于表情的/ 意味深长的/ 充满的/ 有意义的/ 有影响力的

premeditated [] adj. 预想的,有计划的
(反)premeditated ◆ offhand/spontaneous 有计划的 ◆ 即兴的/自发的
(同)forethought, precogitated, predetermine

preoccupation [] n. 当务之急
(反)preoccupation ◆ unconcern 当务之急 ◆ 无关紧要

preponderant [] adj. 占优势的,压倒性的 (having superior weight)
(类)preponderance•weight=preeminence•importance 优势有分量=卓越有重要性
(反)preponderant ◆ commensurate/subsidiary 优势的 ◆ 相称的/辅助的
preponderate ◆ secondary 重要的 ◆ 次要的
(同)ascendant, paramount, predominant, prevalent, sovereign

prepossessing [] adj. 吸引人的,有魅力的 (attractive)
(反)unprepossessing ◆ entrancing/winsome 不吸引人的 ◆ 使入神的/迷人的

preposterous [] adj. 荒谬的(contrary to nature, reason, or common)
(反)preposterous ◆ commonsensical 荒谬的 ◆ 常识的
(同)foolish,absurd,crazy,harebrained,insane,loony,silly,wacky
(记)pre前+poster后→前后颠倒的→荒谬的 参考:posterior较晚的,后部的

list 26 presage -------- purlieu
presage [] vt. 成为...的前兆,预示,预言(foretell, predict)
(类)harbinger•presage=archetype•exemplify 预兆•预示=原型•示例 (作用)
(同)betoken, bode, forebode, foreshadow, omen, promise
(例)the vultures flying overhead presaged the discovery of the corpse in the desert.

prescience [] n. 预知,先见(foreknowledge of events)
(类)prescience•future=erudition•esoteric 预知•未来=博学•深奥
prescient•predict=dexterous•manipulate 预见性的•预言=灵巧的•熟练操作
(反)myopia ◆ prescience 短见的 ◆ 预计

prescription [] n. 处方;命令,指示
(类)indiscretion•convention=overdose•prescription
行为不检点•规矩习俗=过量用药•药方(前者违背后者)

preservative [] n. 预防法,预防药,防腐剂
(类)preservative•decay=anchor•drifting=censorship•communication =seal•leakage
防腐剂•腐烂=锚•飘流=审查•信息=密封•泄漏(防止关系)

prestige [] n. 声望,威望(standing in the eyes of people)
(类)abase•prestige=damp•ardor 降低地位•特权=抑制•热情 (动宾关系)
eclipse•prestige=enfeeble•vigor 丧失威望•声望=使衰弱•精力(动作及其对象)

presumptuous [] adj. 放肆的(taking liberties)
(类)presumptuous•propriety=transgression•morality 放肆•恰当=犯罪•道德(违反关系)
(反)presumptuous ◆ humble 专横的 ◆ 微贱的
(同) brash, overconfident, overweening, presuming, pushing, uppity

pretense [] n. 虚假,伪装
(类)pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove 假装•欺骗=警告•责备(目的)
(同)mask, cloak, facade, guise, masquerade

preternatural [] adj.超自然的
(反)preternatural ◆ ordinary/ prosaic 自然的 ◆ 平凡的

prevail [] vi. 获胜,成功(to gain ascendancy through strength)
(反)prevail ◆ yielding 获胜 ◆ 屈服
(同)conquer, overcome, triumph,rule, predominate, preponderate, reign

prevalent [] adj. 流行的,普遍的(generally or widely accepted)
(反)prevalent ◆ unusual/absent 普遍的 ◆ 与众不同的/缺少的
(同)overbearing, paramount, predominant, preponderant, sovereign

prevaricate [] vi. 支吾搪塞,撒谎(to deviate from the truth)
(类)prevarication•deceive=blandishment•coax
搪塞•欺骗=哄诱•哄(行为及其目的)
prevaricater•mislead=philanthropist•endow
支吾搪塞者•误导=慈善家•捐赠(人物典型动作)
(反)prevarication ◆ veracity 支吾搪塞 ◆ 说真实话
(同)lie, equivocate, falsify, fib, palter
(例)some people believe that to prevaricate in a good cause is justifiable and regard the statement as a "white lie."

primordial [] adj. 原始的(existing in the beginning)
(反)primordial ◆ most recent 原始的 ◆ 最近的
(同)early, primitive, primary, prime
(例)the neanderthal man is one of our primordial ancestors.

primp [] vt. vi. 精心打扮(to dress, adorn in a finicky manner)
(类)primp•vain=gloat•smug 打扮•虚荣=心满意足•自鸣得意的(动作表内心)
(同) dress up,doll out(up), fix up, gussy up, slick,

principal [] adj. 主要的,重要的(most important, consequential)
(反)principal ◆ subordinate 主要的 ◆ 次要的

pristine [] adj.原始的,纯净的,质朴的(not spoiled, corrupted)
(类)pristine•decay=stable•fluctuation=still•movement
原始的•腐烂=稳定的•起伏=静止的•运动(反义)
adulterate•pristine= demand•satisfactory=dismantle•unity
掺假•纯净=苛求•满意=拆除•完整(行为及其消除对象)
(反)pristine ◆ taint/ squalid contaminated/ corrupted by civilization
纯洁的 ◆ 污点的/ 肮脏的/ 污染的/ 被文明破坏了的
(同) original, pure

privation [] n.缺乏,穷困(the state of being deprived)
(反)privation ◆ repletion 缺乏 ◆ 充满
(同)absence, dearth, default, defect, lack, want

probe [] v. 探索,探查(to make a searching exploratory investigation)
(类)probe•investigate=cavil•criticize 探索是深入的调查=挑剔是苛刻的批评
(同)inquisition, investigation, probing, quest, research

probity [] n. 正直 (adherence to the highest principles)
(反)probity ◆ unscrupulousness/shiftness 正直 ◆ 狂妄/ 奸诈
improbity ◆ honesty 不正直 ◆ 诚实
(同)morality, rectitude, righteousness, rightness, uprightness, virtue

proclivity [] n. 癖性,偏好(a natural propensity or inclination)
(反)proclivity ◆ aversion/ antipathy/ disinclination 倾向 ◆ 厌恶/ 反感/ 憎恶

procrastinate [] v. 耽搁,拖延
(类)alacrity•procrastinate=husbandry•dissipate 爽快•拖延=节约•挥霍
dilatory•procrastinate=malcontent•complain 拖拉的•耽搁=不满的•抱怨 (同义)
(反)procrastination ◆ diligence 懒散 ◆ 勤奋
(同)delay, dally, dawdle, linger, loiter, poke, put off, tarry

procure [] vt. 获得,取得,促成(to get possession of)
(反)procure ◆ relinquish 获得 ◆ 放弃

prod [] vt. 戳,刺;刺激 (to incite to action:stir)
(类)nudge•prod=doze•sleep 轻推•推动=瞌睡•睡觉(程度)
(反)prod ◆ rein 刺激 ◆ 抑制

prodigal [] adj. 浪费的,挥霍的,放荡的
(类)generosity•prodigality=courage•rashness
慷慨•挥霍=勇气•鲁莽(褒贬)
mean•prodigality=meek•arrogance
吝啬的•挥霍=谦恭的•自大(反义)
spendthrift•prodigal=miser•parsimonious
挥霍者•挥霍的=守财奴•吝啬的(人物典型特征)
prodigality•spending=gluttony•eating
浪费•花费=暴食•吃(过度与正常)
(反)prodigal ◆ frugal/ parsimonious 浪费的 ◆ 节省的/ 吝啬的
prodigality ◆ penury / husbandry 浪费挥霍 ◆ 贫困/节约
(同)profuse , exuberant, lavish, luxuriant, opulent, profusive, riotous

prodigy [] n.惊人的事物,不凡的人,神童
(类)prodigy•person=miracle•occurrence 不凡的人•人=奇事•事件 (种属)
(反)prodigious ◆ slight 巨大的 ◆ 微小的
(同) marvel, miracle, phenomenon, portent, sensation, stunner

profane [] v. 亵渎,玷污
(类)profane•inviolable=pierce•impenetrable= change•immutable
亵渎•不可亵渎的=穿破•无法穿破的=改变•不可改变的
(反)profane ◆ treat relevantly 亵渎 ◆ 体贴的对待
profaned ◆ unviolated/ inviolable 亵渎的 ◆ 未受侵害的/神圣的
(同)obscene,coarse,dirty, filthy, foul, indecent, nasty, smutty, vulgar

proffer [] v. 献出,赠送 n. 提议(to present for acceptance)
(反)proffer ◆ retain/withhold 提供 ◆ 保留/保留
(同)offer,extend,give,hold out,pose,present,tender

proficient [] adj. 熟练的,精通的
(反)proficient ◆ inept/incompetent 精通的 ◆ 无能的/无法胜任的

profligate [] adj. 挥金如土的 n. 挥霍者(wildly extravagant)
(类)profligate•money=querulous•words
挥金如土的•金钱=多话的•话(形容词及其相关对象)
profligate•solvent=mercurial•committed
挥霍的•还得起债的=活泼多变的•受约束的(反义)
parsimonious•profligacy=impetuous•hesitance
吝啬的•挥霍=冲动的•犹豫(反义)
(反)profligate ◆ parsimonious/ provident/ thrift/ economize/ frugality
挥霍的 ◆ 吝啬的/ 节俭的/ 节俭的/ 节俭/ 节俭
(同)abandoned, dissolute, licentious, reprobate, unprincipled
(例)the profligacy and dissolution of life in caligula's rome appall some historians.

profundity [] n. 深奥,深刻
(反)profundity ◆ superficiality 深刻 ◆ 肤浅

profusion [] n.丰富,大量,浪费 (great quantity:lavish)
(反)profusion ◆ paucity 大量 ◆ 极小量
profuse ◆ scanty 丰富的 ◆ 缺乏的

proliferate [] v. 增生扩散(to increase in number by proliferating)
(反)proliferate ◆ decrease in mount/dwindle 增生 ◆ 数量减少/缩小
barren ◆ prolific 不育的 ◆ 大量繁殖的
(例)Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage countless get-rich-quick schemes to
proliferate.

prolix [] adj.罗嗦的,冗长的(marked by or using an excess of words)
(类)aphorism•prolix euphemism•offensive=格言不会冗长的=委婉的说法不会令人不快的
(反)prolix ◆ pithy/taciturn/terse 冗长的 ◆ 精炼的/沉默寡言的/精炼的
prolixity ◆ succinctness/conciseness/extreme brevity 冗长 ◆ 简洁/简洁/非常简洁
(同)wordy, diffuse, redundant, verbose, windy

prologue [] n. 序言(an introduction or a preface)
(类)prologue•novel=preamble•statute 序言•小说=导言•法令
(反)prologue ◆ epilogue 序言 ◆ 结尾

prolong [] vt. 延长,拖延(to lengthen in extent, scope, or range)
(反)prolong ◆ truncate 延长 ◆ 截短
(同)extend, draw, elongate, lengthen, prolongate, protract, stretch

proofread [] vt. 校对(to read (copy or proof) in order to find errors and mark corrections)
(类)diagnose•treat=proofread•correct诊断•治疗=校对•纠正(目的)
(记)proof(证据)+read→为找错误证据进行的阅读→校正

promulgate [] vt. 正式宣布(announce officially)
(反)promulgate ◆ keep secret 正式宣布 ◆ 保密

propagate [] vt.繁殖;传播,普及(to cause to spread out)
(反)propagate ◆ check/ fail to mutiply 普及 ◆ 阻遏/没有普及
propagation ◆ extirpation 繁殖 ◆ 根除
(同)circulate, diffuse, disperse, disseminate, distribute, strew

propensity [] n. 习性;倾向(an often intense natural inclination)
(反)propensity ◆ aversion 倾向 ◆ 厌恶
(同)disposition, inclination, penchant, predilection, proclivity

prophetic [] adj. 预言的,先知的,预示的(foretelling events)
(类)apocalyptic•prophetic=inconsequential•illogical
启示录的•预言的=不符合逻辑的•不符合逻辑的(同义)
oracle•prophecy=mentor•guidance
神谕•预言=导师•指导(人物及职能)
(同)apocalyptic, mantic, oracular, prophetical

propitiate [] vt. 慰抚,安抚,和解(to gain or regain the favor)
(类)implacable•propitiated=inalienable•surrendered
不可平息的•平息的=不可剥夺的•放弃所有的(反义)
(反)propitiate ◆ incense / antagonize/ arouse hostility 劝解 ◆ 激怒/ 使反感/ 引起对抗
(同)pacify, appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, sweeten

propitious [] adj. 适合的;吉祥的,慈悲的(favorably disposed)
(反)propitious ◆ unfavorable/inauspicious 吉利的 ◆ 不利的/不吉利的
(同)favorable,auspicious,benign, bright, fortunate, white

proponent [] n. 建议者,支持者
(反)proponent ◆ detractor 支持者 ◆ 诋毁者

propriety [] n.适当
(类)indecorous•propriety=boorish•sensitivity 不得体的•适当=粗野的•敏感(缺乏关系)

prosaic [] adj.单调的,无趣的
(反)prosaic ◆ exceptional/ imaginary/ exciting/ extraordinary/ preternatural
平凡的/ 实际的/ 无趣的 ◆ 杰出的/想象的/令人兴奋的/杰出的/超自然的
ingenious ◆ prosaic有独创性的 ◆ 平凡的(干扰:spontaneous)
(同)commonplace, everyday, lowly, mundane, workaday, workday

proscribe [] v.(当作危险物而)禁止,排斥(to condemn or forbid)
(反)proscribe ◆ sanction 禁止 ◆ 允许
proscribed ◆ permitted 禁止的 ◆ 允许的
proscription ◆ permission 禁止 ◆ 允许
(同)sentence, condemn, damn, doom,prohibit

prosecution [] n. 实行;经营;起诉
(类)prosecution•conviction=mediation•compromise
起诉•定罪=调停•妥协(动作及其结果)

proselytize [] vi. 劝诱改宗(to recruit or convert especially to a new faith or cause)
(类)proselytizer•convert=hunter•quarry 劝诱改宗的人寻求皈依者=猎人寻求猎物
proselytizer•convert=salesperson•buy 劝诱改宗的人劝别人皈依=售货员劝别人购买
(例)In these interfaith meetings, there must be no attempt to proselytize; we must respect all
points of view.

prospect [] v. 探察,考察(to explore(a region) for mineral deposits or oil.)
(类)prospect•mineral=investigate•information勘探矿产•矿产=调查•信息

prosperous [] adj. 成功的,繁盛的,幸运的(enjoying vigorous and healthy growth)
(类)palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity 繁荣的•繁荣=严峻的•严肃
(反)prosperous ◆ depressed 繁荣的 ◆ 萧条的
impecunious ◆ wealthy/prosperous/affluent 贫穷的 ◆ 富有的/繁荣的/富裕的
(同)flourishing, booming, prospering, roaring, robust

prostrate [] adj. 拜倒的,降伏的,伏地的(stretched out with face on the ground in
adoration or submission);沮丧的;衰竭的
(反)prostrate ◆ erect/upright 伏地的 ◆ 直立的/垂直的
(同)prone, decumbent, flat, procumbent, reclining, recumbent

protean [] adj. 千变万化的,变化不定的(displaying great diversity)
(类)protean•rigid=circular•asymmetrica 变化多端的•呆板的=圆形的•不对称的(反义)
(反)protean ◆ static 变化不定的 ◆ 固定的
(同)changeable, fluid, mobile, mutable, unsettled, unstable, variable

protocol [] n. 外交礼节,协议
(类)protocol•blunder=bumper•damage 外交礼节•大错误=缓冲器•伤害 (防止关系)

protract [] v.延长,拖长(to prolong in time or space)
(类)protract•length=throng•number 延长•长度=群集•数量 (动宾关系)
(反)protract ◆ curtail/ abridge/ abbreviate 延长 ◆ 缩减/删减/缩短
transient ◆ protracted 短暂 ◆ 拖延的
(同)extend, drawt, elongate, lengthen, prolongate, spin (out), stretch
(记)tract拉

protrude [] v.突出(to push or thrust outward)
(反)protrude ◆ concave 隆起 ◆ 凹陷
(记)trude伸出

protuberant [] adj. 突起的,凸出的,显著的 (thrusting out from a surrounding or
adjacent surface often as a rounded mass)
(反)protuberant ◆ depressed 突起的 ◆ 下陷的
protrude ◆ concave 隆起 ◆ 凹陷
protuberance ◆ concavity 隆起 ◆ 凹陷
(同)prominent, obtrusive
(记)tuber块茎,凸起

provident [] adj. 深谋远虑的;节俭的
(反)provident ◆ profligate 节俭的 ◆ 挥霍的
(同)chary, economical, frugal, saving, scotch,thrifty
(例)in his usual provident manner, he had insured himself against this type of loss.

providential [] adj. 天意的,幸运的(happening as if through divine intervention)
(反)providential ◆ unfortunate/mishap 幸运的 ◆ 不幸的
(同)opportune, lucky, fortunate, happy, well
(记)来自providence天意 比较:provide provident providence providential provision
providing provided provisional provisionary provisory

provincial [] adj. 省的,地方的,偏狭的(limited in outlook)
(类)provincial•cosmopolitan=bigot•tolerant 狭隘的不会四海为家=不容异己的人不会容忍
(反)ecumenical ◆ factionalism/provincial 世界范围的 ◆ 党派主义/狭隘的
(同)insular, local, parochial, sectarian, small-town ,narrow

provisional [] adj.暂时的,暂定的,临时的(serving for the time being)
(反)provisional ◆ definitive 暂时性的 ◆ 决定性的
(同)conditional,provisionary,provisory,tentative,temporary

provisory [] adj. 有附文的,有附带条件的,暂时的
(反)provisory ◆ unconditional 有条件的 ◆ 无条件的
(同)conditional,provisional,provisionary,tentative

provoke [] vt. 激怒,惹起,驱使(to call forth)
(类)taunt•provoke=plot•outwit 嘲弄•挑拨=密谋•以智取胜(目的)
(反)choleric ◆ difficult to provoke 易怒的 ◆ 难以激怒的
jejune ◆ thought provoking 枯燥乏味的 ◆ 发人深省的
(同)evoke,irritate, aggravate, inflame, pique, rile, roil

prowess [] n. 英勇,勇敢(distinguished bravery)
(反)prowess ◆ timid 英勇 ◆ 胆怯
(同)heroism, gallantry, valiance, valor

prowl [] v. 巡游以猎取食物(to move about stealthily in or as if in search of prey)
(类)prowl•prey=reconnoiter•information巡游•猎物=侦察•信息 (目的)

prude [] n. 装成规矩的女人,过分正经的女人
(类)prude•proper=fanatic•devoted 过分正经的人•正经的=狂热者•投入的
(同)bluenose, goody-goody, prig, puritan

prudent [] adj. 审慎的,精明的,节俭的(marked by circumspection)
(类)prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 谨慎•蛮勇的人=睿智•笨蛋
(反)fool ◆ prudent傻的 ◆ 精明的
(同)discreet,wise , judgmatic, judicious, sage, sane, sapient, sensible

prudish [] adj. 装淑女样子的,过分规矩的(marked by prudery)
(类)modest•prudish=scholarly•pedantic
正派的•过分规矩的=学者气的•学究式的(人性格的正常与过分)
prudish•propriety=finicky•quality 过分规矩的•适当=过分讲究的•质量
(同)prim, genteel, priggish, prissy, proper, puritanical,
(例)He sang a ribald song that offended many of the more prudish listeners.

prune [] n.梅干;深紫红色;傻瓜 v.修剪
(类)prune•hedge=trim•hair修整•障碍物=整理修整•头发
prune•plum=raisin•grape梅干•梅子(李子)=葡萄干•葡萄(水果干和水果)
(同)dunce, chump, dolt, dope, idiot, ignoramus, moron
(例)with the help of her editor, she was able to prune her manuscript into publishable form.

pry [] v 刺探,打听(to look closely or inquisitively);撬开
(类)pry•watch=connive•cooperate 窥探•注视=暗中合作•合作(偷偷和正常)
prying•inquisitive=garish•colorful 爱打听的•好奇的=过分妆饰的•华丽的(褒贬程度)

pseudonym [] n. 假名;笔名
(类)pseudonym•name=mask•face 假名•名字=面具•脸(掩饰关系)

psychology [] n. 心理学,心理状态
(类)motivation•psychologist=fungi•ecologist
动机•心理学家=真菌•生态学家(人物研究对象)

pucker [] v. 折叠;噘嘴(to contract into folds or wrinkles)
(类)pucker•mouth=squint•eye 噘嘴•嘴巴=斜视•眼(人物器官及其特殊形态)

puckish [] adj.精灵似的;爱恶作剧的,淘气的,顽皮的
(反)puckish ◆ sober/grave/staid 淘气的 ◆ 严肃的/严肃的/>认真的
(同)playful, impish, mischievous, prankish, waggish, wicked

puerile [] adj. 幼稚的,儿童的
(反)puerile ◆ sagacious 幼稚的 ◆ 精明的
(同)childish, immature,infantile
(例)his puerile pranks sometimes offended his more mature friends.

puissance [] n. 权力,权势,力量,影响(power; might)
(反)puissance ◆ powerlessness 权势 ◆ 没有影响
(例)we must keep his friendship for he will make a puissant ally.

pulchritude [] n. 美丽(physical comeliness)
(反)pulchritude ◆ ugliness/ homeliness 美丽 ◆ 丑陋/不好看
pulchritudinous ◆ hideous 美丽的 ◆ 丑陋的

pullet [] n. 小母鸡;小姑娘
(类)pullet•chicken=filly•horse 小母鸡•鸡=小雌马•马

pulverize [] v. 研磨成粉,破坏(to reduce as by crushing to very small particles:atomize)
(反)pulverize ◆ solidify 粉碎 ◆ 巩固
(同)destroy, decimate, demolish, destruct, dynamite,

pun [] n. 双关语(a joke using words with similar sounds or two different meanings)
(类)pun•joke=supernova•star=termite•insect
双关语•玩笑=超新星•恒星=白蚁• 昆虫(种属)
(同)calembour, paronomasia

punch line n.(笑话的)妙语(the sentence, statement, or phrase as in a joke that makes the point)
(类)joke•punch line=plot•denouement 笑话•妙语=情节•结局(事物之结局)
【注:所谓妙语就是中国相声中那句抖开包袱的话;至此笑话结束。】

punctilious [] adj. 精密细心的,一丝不苟的(marked by precise accordance with the
details of codes or conventions)
(反)punctilious ◆ remiss /slipshod一丝不苟的 ◆ 玩忽职守的/马虎的
(同)conscientious, exact, fussy, meticulous, painstaking, scrupulous

pundit [] n.权威人士,专家(used as a title of respect for a learned man in India)
(类)authoritativeness•pundits=allegiance•partisans
权威•权威人士=忠诚•党徒(人物典型特征)
(同)pandit, teacher, critic

pungent [] adj. 辛辣的,刺激性的,严厉的 (causing a sharp or irritating sensation)
(类)pungent•odor=caustic•comment 刺激性的•气味=刻薄的•评论
(反)pungency ◆ blandness 辛辣 ◆ 乏味
(同)peppery, piquant, poignant, racy, snappy, spicy, zesty
(例)The pungent verbal give-and-take among the characters makes the novel lively reading, and this very spiritedness suggests to me that some of the opinions voiced may be the author's.

puny [] adj. 微小的,弱小的,微不足道的 (slight in power, size, or importance)
(类)puny•weakly=measly•contemptibly 微不足道的•软弱的=微不足道的•卑微的(同义)
(反)puny ◆ enormous 微小的 ◆ 巨大的
(同) measly, niggling, paltry, piddling, trifling, trivial
(例)our puny efforts to stop the flood were futile.

purity [] n.纯净,纯洁,纯度(the quality or state of being pure)
(类)distill•purity=leaven•volume 蒸馏•纯度=发酵•体积 (前者加强后者)
purify•imperfection=verify•doubtfulness 净化•不完美=查证•疑问(前者消除后者)
distillate•purity=synopsis•conciseness 蒸馏物•纯净=大纲•简明(事物典型特征)
purification•dross=desalinization•salt 提纯剩下糟粕=脱盐剩下盐分
impurity•filter=mosquito•netting 杂质•过滤器=蚊子•用网捕捉
purist•adulteration=stickler•approximation 纯粹主义者反对搀假=坚持己见的人反对近似
【注:purist :one who adheres strictly and often excessively to a tradition; especially:
one preoccupied with the purity of a language and its protection from the use of foreign
or altered forms】
(反)inviolable ◆ profane/ impure 不可亵渎的 ◆ 亵渎的/不纯的

purlieu [] n. 森林边缘地;常去的地方(a frequently visited place)
(类)extraordinary•purlieu=taut•commodiousness 非凡的•平常=紧张的•宽松(反义)
(反)purlieu ◆ an unfrequent place/infrequently visited place 常去的地方 ◆ 不常见的地方

list 27 purloin-----------redolent
purloin [] vt.vi. 偷窃,盗取(to appropriate wrongfully and often by a breach of trust)
(类)lurk•wait= abscond•depart (干扰:purloin•appropriate 盗窃•盗用)
潜伏•等=潜逃•离开 (偷偷•正常)
(同)steal, appropriate, cabbage, filch, pilfer, pinch,thieve

purvey [] v.(大量)供给,供应
(类)vendor•purvey=censor•expurgate 卖主•供给=审查员•删除(人及典型行为)

pusillanimous [] adj. 懦弱的(lacking courage and resolution)
(反)pusillanimous ◆ stouthearted/dauntless/valianc 胆小的 ◆ 胆大勇猛的
temerity ◆ pusillanimity/circumspection 卤莽 ◆ 优柔寡断/慎重
(同)coward, craven, gutless, poltroon, spunkless
(例)you should be ashamed of your pusillanimous conduct during this dispute.

quack [] v. 鸭呷呷叫n. 庸医,骗子
(反)quack ◆ honest practitioner 骗子 ◆ 诚实从业者

quaff [] vt. vi. 一口气喝干,大口地喝(to drink(a beverage)deeply)
(类)quaff•sip=stride•mince 大口喝•啜饮=迈大步走•碎步走(程度)

quail [] vi. 胆怯,畏缩(to recoil in dread or terror)
(反)quail ◆ become resolute/ give bold 畏缩 ◆ 变得坚决/ 使大胆

qualified [] adj. 合格的,受限制的 (limited or modified in some way)
(类)qualify•general=mitigate•severe 限定•一般的=减轻•严重的(消除关系)
(反)qualified ◆ unreserved/ absolute/ categorical 受限制的 ◆ 无受限制的/ 绝对的/ 绝对的

quandary [] n. 困惑,窘境,进退两难(a state of perplexity or doubt)
(反)quandary ◆ state of complete certainty 进退两难 ◆ 胸有成竹
(记)谐音“宽带”联想:宽带网由于价格问题目前的发展处于进退两难。

quarantine [] n. 隔离检疫期,隔离(to isolate from normal relations)
(类)quarantine•contact=embargo•commerce 隔离•接触=禁运•贸易(防止)
quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident 隔离•污染=保护措施•事故 (防止)

quarry [] n. 采石场
(类)quarry•stone=fell•timber=mine•ore
采石场•石头=一季所伐的木材•木材=矿•矿石(采集场所)
【注:fell:the timber cut down in one season】

quarry2 n.猎物,追求物,出处(one that is sought or pursued)
(类)aspirant•quarry=hunter•prey 有抱负者•目标=狩猎者•猎物(人及其追求对象)

quash [] v. 撤销,镇压(to suppress or extinguish summarily and completely)
(反)quash ◆ engender 镇压 ◆ 引起,产生
foment ◆ quash/quell 煽动 ◆ 镇压
(同)annul,abrogate,discharge,dissolve,vacate,

quell [] vt. 压制,平息,减轻(to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to submission)
(类)irrepressible•quell=obdurate•move 镇压不住的难以镇压=冷酷无情的难以打动
(反)quell ◆ foment/instigate/rouse/incite 压制 ◆ 煽动/怂恿/鼓舞/煽动
foment ◆ quash/quell 煽动 ◆ 镇压
(同)annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quench, squash, suppress
(例)the police used fire hoses and teat gas to quell the rioters.

quench [] vt. 结束,熄灭;冷浸(to cool suddenly by immersion)
(类)damp•quench=tint•suffuse 使潮湿•冷浸=染色于•遍布,充满(程度)
(同)annihilate, extinguish, put down, quash, quell, squash, suppress

querulous [] adj. 抱怨的,发牢骚的(habitually complaining)
(类)querulous•words=profligate•money 发牢骚的•话=浪费的•金钱
(同)irritable, fractious, fretful, peevish, petulant, snappish,waspy
(例)his classmates were repelled by his querulous and complaining statements.

quibble [] n. 遁辞,谬论,双关话 v. 推托,诡辩,说模棱两可的话
(类)quibble•cavil =faultfinding•criticize
遁词•挑剔=挑剔•批评(程度)
quibbler•cavil=encomiast•eulogize
吹毛求疵的人•吹毛求疵=赞美者•赞美(人物典型动作)
(同)argufy, bicker, dispute, hassle, squabble, wrangle

quiescent [] adj. 静止的,寂静的(marked by inactivity or repose)
(反)quiescent ◆ rambunctious 平静的 ◆ 骚乱的
quiescence ◆ tumult /action /restless activity 平静 ◆ 骚动/行动/不平静行为
(同)abeyant, dormant, lurking, potential, prepatent

quixotic [] adj. 不切实际的,空想的(marked by rash lofty romantic ideas)
(类)quixotic•idealistic=touchy•sensitive 狂想家的•理想主义的=易暴躁的•敏感的
(反)quixotic ◆ displaying consistently practical behavior 不切实际的 ◆ 很实际的行为
(记)来自跟风车大战的 唐•吉柯德(Don Quixot)

quota [] n. 配额, 限额(a proportional part or share)
(反)quota ◆ unlimited number 限额 ◆ 不限数量
(同)allowance, bite, cut, lot, part, partage, portion, slice

quotidian [] adj.每日的,平凡的
(反)quotidian ◆ remarkable / striking/ extraordinary/ unusual
平凡的 ◆ 不平常的/ 醒目惊人的/ 不平常的
(同)ordinary, plain, routine, unremarkable, usual, workaday

rabble [] n. 乌合之众,暴民,下等人
(类)people•rabble=items•hodgepodge 人•乌合之众=名目•大杂烩(组成,杂乱的特征)

rabid [] adj. 猛烈的,热烈的,急进的,疯狂的,固执的,狂怒的
(反)rabid ◆ logical/ detached 疯狂的 ◆ 合乎逻辑的/镇静的
(同)furious, delirious, frenetic, mad, wild

raconteur [] n.善于讲故事的人
(类)raconteur•storytelling=wordsmith•writing
善于讲故事的人讲故事=文字匠写作(人及其擅长)

racy [] adj. 活泼生动的 (having a strongly marked quality)
(反)tame ◆ racy 乏味的 ◆ 生动的
(同)pungent, peppery, piquant, poignant, snappy, spicy,
(例)she writes racy novels about rich men and beautiful women.

raffish [] adj. 粗俗的 (marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness)
(类)ingenuous•dissemble=raffish•preen=polite•snub
坦白的不掩饰=粗俗的不打扮=有礼貌的不怠慢
raffish•decorum=merciless•leniency
粗俗的•礼貌=无怜悯心的•宽大的(反义)

raffle [] n. 抽彩售货,废物
(类)lottery•raffle= ?? 抽彩•抽彩(同义)
干扰:ticket•admission =入场券•入场(行为动作及其凭证)
【注】raffle :a lottery in which a number of persons buy chances to win a prize
此题谬种流传很长时间。lottery并无奖券的意思。这个意思的词是lots,chances。

rafter [] n. 椽;椽架屋顶;筏夫
(类)roof•rafter=table•leg 屋顶•椽子=桌子•腿儿(组成,支撑)

rage [] n. 愤怒,情绪激动,狂暴 vi.大怒;狂吹;风行
(类)rage•anger=bigotry•dedication 大怒•生气=顽迷•致力(程度)
infuriate•rage=commend•esteem 激怒引起愤怒=赞美引起尊重(行为及其影响)
infuriate•rage=nonplus•perplexity 激怒使人大怒=使困惑使人困惑(行为及其影响)
(同)anger, fury, indignation, ire, mad, wrath

ragged [] adj. 衣衫褴褛的,参差的,不协调的(torn or worn to tatters)
(类)cloth•ragged=furniture•rickety 织品布料•破烂褴褛的=家具•摇晃的(形修饰名)
(同)frayed, frazzled, shreddy, tattered
(例)his clothes are torn and ragged from living in the woods

rail [] vi. 责骂,抱怨to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language) n.围栏
(类)rail•vehemence=entreat•urgency 责骂•激烈=乞求• 紧急
(同)scold, berate, jaw, rate, revile, upbraid, vituperate
(记)railway 铁路。 被称为铁老大,每年春节遭到的责骂最多了。

rakish [] adj.放荡的(of, relating to, or characteristic of a rake ;dissolute)
(类)rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity 放荡的不抑制=偷懒的不刻苦
(记)rake 本义是耙子。联想:猪八戒的兵器就是耙子,用耙子的猪八戒在高老庄很放荡啊

ramble [] vi. 漫步,漫游(to move aimlessly)
(类)travel•ramble=draw•doodle 旅行•漫游=画•涂鸦(正常与特殊)
(同)wander, meander, range, roam, rove, straggle, stray
(记)ram=ran 谐音:跑步→漫步

rambunctious [] adj. 粗暴的,难控制的,骚乱的
(反)rambunctious ◆ quiescent 骚乱的 ◆ 平静的
(记)ram公羊bunct撞→公羊乱撞→粗暴的,难控制的 参考:bumper保险杠

rampart [] n. 垒,壁垒,城墙(a protective barrier;bulwark)
(类)rampart•barrier=tower•edifice 壁垒•障碍=堡垒•大厦(坚实•正常)
rampart•invasion=levee•flood 壁垒•入侵=大堤•洪水 (防止)
(记)ramp=camp(营地)联想:营地设在堡垒之中。

ramshackle [] adj. 摇摇欲坠(appearing ready to collapse)
(类)ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity 摇摇欲坠的不稳固=混淆的不清楚
(同)rickety [] 佝偻的,驼背的,摇摆的
(记)ram=ran + shackle手铐, 束缚物 联想: 束缚物跑了,所以摇摇欲坠了。

rancid [] adj. 腐臭的(offensive in odor or flavor)
(同)molodorous,fetid, nidorous, noisome, putrid, smelly, whiffy
(记)词根rank 臭 其本身是一个词,n. 等级 adj. 恶臭的 联想:等级制度非常腐败,发出恶臭。

rancor [] n.敌意,深仇,怨恨(bitter deep-seated ill will)
(反)rancor ◆ goodwill/charitableness 敌意 ◆ 善意
(同)enmity, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility

randomize [] v. 使随机化,完全打乱
(反)randomize ◆ systematize 随机化 ◆ 综合化
(记)random 随机的,任意的

ranger [] n. 守林人,骑警,徘徊者
(类)ranger•forest=curator•museum 守林人看管森林=馆长看管博物馆
(记)range 范围 由围开始联想:把林子围起来看着→守林人。

rankle [] v.(怨恨,失望等)难以释怀,激怒(to cause irritation)
(反)rankle ◆ pacify/calm/ mollify 激怒 ◆ 使平静安慰
(同)fester n/v. 脓疮,化脓,使烦恼
(例)the memory of having been jilted rankled him for years.
(记)ranc(恨)参考:rank adj. 恶臭的,讨厌的,让人恨的

rant [] vt. vi. 咆哮,激昂地说(to scold vehemently)
(类)anger•rant=fear•cower 生气•咆哮=害怕•畏缩(因果关系)
(同)orate, declaim, harangue, perorate, rave

rapacious [] adj. 强夺的,贪欲的,贪婪的(excessively grasping)
(类)rapacity•covetous=mania•enthusiasm=distraught•troubled
十分贪婪•贪婪的=极端狂热的•热情=发狂的•不平静的(程度)
(同)vovarious, gluttonous, ravenous
(记)来rap抓 参考:rape v. 强奸,掠夺 rapt 全神贯注的rapture使狂喜

rapport [] n.和睦,意见一致 (relation marked by harmony, conformity)
(反)rapport ◆ discord 和睦 ◆ 意见不合
(同)harmony, concord, unity
(记)联想support 支持→和睦,意见一致

rapprochement [] n. 建立或恢复友谊或和睦关系 →
(反)rapprochement ◆ estrangement 恢复和睦关系 ◆ 疏远
(同)harmonizing, reconcilement
(记)r(=re)+approch(=approach接近)→重新接近→恢复和睦关系

rapscallion [] n. 流氓,恶棍
(类)rapscallion•mischievous=sluggard•lazy 流氓•为害的=懒鬼•懒惰 (人物典型特征)
(同)devil, enfant terrible, mischief, rascal, villain

rapt [] adj. 全神贯注的,入迷的,出神的 (wholly absorbed)
(类)rapt•distract=intrepid•deter 全神贯注的难以分心=无畏的难以威慑
(反)rapt ◆ distracted 全神贯注的 ◆ 心烦意乱的
(同)absorbed, engaged, engrossed, preoccupied, wrapped
(例)the audience listened with rapt attention to the excellent speaker.
(记)来自rap抓 参考:rapacious 强夺的,贪婪的

rash [] adj. 轻率的;鲁莽的 (proceeding from undue haste)
(类)rash•adventurous=obsessed•attracted
轻率的•大胆的=沉迷的•被吸引的(褒贬程度类比)
rash•circumspective=imperious•servile
轻率的•慎重的=专横的•卑屈的 (反义)
(反)rash ◆ circumspective 鲁莽的 ◆ 谨慎的
(同)brash, hasty, incogitant, reckless, thoughtless, unwary
(记)联想:rush 冲→冲动的,鲁莽的

raisin [] n. 葡萄干
(类)raisin•grape=prune•plum 葡萄干•葡萄=梅干•梅子(水果及其干果)

rarefy [] v. 使稀薄,变稀薄(to make thin, less compact, or less dense)
(反)rarefy ◆ concentrate /condense /make denser 使稀薄 ◆ 使稠密
rarefaction ◆ condensation 稀薄 ◆ 压缩
(记)rare adj 稀罕的,珍贵的+ fy 转化成动词→使稀薄

raspy [] adj. 刺耳的;粗糙的;易怒的
(反)raspy ◆ mellifluous 刺耳的 ◆ (声音音乐)甜美的
(同)irritable , peevish, petulant, prickish, raspish, snappish, waspish
(例)the sergeant's raspy voice grated on the recruits' ears.

ratify [] vt. 认可;批准 (to approve and sanction formally)
(类)repeal•ratification=repatriate•emigration 废止,撤销•批准=遣返•移民(动宾)
ratify•treaty=confirm•hypothesis 批准条约=确定假设(动宾关系)

ratiocination [] n. 推理,推论(the process of exact thinking)
(类)ratiocination•thinking=articulation•talking
推理是一种清晰的思考=清晰发音是清晰的讲话
(同)conclusion, deduction, illation, judgment, sequitur

ration [] n. 定额,定量,配给 (a food allowance for one day)
(类)ration•food=dose•medicine 配给•食物=剂量•药(事物及其定量配给)

rationalize [] v. 使合理化;找借口,自圆其说,文过饰非(明明做错还要找借口)
(类)rationalization•plausible=obfuscation•indiscernible
文过饰非•给人假象的=困惑•难识别的(正面特征)
(记)来自rational: adj.理性的, 合理的, 推理的
(记)He tried to prove that he was not at fault, but he was obviously rationalizing.
他想证明错不在他, 但他显然是在找借口。

ravel [] vt. 使纠缠, 使混乱, 解开, 弄清(to separate the texture)
(反)ravel ◆ knit 拆开 ◆ 编织结合
(同)entangle, muddle, perplex, snarl, tangle
(例)a sigle thread pulled loose, and the entire scarf started to ravel.

rave [] v.咆哮 n. 过分赞扬, 吹捧狂热的观点(an extravagantly favorable criticism)
(反)rave ◆ pan 极力赞扬 ◆ 严厉的批判

ravenous [] adj. 贪婪的,饿极的,渴望的,狼吞虎咽的 (very eager or greedy for food,
satisfaction, or gratification)

ravish [] v. 强夺 -ing•adj.令人陶醉的
(类)ravishing•attractive=perspicacious•discerning
令人陶醉的•吸引人的=聪颖的•有洞察力的

raze [] vt.破坏,抹去(to destroy to the ground;demolish)
(反)raze ◆ build 摧毁 ◆ 建造

reactant [] n. 反应物
(反)reactant ◆ inert material 反应物 ◆ 惰性物质

reactionary [] adj.反动的,反对变革的
(类)contumacious•authority= reactionary•change 不听命令的反权威=反动变革的反变化
(反)votary ◆ reactionary 信仰者 ◆ 怀疑者

ream [] n. 令;大量的纸(a quantity of paper )
(类)ream•paper=cord•wood 令•纸=木头的单元•木头=亩•土地(事物及其计量单位)
【注:cord:a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet】

reap [] v. 收割, 收获(to gather by reaping)
(类)scythe•reaper=axe•woodcutter 镰刀•收割者=斧子•伐木者 (人及工具)
(反)reap ◆ plant 收割 ◆ 种植
(同)garner, gather, harvest, ingather

reassure [] v. 使安心,安慰(to restore to confidence)
(类)reassure•doubt=perturb•serenity 使安心•疑虑=扰乱•平静(消除关系)
reassure•uneasiness=feed•hunger 使安心•不安=喂•饥饿(消除关系)
(反)formidable ◆ reassuring 困难的 ◆ 可靠的

rebuff [] vt. 严厉拒绝(to reject or criticize sharply)
(反)rebuff ◆ approve/welcome 严厉拒绝 ◆ 赞同/欢迎
(同)hold off, keep off, rebut, repel, repulse,snub stave off

recalcitrant [] adj.固执的,顽抗的
(类)recalcitrant•obey=incongruent•conform 顽固的•服从=不和谐的•一致
recalcitrant•resist=fastidious•outshine 反抗的•抵抗=挑剔的•胜过(人物典型行为)
(反)recalcitrant ◆ amenable/submissive 顽固的 ◆ 服从的
(同)unruly, fractious, indomitable, intractable, unmanageable,wild
(记)re(强调)+ calci(= calcium钙)联想:象钙一样硬→固执的,顽抗的

recant [] vi. 取消前言,放弃信仰,公开认错(to make a formal retraction or disavowal of a
previously held statement or belief)
(类)recantation•error=confession•crime 公开认错•错误=招供•罪行 (动作及其相关对象)
recantation•heresy=apostasy•faith 放弃信仰•异端=背教•信仰(动作及其相关对象)
(反)recant ◆ reaffirm 取消前言 ◆ 重申,再肯定
(同)abjure, forswear, recall, retract, withdraw
(记)re(重新)+cant(唱)→重新唱新调→放弃以前的信仰或声明 参考:cantata 清唱,大合唱

recessive [] adj. 退行的,逆行的;后退的;隐性的(producing little or no phenotypic
effect when occurring in heterozygous condition with a contrasting allele)
(反)recessive ◆ dominant 隐性的 ◆ 显性的

recidivism [] n. 累犯,重犯 (relapse into criminal behavior)
(类)recidivism•relapse=rehabilitation•convalesce =pundit•opine
重犯•再发=复原•康复=博学者•发表意见(人物及其特征行为)

reciprocate [] vi. 往复运动;互换;酬答(to move forward and backward)
(反)reciprocating ◆ moving unidirectional 往复运动 ◆ 单向运动
(同)recompense, requite, retaliate, return

reckless [] adj. 不注意的,卤莽的,不顾后果的(careless of consequences)
(反)reckless ◆ circumspect/ measured 草率的 ◆ 慎重的/有规则的
(同)adventurous, audacious, daredevil, foolhardy, rash, temerarious, venturesome, venturous

recluse [] n. 隐遁者,遁世者(a person who leads a secluded life)
(类)recluse•compassion=turncoat•consistency
隐遁者•同情=背叛者•一致性(人物反面特征)
recluse•crowd=shirk•duty=claustrophobia•enclosure
隐遁逃避人群=推卸逃避责任=幽闭恐怖症逃避关闭
recluse•gregariousness=poseur•sincerity
隐遁者•群居性=装模作样的人•真诚(人物反面特征)
recluse•solitude=toady•favor
隐遁者争取孤单=献媚者争取好感(人物典型行为)
recluse•withdrawn=bigot•biased=roisterer•carouse
隐遁者•隐退=狭隘者• 偏见的=闹饮者•痛饮(人物典型行为)
(反)recluse ◆ social 隐遁的 ◆ 群居的
(同)secluded, cloistered, hermetic, sequestered

recoil [] vi. 退却,畏缩,撤退(to fall back under pressure);报应
(反)recoil ◆ advance 退缩 ◆ 前进
(同)blanch, blench, flinch, quail, shrink, squinch, start, wince
(记)coil v.盘旋,卷→卷回去→退却,缩回

reconcile [] vt. 使和解,调停(to make consistent or congruous)
(反)rift ◆ reconciliation 矛盾 ◆ 和解

recondite [] adj. 深奥的,难解的(not easily understood;abstruse)
(类)recondite•fathom = tenacious•eradicate深奥的•理解=顽强的•根除(难以)
(反)recondite ◆ widely understood/ patent/ self explain/ self-evident/ easy comprehension
深奥的 ◆ 广泛的被理解的/ 显著的/ 不言自明的/ 不言自明的/ 容易理解的
(同)abstruse, esoteric, hermetic, occult, orphic, profound, secret
(记)cond隐藏→意思隐藏很深的→深奥的,难解的 参考:condiment调味品

reconnaissance []vi. 侦察,勘查(an exploratory military survey of enemy territory)
(类)reconnoiter•information=prowl•prey 侦察•信息=巡游•猎物(动宾关系)

reconstitute [] vt. 重新组成,重新设立;加水使恢复
(反)reconstitute ◆ dehydrate 加水使恢复 ◆ 脱水

reconvene [] vt 重新集合,重新召集
(类)disperse•reconvene=dismiss•reinstate 驱散•重新集合=解雇•复职(反义)

rectify [] v. 订正,校正(to set right)
(类)rectify•treaty=confirm•hypothesis 订正•条约=确定•假设 (动宾关系)
(同)amend, emend, right 参考:correct改正,纠正

rectitude [] n. 正直,公正,清廉(moral integrity)
(类)rectitude•transgress=keen•obtuse 正直•违法=锋利的•钝的(反义)
(反)rectitude ◆ inequity 公正 ◆ 不公正
(同)morality, probity, righteousness, uprightness, virtue

recumbent [] adj. 靠着的,斜躺着的,不活动的,休息的
(反)recumbent ◆ standing up 斜躺着的 ◆ 站直的

recuperate [] v. 复原(to regain a former state or condition)
(反)recuperative ◆ debilitating 有回复力的 ◆ 疲惫不堪的
(同)ameliorate, convalesce, gain, mend, perk
(例)the doctors were worried because the patient did not recuperate rapidly。
(记)re+cup(=cap抓住)→重新抓住→复原 参考:captive俘虏

redistribution [] n. 重新分配,再区分
(类)inequity•redistribution=illiteracy•education 不公正•重新分配=文盲•教育(消除关系)

redolent [] adj.芳香的(exuding fragrance)
(类)redolent•smell=piquant•taste 芳香的•气味=开胃的•味道
(反)redolent ◆ unscented 芳香的 ◆ 没有香味的
(同)ambrosial, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, perfumed, savory, spicy

list 28 redoubtable -------retrench
redoubtable [] adj.可敬畏的,可怕的,著名的 (worthy of respect)
(类)redoubtable•regard/respect=creditable•belief/trust 值得敬畏的•尊敬=可信的•信任
(反)redoubtable ◆ not formidable/ unimpressive 可怕的 ◆ 不可怕的/无印象的

redundant [] adj. 多余的,过多的,冗长的
(类)redundant•indispensability=indigent•wealth
多余的•不可缺少=穷困的•富裕(名形反义)
(反)redundant ◆ economical 过多的 ◆ 节约的
(同)diffuse, palaverous, prolix, verbose, windy

reel [] n. 卷轴;一卷;蹒跚;旋转;纺车
(类)reel•winding=die•shaping 卷轴•绕圈=模子•定型 (工具及其功能)

referee [] n. 仲裁人,调解人;裁判员
(类)referee•field=judge•courtroom 裁判•竞技场=法官•法庭(工作场所)
referee•whistle=judge•gavel 裁判•哨子=法官•裁定小铁锤

refinery [] n.精炼厂,提炼厂
(类)refinery•petroleum=mill•grain 精炼厂加工石油 = 磨坊加工谷物
refine•purification=attenuate•rarefaction 精炼•净化=削弱•变稀
(反)crass ◆ refined 粗糙的 ◆ 精细的
refine ◆ reduce purity 净化 ◆ 降低纯度

reflective [] adj. 反射的;反映的;熟虑的
(类)reflection•light=echo•sound反射•光=回声•声音
(反)reflect ◆ absorb 反射 ◆ 吸收
unreflective ◆ ruminative 不思考的 ◆ 沉思的

refractory [] adj.难驾驭的,不听话的,执拗的;(病)难治的
(类)refractory•control=adamant•flexibility
难驾驭的•控制=坚硬的•弹性(名形反义)
pertinacity•refractory=inexperience•green
顽固•难控制的=无经验•无经验的(形名同义)
(反)refractory ◆ responsive 难驾驭的 ◆ 易感应的
(同)bullheaded, headstrong, intractable, mulish, stubborn, unyielding
(例)the refractory horse was eliminated from the race when he refused to obey the jockey.

refulgent [] adj.辉煌的,灿烂的(a radiant or resplendent quality)
(反) refulgent ◆ lackluster 灿烂的 ◆ 无光泽

refute [] vt. 驳倒,反驳
(反)refute ◆ prove 反驳 ◆ 证明
refutation ◆ verification 驳倒 ◆ 确认
refutable ◆ indisputable 可驳倒的 ◆ 无争论之余地的

regenerate [] adj. 新生的,再生的(restored to a better, higher, or more worthy state)
(类)unregenerate•remorse=truculent•gentleness
不悔改的•良心不安=粗野的•柔和(名形反义)

regimen []n. 养生法,生活规则
(类)regimen•health=mnemonics•memory=budget•solvency
养生法•健康=记忆法•记忆=预算•还债能力 (行为及其改善对象)

regress [] v. 复原,逆行,使倒退(to tend to approach or revert to a mean )
(反)regressive ◆ forward 后退的 ◆ 向前的
(同)revert, retrogress, throw back

rehabilitate [] v.使康复,使复职,使恢复名誉
(类)rehabilitate•demolition=recycle•disposal 复原•破坏=再利用•处理(反义)
person•rehabilitate=building•restoration 人•复原=建筑物•重修(动宾关系)
(同)reclaim, recondition, reconstruct, recover, rejuvenate, restitute

rehearsal [] n. 排演, 演习, 预演, 试演
(类)impromptu•rehearsal=caprice•deliberate 即席演出•排练=反复无常•深思熟虑的(反义)
(记)re(再次)+hear(听)→不断的听→排演,试演

reign [] n. 执政,君主统治,统治,支配 (royal authority )
(类)coronation•reign=wedding•marriage 加冕礼•统治=婚礼•结婚(事物代表含义)

rein [] n.缰绳 vi.驾驭,控制
(反)rein ◆ prod 控制 ◆ 刺激

reiterate [] v. 重申,反复地说
(类)reiterate•redundant=digress•excursive
反复地说•多余的=扯到枝节上•离题的(行为典型特征)

rejoice [] v. 欣喜,喜悦(to feel joy or great delight)
(反)rejoice ◆ grouse/moroseness 高兴 ◆ 生气,抱怨/忧郁
rejoiced ◆ sulky 高兴的 ◆ 生气的
(记)飘柔的商标

relapse [] vi. 故态复萌,再陷邪道,再度堕落(to slip or fall back into a former worse
state)
(类)relapse•convalescence=recidivism•rehabilitation 复发•恢复=重犯•复职
(同)lapse, backslide, recidivate
(例)the economy relapsed into a depression from the peak.
(记)lapse 失误,过失

release [] vt. 释放,放松;豁免,免除 ( to set free from restraint)
(反)release ◆ constrain/immure/restrain 放松 ◆ 强迫/监禁/禁止
(同)discharge, emancipate, liberate, manumit, unbind, unshackle

relent [] v. 变慈悲(to become more lenient, compassionate, or forgiving)
(反)inexorable ◆ relenting 无情的 ◆ 慈悲的
(同)adamant, inexorable, obdurate, rigid, unbending, unyielding
(记)re+lent 反复借钱给别人→慈悲 参考:relentless 无情的

relevant [] adj. 有关联的,中肯的,有关系的,适当的
(类)relevant•crucial=perceptible•obvious
有关联的•极其重要的=可感知的•显而易见的(程度)
immaterial•relevance=circuitous•directness =peripheral•center
无关的•相关=迂回的•直接=边缘的•中心(形名反义)
【注】immaterial两层意思:不重要的,无关的(inconsequential or irrelevant)
(反)germane ◆ irrelevant 有密切关系的 ◆ 无关系的
relevant ◆ immaterial 有关联的 ◆ 无关紧要的

religion [] n. 宗教,信仰
(类)religion•devoutness=canon•orthodoxy
宗教•虔诚=正统教规•正统的(正面特征)
(同)creed, cult, faith, persuasion

relinquish [] vt. 放弃(give up),松开(release),放手(to let go)
(反)relinquish ◆ cling to 松开 ◆ 贴紧
relinquish ◆ procure 放弃 ◆ 取得
relinquish ◆ cooperate 放手 ◆ 合作
relinquish ◆ reward 放弃 ◆ 褒奖
(同)abandon, give up, lay down, resign, surrender, turn up, waive (反)keep
(例)Few leaders willingly relinquish power 没有几个领导人乐意放弃自己的权力。
(记)relinq=relic遗弃物,遗迹→放弃,遗弃

relish [] n. 爱好,美味,食欲
(反)relish ◆ despise 爱好 ◆ 轻视
(记)与release“释放”;relax“放松”同源 联想:放在后面吃的→美味

reluctant [] adj.不顾的,勉强的,难得到的,难处理的
(类)hesitation•reluctance=hubris•pride 犹豫•不愿意=狂妄自大•骄傲 (褒贬程度类比)
(反)reluctant ◆ alacrity 犹豫和不情愿 ◆ 乐意(敏捷,欣然)
loquacity ◆ reluctance to speak 多话 ◆ 不愿说话

remiss [] adj. 疏忽的,不留心的,玩忽职守的(showing neglect or inattention•lax)
(反)remiss ◆ scrupulous/wary/assiduous/punctilious/conscientious/painstaking
不留心玩忽职守的 ◆ 小心谨慎的/机警的/勤勉的/小心谨慎的/负责的/下苦功的
(同)careless, delinquent, derelict, disregardful, neglectful, regardless

remodel [] vt. 改造,改型,改变(to alter the structure of)
(类)construct•remodel=compose•edit 建造•改造=写作•编辑(种属)

remonstrance [] n.抗议,抱怨(an earnest presentation of reasons for
opposition or grievance; especially •a document formally stating such points)
(类)remonstrance•offend=syllogism•disprove
抗议•冒犯=三段论•反驳(前者实现后者)
remonstrance•dissuade=apprehend•censure
抗议•劝阻=逮捕•责难(行为及其目的)
remonstrator•dissuade=applicant•appeal
抗议者•劝阻=申请者•诉请(人的典型特征)
(同)challenge, demurrer, difficulty, objection, protest, question, remonstration

remorse [] n. 懊悔,悔恨(a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt)
(类)remorse•rue=longing•pine
悔恨•后悔=渴望•渴望,消瘦(同义)
unregenerate•remorse=truculent•gentleness
不悔改的•悔恨=好战凶猛的•温顺(反面特征)
(同)attrition, compunction, contriteness, contrition, penance, penitency, repentance, rue

remunerate [] vt. 给与报酬,赔偿,酬劳
(to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense•recompense)
(类)remuneration•service=retaliation•injury 酬劳•服务=报复•伤害,侮辱(因果关系)
(反)remunerative ◆ unrequited 有报酬的 ◆ 未得回报的
gainful ◆ unremunerative 有利益的 ◆ 无利可获的
(同)compensate, indemnify, pay, recompense, reimburse, repay, requite

rend [] v.撕裂,猛拉(to split or tear apart or in pieces by violence)
(类)rend•tear=rush•hurry 撕裂•撕=匆忙的做•仓卒 (程度)
(反)rend ◆ unite/mend/repair/ made whole 撕裂 ◆ 联合/修理/使完整
(同)cleave, rip, rive, split

renounce [] vi. 断绝关系;放弃权利(to give up, refuse or resign usually by formal
declaration)
(类)renounce•pledge=rescind•order 拒绝•保证=废除•命令
(反)renounce ◆ embrace 断绝关系 ◆ 信奉
claim ◆ renounce (根据权利)要求 ◆ 放弃权利

renovate [] vt. 更新,革新,恢复,修复,刷新(to restore to a former better state )
(反)renovate ◆ cause to decay 修复,刷新 ◆ 使腐烂
(同)reactivate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, resuscitate, retrieve, revitalize, revivify

repartee [] n. 机灵的回答(a succession or interchange of clever retorts:amusing
and usually light sparring with words)
(类)repartee•retort=debate•issue 灵巧的反驳•反驳=正式辩论•辩论(种属)
(同)back answer, comeback, riposte

repatriate [] v. 遣返(to restore or return to the country of origin or citizenship)
(类)repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification 遣返•移民=废止•批准 (反义)

repeal [] v. n. 撤销,废除(法律)(to rescind or annul by authoritative act; to revoke or
abrogate by legislative enactment)
(类)repatriate•emigration=repeal•ratification 废除遣返回国•移民出境=废止•批准(反义)
(反)repeal ◆ authorization 废除 ◆ 授权
(同)revoke , dismantle, recall, rescind, reverse
(记)peal(大声鸣响) 参考:appeal 呼吁

repel [] vt. 抵制,排斥(repulse;resist)使厌恶(to cause aversion in • disgust)
(类)repellent•attract=ephemeral•endure 令人厌恶的无有吸引力=短暂的无耐久力(反义)
【注:repellent :arousing aversion or disgust:repulsive 令人厌恶的】
(反)court ◆ repel intentionally 向…献殷勤 ◆ 有意排斥
entrancing ◆ repelling 使人入神的 ◆ 使厌恶
winsome ◆ repelling 迷人的 ◆ 使人讨厌的
(例)foul words and frowns must not repel a lover. 邪恶的语言和反对不一定击退一个爱人。
(记)pel(推)联想:往外推—>排斥;参考:propel 推进,驱使

repertoire [] n. 预备上映的剧目列表(a list or supply of dramas, operas, pieces, or parts
prepared to perform)
(类)palette•color=repertoire•play 调色板上的众多颜色:颜色=剧目:剧本(组成)
repertoire•performance=manifest•cargo=agenda•meeting
剧目列表•表演=运货单•货物=议程•会议(前者安排后者)

repine [] v. 抱怨,表达不满(to feel or express discontent or dejection)
(反)repine ◆ express joy 抱怨 ◆ 表示喜悦
(同)complain, fuss, murmur, wail, whine

replete [] adj. 饱满的(fully provided ;full)
(反)repletion ◆ want/ privation 充满 ◆ 短缺/缺乏
repletion ◆ emptiness 塞满 ◆ 清空
(例)the book is replete with delicious details. 这本书充满了有趣的细节。
(记)[re]重新+plete满饱满的(参考) repletion n..充满 complete adj.全部的 v.完成

reportage [] n. 报道, 报道的消息, 报告文学
(类)reportage•journalist=ridicule•satirist
新闻报道•新闻记者=讽刺的话•讽刺作家(人物及其工作产物)
(反)reportorial ◆ imaginative 新闻报道的 ◆ 虚构想象的(注:西方新闻报道以真实为本质)
(记)report报告+age报道(参考)reportorial报道的,记者的

repose [] v. n.. 休息,睡眠,静止(to lie at rest ;to take a rest)
(类)guilt•expiation=fatigue•repose 罪行•赎罪=疲劳•休息 (后者消除前者)
dehydrate•water=fatigue•repose 脱水•加水=使疲劳•使休息 (反义)
breach•continuity=disturb•repose 打破•连续性 =打乱•休息 (动宾关系)
(记)[re]重新+[pose]放下躺下去休息

reprehend [] v. 谴责,责难(to voice disapproval of ;censure)
(类)lamentable•pity=reprehensible•censure=despicable•contempt
可悲的应该怜悯=应该谴责的应该责难=可鄙的应该鄙视
censure•blameless=approbation•reprehensible
责难•无可责难的=嘉许•应该谴责的
(同)criticize, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, reprobate
(记)prehend(抓住)抓住你的问题不放谴责
参考:prehension 抓住,理解;comprehend vt. 领会, 理解, 包括;apprehend 理解,忧虑

repress [] v.镇压(to put down by force)抑制(to hold in by self-control)
(反)unrepressed ◆ restrained 未受抑制的 ◆ 受限制的
repress ◆ foster 压制 ◆ 鼓励
(记)press(压)(参考)repressed adj.被压抑的repressive adj.镇压的,抑制的

reprieve [•v] n. 缓刑,暂缓(to delay the punishment of a condemned prisoner)
(类)reprieve•punishment=moratorium•activity缓刑是暂缓惩罚=延迟是暂停活动
【注:moratorium :a suspension of activity 延迟,延期】
(记)[re]重新+[prieve] 抓(从刑场)抓回来缓刑

reproach [] n./v. 责备,耻辱(an expression of rebuke or disapproval)
(反)above reproach ◆ nefarious/scurvy/culpable 不应受责备的 ◆ 极恶的/下流的/该责备的
irreproachable ◆ opprobrious 无可指责的 ◆ 应受责备的
(同)rebuke, admonishment, admonition, chiding, reprimand, reproof
(记)proach(靠近) 参考:approach 接近,方法

reprobate [] v. 谴责,指责 n. 堕落者,道德败坏的人
(类)reprobate•misbehave=sycophant•fawn
堕落的人•行为不端=拍马者•谄媚 (人物典型特征)
objectivity•partisan=temperance•reprobate
客观性•党派性团伙=节制•堕落者(后者缺乏前者)
reprobate ◆ righteous individual 堕落的人 ◆ 正直的个人
(同)criticize, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, reprehend
(记)[re]反+[prob]赞扬与赞扬相反谴责,指责;参考:approbation(赞扬)

reproof [] n. 谴责,责备(criticism for a fault • rebuke)
(类)castigation•reproof=denunciation•denial=loathing•dislike=soaking•damp
严厉谴责•谴责=公开驳斥•否定=讨厌•不喜欢=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
(反)accolade ◆ reproof 赞扬 ◆ 斥责
(同)rebuke, admonishment, admonition, chiding, rap, reprimand, reproach

reprove [] v. 责备,申斥(to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent;to
express disapproval of:censure)
(类)pretense•deceive=admonition•reprove 虚假,伪装•欺骗=警告•责备(目的)
reprove•reprimand=blame•censure 责备:严厉训斥=责备:严厉批评(程度)
(同)admonish, , chide, lesson, monish, rebuke, reprimand, reproach
(例)his teacher reproved him for talking in class. 他的老师责备他上课说话。

reptile [] n.爬虫动物, 卑鄙的人
(类)lizard•reptile=orange•fruit=finch•bird=aspen•tree=eagle•bird
蜥蜴•爬行动物=橘子•水果=雀类•鸟=白杨•树=鹰•鸟 (种属)
(记)rept(爬)参考:surreptitious鬼鬼祟祟的

repudiate [•] vt. 否认,拒绝承认,拒绝接受,拒付
(反)repudiate ◆ espouse/uphold 否认 ◆ 赞成/支持
(同)decline, disapprove, dismiss, refuse, reject, reprobate, spurn
(例)repudiate a charge 否认一项指控

repugnant [] adj. 令人厌恶的(exciting aversion);不一致的(incompatible)
(类)odious•repugnance=menacing•fear
可憎的•厌恶=恐吓的•害怕(人物典型特征)
cogent•convince=repugnant•repel
使人信服的•使信服=令人厌恶的•使厌恶(人物典型特征)
unpleasant•repugnant=scanty•meager
令人不快的•令人厌恶的=不足的•缺乏的(同义)
(反)repugnance ◆ affinity 厌恶 ◆ 吸引人
(同)abhorrent, invidious, obnoxious, repellent, revulsive
(例)The idea of moving again became repugnant to her. 再次搬家的想法令她讨厌。
(记)pugn(打)参考:pugilist 拳击家

repulse [] v. n. 厌恶,令人厌恶;驱逐,击退
(反)captivate ◆ repulse 迷住 ◆ 厌恶
court ◆ repulse intentionally 讨好 ◆ 厌恶
entrance ◆ repulse 吸引人 ◆ 令人厌恶
repulsion ◆ attraction 排斥 ◆ 吸引
(同)rebuff, rebut, repel, ward(off)
(记)pulse(推) 驱逐,击退

repute [] n. 名声,名誉(the character or status commonly ascribed to one)
(反)repute ◆ lack of distinction 声望 ◆ 没有名望
(同)fame , celebrity, notoriety, renown, reputation

requite [] vt. 酬劳,报答(to make return for • repay)
(反)requite ◆ leave unpaid 酬谢 ◆ 未付款的

requisite [] adj. 需要的, 必不可少的, 必备的(essential, necessary)
(反)requisite ◆ unnecessary 必不可少的 ◆ 不必要的

rescind [] v.废除,取消(abrogate;cancel)
(类)rescind • law = withdraw • candidacy 废除•法律=取消•候选人资格
(反)rescind ◆ institute/ levy 废除,取消 ◆ 创立/征用
rescission ◆ enactment 废除,取消 ◆ 设定,制定
(同)revoke , dismantle, lift, recall, repeal, reverse
(例)the company refused to rescind the order. 这家公司拒绝取消定货。
(记)谐音:来新的。联想:来新的当然要废除旧的。

reserved [] adj. 收敛的,内敛的,话不多的(restrained in words and actions)
(类)gregarious•reserved=furtive•open=flamboyant•reserved
爱社交的•收敛的=秘密的•公开的=炫耀多话的•收敛的 (反义)
【注:flamboyant•marked by striking elaborate 说话非常冗长罗嗦
reserved •restrained in words and actions 在语言和行动方面有所收敛;性格内敛】
(反)expansive ◆ reserved 健谈的 ◆ 说话不多的
qualified ◆ unreserved 受限制的 ◆ 无受限制的

residue [] n. 剩余物(something that remains after a part is taken, separated, or designated)
(类)remainder•subtraction=residue•evaporation 剩余由减去得到=剩余物由蒸发得到
(同)remnant,remainder, remains, residual

resign [] v.辞(职)(give up one's office:quit),听之任之(to accept something as
inevitable:submit)
(类)abdicate•throne=resign•office 放弃(权力)•王权=辞职•职位(动词及其作用对象)
(派)resigned adj.逆来顺受的,顺从的

resilience [] n.弹力,在逆境中调整的能力(an ability to recover from or adjust easily to
change)
(反)resilience ◆ unable to adjust/ unable to recover
在逆境中调整的能力 ◆ 不能调整/不能复原
resilience ◆ inelasticity 弹力 ◆ 无弹性
(记)sile(跳)参考:resilient 有弹性的

resin [`] n.树脂
(类)resin•tree=gum•rubber plant 树脂:树=橡胶:橡胶树 (产品及其来源)

resolute [•t] adj. 坚决的,刚毅的,毅然的(marked by firm determination • resolved)
(类)malleable•shape=irresolute•opinion
有延展性的•形状=犹豫不决的•主张(形容词修饰名词)
indubitable•question=resolute•sway
不容置疑的•怀疑=坚决的•动摇(难以关系)
resolute•dissuade=obstreperous•control
坚决的难以劝阻=任性的难以控制
resoluteness•will = zeal•conviction
坚定的意志•意志=强烈的兴趣•信念(程度)
(反)daunt ◆ make resolute 使气馁 ◆ 使坚定
jittery ◆ resolute 极度不稳定的 ◆ 坚决的
(同)decided , decisive, determined, faithful, ardent, loyal, steadfast

resonant [] adj.(声音)洪亮的,共鸣的(echoing; resounding; deep and full in sound)
(类)full-bodied•flavor=resonant•sound 浓郁的味道=洪亮的声音
(反)resonant ◆ muffled 声音洪亮的 ◆ 声音压抑的
(同)consonant, plangent, resounding, ringing, rotund
(例)A deep resonant voice rang out 一个浑厚洪亮的声音唱出。
(记)[re]回+[son]声音有回声的响亮的(参考)dissonant不和谐的

resourceful [] adj. 策略的,机智的,资源丰富的
(类)resourceful•inventiveness=philanthropic•geniality
机智的•创造性=博爱的•友好,亲切(人物典型特征)

respite [] n. 间歇,休息,暂缓 a period of temporary delay;an interval of rest or relief
(类)fast•eat=respite•labor 绝食•吃=休息•劳动(反义)
plateau•change=respite•activity 稳定时期或状态•变化=休息•活动(反义)
moratorium•activity =respite•labor 中止活动•活动=暂缓•劳动(反义)
respite•labor=interim•concert 间歇•劳动=间歇•音乐会 (事物及其特殊部分)
(记)区别:despite 不管,尽管

respire [] v.呼吸(breathe; specifically:to inhale and exhale air successively)
(类)lung•respire=tooth•masticate 肺•呼吸=牙齿•咀嚼(器官作用)
(记)spire (呼吸)参考:spiracle 通气孔

resplendent [] adj.华丽的,辉煌的(shining brilliantly)
(类)bootless•futility=effulgent•resplendence
无用的•无用=光彩照人的•辉煌 (正特)
bravura•performance=resplendent•appearance
辉煌的•表演=华丽的•外表(修饰)
(反)resplendence ◆ lackluster 辉煌 ◆ 暗淡
resplendent ◆ dull 辉煌的 ◆ 没有光泽的,暗淡的
(同)splendid, glorious, gorgeous, magnificent, sublime, superb
(例)Meadows are resplendent with wildflowers.草地被野花点缀得绚烂多姿。
(记)splend(发光)参考:splendid 壮丽的,辉煌的splendor 光彩,杰出

responsive [] adj. 做出响应的(giving response)敏感的(quick to respond
appropriately or sympathetically)
(反)responsive ◆ dispassionate 做出响应的 ◆ 无动于衷的
responsive ◆ feelingless 敏感的 ◆ 无感觉的

restive [] adj. 急躁的(marked by impatience);倔强的(stubbornly resisting control)
(类)incogitant•thoughtful=restive•calm=piddling•considerable=keen•obtuse
无思虑的•深思的=急躁的•冷静的=不重要的•重要的=敏锐的•钝的 (反义)
restive•calmness=impeccable•flaw=impetuous •patience
急躁的•冷静=没有缺点的•缺点=冲动的•耐心(缺乏关系)
(反)restive ◆ calm/imperturbable 急躁的 ◆ 冷静的/沉着的
restiveness ◆ contentment 倔强 ◆ 满足
【注:前者是顽固拒绝被控制,后者知足安于现状。】

restless [] adj.得不到休息的, 不平静的
(类)restless•serenity=deferential•insolent 不平静的•平静=恭谨的•无礼 (反义)

restrain [] vt. 阻止,限制,使受控制
(类)temperate•restrain=tenacious•persist 有节制的•限制=顽强的•坚持(形动同义)
rakish• restraint=slothful•assiduity 放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•刻苦(反面特征)
(反)restrain ◆ release 阻止 ◆ 释放
fervid ◆ restrained 热心的 ◆ 受阻的
unrepressed ◆ restrained 未受抑制的 ◆ 受限制的
theatrical ◆ restraint 放纵的展示的 ◆ 抑制,克制
注:restraint :n. the state of being restrained 抑制,克制
(记) straint本身是一个词:v.拉紧,扯紧 n.拉力,张力

resurgence [] n. 复活,重新活跃,复兴
(反)resurgence ◆ waning vitally 复兴 ◆ 衰退
resurgent ◆ in decline 复兴 ◆ 衰退
(同)revival, rebirth, renaissance, resurrection
(记)surg(浪)参考:insurgent起义的

resuscitate [] v.使复活,使苏醒
(反)extinct ◆ resuscitated 灭绝的 ◆ 复活的
resuscitation ◆ enervation 复兴 ◆ 虚弱
(同)restore , revive

retainer [] n. 家仆(a person attached or owing service to a household ; especially:servant)
(类)retainer•retinue=witch•coven
家仆•一群家仆=女巫•女巫团(由几个女巫组成的聚合)
【注:retinue •a group of retainers or attendants】
(反)retain ◆ discard 保留 ◆ 抛弃

retaliate [] v. 报复,反击(to repay(as an injury)in kind)
(类)remuneration•service=retaliation•injury 酬劳:服务=报复:伤害 (因果关系)
(同)reciprocate, recompense, requite, return
(记)tali 谐音“大力”联想:大力反击。

retard [] vt. 妨碍,延迟,迟缓
(类)divert•shunt=retard•brake
转移•转轨=妨碍•刹车(动作及其目的)
(反)retard ◆ catalyze/ expedite/ precipitate 妨碍 ◆ 促进/加速/促进
retard ◆ speed up 使减速 ◆ 加速
(记)tard(迟钝) 参考:tardy行动慢的,迟到的

reticent [] adj.沉默不语的(inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech• reserved)
(类)reticent•talk=abstemious•gorge
沉默不语的•谈话=有节制地•狼吞虎咽(反面特征)
(反)reticent ◆ loquacious/ vociferous/effusive/talktive
沉默不语的 ◆ 多话的/叫喊的,吵闹的/溢于言表的/多话的
(同)silent, close, close-lipped, closemouthed, reserved, taciturn
(记)ticen 谐音提神。联想:这个人总沉默寡言,需要给他提提神。

retort [] vi. 反驳,回嘴 n. 机智回答(a quick, witty, or cutting reply; especially:one that turns
back or counters the first speaker's words)
(类)repartee•retort=debate•issue
巧妙的回答•机智的应答=论点•论点(在这里debate是名词)
【注:repartee•:a quick and witty reply】
(记)tort(扭)参考:tortuous 蜿蜒的 distort歪曲

retouch [] vt. vi. 润饰,修正(to rework in order to improve)
(类)revise•manuscript=retouch•picture 修订•手稿=润饰•画 (动宾关系)

retract [] vt.vi. 缩回,收回,否认
(类)misunderstood•clarify=erroneous•retract 误解•澄清=错误的•收回(动宾关系)
retract•statement = repeal•legislation 收回•声明=撤销•法律(动宾)
(反)tender ◆ retract 提交 ◆ 收回 【注: tender:offer formally】
(同)recede , retreat, retrograde

retrench [] v. 节省,削减(cut down, reduce)
(类)retrench•expense=decelerate•speed 节省•开支=减速•速度 (动宾关系)
attenuate•force=retrenchment•money 减轻•压力=削减•开支 (动宾关系)
(反)retrench ◆ enlarge/expand 削减 ◆ 放大/扩大
(同)shorten, abbreviate, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back

list 29 retribution ------ scan
retribution [] n. 报偿;惩罚; 报复(recompense, reward;punishment)
(类)kidnap•detainment=extortion•retribution 绑架•拘留=勒索•报偿(非法与正常)
(同)retaliation, reprisal, revenge, vengeance

retrograde [] adj.倒退的(go backwards; recede; degenerate; deteriorate)
(反)retrograde ◆ progressive 倒退的 ◆ 前进的
(记)[retro]向后+[grade]步伐向后走倒退的

retrospective [] adj. 追想的,回顾的(looking back on the past)
(反)retrospective ◆ anticipatory 回顾的 ◆ 预想的
(例)a retrospective report;a retrospective exhibition
(记)[retro]向后+[spect]看回顾

revelry [] n. 狂欢 , 喧闹的作乐(noisy partying or merrymaking)
(反)revelry ◆ mournfulness 狂欢 ◆ 悲哀
(例)They were exhausted after the night of revelry.
(参考)revel陶醉,狂欢

revenge [] n. v. 报仇,复仇,报复
(类)mercenary•money=vindictive•revenge
惟利是图的•钱=报复性的•报复(人物追求对象)
(同)avenge, redress, venge, vindicate
(记)[re]回+[venge]惩罚报复

revere [] v. 尊崇,尊敬(to show devoted deferential honor to)
(类)reverence•respect=avidity•enthusiasm 尊敬•敬重=热望•热心 (同义)
reverent•idolater=trusting•dupe
尊敬的•偶像崇拜者=信任的•易上当的人(后者是前者的过分者)
elegiac•sorrow=devotional•reverence
哀歌体的•悲哀=虔诚的•尊敬(人物典型特征)
exemplary•imitation=reverent•deference
可仿效的•模仿=值得尊敬的•尊重 (因果关系)
【注:reverent:expressing or characterized by reverence • worshipful 尊贵的,可敬的】
(反)revere ◆ jape at 尊敬 ◆ 嘲弄
revere ◆ disparage/disgrace 尊敬 ◆ 贬损/玷污
impudent ◆ reverent 无礼的 ◆ 尊敬的
reverence ◆ despise 尊敬 ◆ 轻视
irreverent ◆ respectful 不尊敬的 ◆ 尊敬的
(同)adore, reverence, venerate, worship
(例)he is revered for his wisdom.

revise [] vt. 校订,修正(to make a new, amended, improved, or up-to-date version of)
(类)revise•manuscript=retouch•picture 修订•手稿=润饰•画(动宾关系)

revive [] vi. 复活,恢复意识
(类)revert•prior=revive•conscious回复:原先的=苏醒:有意识的 (行为及其结果)
(反)wither ◆ revive 枯萎 ◆ 复苏
lull ◆ revive 使平静 ◆ 恢复精神, 复兴
(同)restore, resuscitate, revivify, recall, reestablish, reinstate
(例)He revived his hope of escape.
(记)[re]再+[vive]活泼复活 参考:vivid 鲜明的,生动的

revoke [] vt.撤回, 废除, 宣告无效(to annul by recalling or taking back)
(反)empower ◆ revoke the authority 授权与 ◆ 废除权威
(记)[re]反+[voke]喊反着喊宣告无效 参考:revocation废弃,取消

ribald [] adj. 举止.言语粗鲁的(crude,offensive)
(类)ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct 举止粗鲁:得体的=曲折的:直接的 (反义)
(反)ribald ◆ seemly / proper 举止粗鲁 ◆ 得体的/恰当的
(同)crude, offensive
(例)ribald language
(记)[rib]肋骨+[bald]露骨言语粗鲁

rickety [] adj.摇摆的(shaky:in unsound physical condition)
(类)cloth•ragged=furniture•rickety
布•破旧的=家具•摇晃的(形容词修饰名词)
(例)a rickety old chair

rider [] n. 附件a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object
(类) rider•bill=endorsement•policy 附件•议案=签名•保险合同书 (整体与部分)
【注:policy :a writing whereby a contract of insurance is made】

ridicule [] n .v. 嘲笑,笑柄
(类)satire•ridicule=elegy•sorrow
讽刺文学•嘲笑=哀歌•悲伤(作品表达情感)
reportage•journalist=ridicule•satirist
新闻报道•记者=讽刺的话•讽刺作家(人物及其工作对象)
(反)sublime ◆ ridiculous 崇高的 ◆ 荒谬的
(同)deride, lout, mock, scout, taunt
(例)ridiculed him for his inability to perform the feat.
(派)ridiculous adj.可笑的,荒谬的

rife [] adj. 流行的(prevalent);丰富的(copiously supplied)
(反)sparse ◆ rife 稀少的 ◆ 丰富的
(同)prevalent, regnant, abounding, overflowing, replete, swarming, teeming, thronged
(例)rife with rumors 谣言四起 (比较)rifle 步枪 rift 裂缝

rift [] n.裂缝,离间(a clear space or interval)
(类)faultfinding•criticize=rift•breach 挑剔:批评=裂缝:破裂 (同义)
(反)rift ◆ reconciliation 离间 ◆ 调和

rile [] vt. 搅浑浊,惹怒,使焦急(to make agitated and angry:upset)
(反)rile ◆ appease/conciliate/make calm/ placate 激怒 ◆ 平息/安慰/使平静/安抚
(同)upset,roil,irritate

ripen [] v. 使成熟
(类)ripen • maturity = harden • solidity 使成熟:成熟=使变硬:坚固
ripen•mature=drain•empty 使成熟•成熟=耗尽•清空 (行为及其结果)

riot [] n.v.喧闹,打破平静(public violence, tumult, or disorder)
(反)sedate ◆ riot 使镇静 ◆ 打破宁静
(例)The new comedy is a riot 这部新的戏剧很喧闹。
(派)riotous 暴动的,蛮横的

rite [] n.宗教仪式,仪式(a ceremonial act or action)
(反)rite ◆ improvised act 仪式 ◆ 即兴活动
(参考)ritual仪式,例行习惯

rive [] vt. 撕开(to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces ;rend)
(反)rive ◆ unite 撕开 ◆ 联合
riven ◆ intact 撕开的 ◆ 完整无缺的
(同)tear , cleave, rend, rip, split

riveting [] adj. 吸引人的, 极迷人的(to attract and hold(as the attention)completely)
(反)vapid ◆ riveting 索然无味的 ◆ 吸引人的
(记)[rivet] 铆钉+[ing]好像被铆钉铆上了使人目不转睛的

rivulet [] n.小河, 小溪(a small stream)
(类)pittance•allowance=rivulet•stream 少量供应•定量供应=小溪•溪流 (小与正常)
(记)[revu]=[river]河+[let]小小河

robust [] adj. 精力充沛的, 强壮的,健康的
(反)robust ◆ sickness 健康 ◆ 疾病
decrepit ◆ robust 衰老的 ◆ 强壮的
(同)flourishing, healthy, strong, full-bodied
(记)乐百氏的英文商标。联想:喝乐百氏矿泉水让人强壮。

rodent [] n.啮齿类动物(如鼠等)
(类)kangaroo•marsupial=squirrel•rodent 袋鼠•有袋动物=松鼠•啮齿类动物 (种属)

roil [] v. 搅浑,激怒(to make turbid by stirring up the sediment or dregs of)
(反)roil ◆ clarify/appease/settle 搅浑,激怒 ◆ 澄清/安抚/使平静,澄清
(例)roiled the brook with his splashings

roister [] v. 喧闹作乐(to engage in noisy revelry:carous)
(类)roisterer•carouse=recluse•withdraw 喧闹作乐的人狂欢作乐=隐居者隐居(撤退)

rookie [] n.新兵;新手(recruit; also:novice)
(类)professional•rookie=soldier•recruit 专家:新手=士兵:新兵(正常:新)
(同)novice, apprentice, beginner, colt, freshman, neophyte, tyro

roster [] n.值勤表,花名册(a roll or list of personnel)
(类)roster•staff=obituary•death 花名册•职员=讣告•死亡(事物及其记录内容)

rostrum [] n. 讲坛,演讲坛(a stage for public speaking)
(类)rostrum•orator=bench•judge 讲坛•演讲者=法官席•法官(人及其行为场所)

rouse [] v. 激起,煽动 (to stir up:excite),唤起,唤醒
(反)mollify ◆ rouse 平息 ◆ 激起
quell ◆ rouse 镇压 ◆ 煽动

royalty [] 王权(royal status or power);版税 (a payment to an author or composer for each copy of a work sold or to an inventor for each item sold under a patent)
(类)royalty • payment = subpoena • writ 版税•付款=传票•书面命令 (种属)

rubicund [] adj. 红润的,透红的(ruddy)
(反)rubicund ◆ pale/ pallid/wan 红润的 ◆ 苍白的
(同)ruddy, florid, flush, flushed, full-blooded, sanguine
(记)[rud]=[red]红的(参考)ruddy (脸色)红润的

rudimentary [] adj.基础的(fundamental)原始的(of a primitive kind), 未发展
的(very imperfectly developed or represented only by a vestige)
(反)rudimentary ◆ full developed/fully realized 未发展的 ◆ 完全发展的/完全实现的
(同)elementary, beginning, elemental, rudimental
(例)The equipment of these past empire-builders was rudimentary
古代建设者的工具是原始的。
He had only a rudimentary formal education 他仅受过小学教育。
the rudimentary tail of a hyrax 蹄兔未发展的尾巴。
(记)rudi=rude原始的,粗鲁的未发展的(参考)rudiments基础知识,入门 erudite博学的

rue [] n.后悔,遗憾(to feel penitence, remorse, or regret for)
(类)longing•pine=remorse•rue 渴望•渴望=懊悔•后悔 (同义)
(反)rue ◆ satisfaction 遗憾 ◆ 满足
rueful ◆ impenitent 后悔的 ◆ 不悔悟的
(同)regret, deplore, repent.

ruffle [] n.. 皱褶, 生气 v.使皱,使生气
(类)hem•garment=ruffle•shirt=molding•cabinet
摺边•衣服=皱褶•衬衣=装饰线条•橱柜(事物及其特殊部分)
(反)preen ◆ ruffle 抚平 ◆ 弄皱

ruminate [] vt. vi. 反刍(to chew repeatedly for an extended period)沉思(to go over
in the mind repeatedly and often casually or slowly)
(类)museful •ruminative = lamentable •plaintive 沉思的•沉思的=哀伤的•悲哀的(同义)
(反)ruminative ◆ unreflective 沉思的 ◆ 不思考的
(同)ponder , chaw, deliberate, muse, revolve, roll, turn over
(记)rumi 谐音:入迷 联想:沉思以至于入迷。

rumple [] n.皱纹,皱褶(fold,wrinkle) v.使皱,弄皱
(反)glaze ◆ rumple 使表面光滑 ◆ 弄皱
rumple ◆ preen 弄皱 ◆ 打扮
(同)crumple , crinkle, rimple, wrinkle
(记)[rum]弄皱+ple

run [] n. 连续演出(an unbroken course of performances or showings)
(类)journal•entries=run•performance
日志•记载条目=连续演出•表演(组成关系)
journal•entry=run•performance
期刊是一系列记载=一系列表演(是一系列)•表演(个体组成团体关系)

rupture [] v. 打破;打碎(to part by violence)
(反)rupture ◆ remain unbreakable 打破 ◆ 保持不碎
(同)breach , break, fissure, fracture, rent, rift, schism
(记)[rupt]断+ure破裂 参考:corrupt 腐败的,被破坏的

ruse [] n.诡计(trick to deceive; stratagem)
(类)paroxysm•sudden=ruse•deceived
突发•突然的=诡计•欺骗的 (事物及其人物典型特征)

rustic [] adj. 乡村的,纯朴的, 粗俗的(lacking in social graces or polish)
(反)rustic ◆ polished/urbane 粗俗的 ◆ 文雅的
(记)[rust]乡村+[ic]乡村的(参考)rusticate过乡村生活

rustle [] v. (美口语)偷牛(马)
(类)plagiarism•ideas=rustling•cattle 剽窃•想法,思想=偷牛马•牛 (动作及其行为对象)
(记)[rustle] 沙沙声,匆忙偷(参考)hustle 快做

sabbatical [] adj. 安息日的,周期性休息的
(类)sabbatical•leave=flattering•infatuation
周期性休息的•休假=讨人喜欢的•令人痴迷之物(后者的正面特征是前者)
(记)sab(谐音:赛)+ bat(球棒,棒球)→赛棒球 联想:美国人在休息日最喜欢赛棒球。

sabotage [] vt. 妨害,破坏
(类)saboteur •disrupt=apologist•defend 破坏者•分裂=辩解者•防护(人物特征行为)
sabotage•subvertness=bull•intimidation 阴谋破坏•颠覆=暴力强迫•胁迫(行为目标)
(同)subvert, undermine, wreck
(例)sabotaged his opponent's campaign with rumors and smears
(记)[sabot]木鞋,引申为践踏妨害,破坏(参考)saboteur n.破坏者

saccharine [] n. 糖精
(类)sugar•saccharine=butter•margarin 糖•糖精=黄油•人造奶油(人工加工关系)
(反)acerbity ◆ saccharin 酸 ◆ 糖精

sacrilege [] n. 亵渎圣物,冒渎,悖理逆天的行为
(反)sacrilege ◆ respect/reverent 亵渎 ◆ 尊敬
(同)profanation, blasphemy, desecration, violation
(记)[sacri]神圣+[leg]选择, 拿拿走神圣亵渎圣物

saddle [] n. 鞍, 鞍状物 v. 压抑,负担(oppress,burden)
(反)saddle ◆ unload 是负担 ◆ 卸下
(同)charge, cumber, encumber, lade, load, task, tax, weigh, weight

safeguard [] n. 保护措施,护照
(类)hedge•loss=quarantine•contamination=safeguard•accident
阻碍物•损失=隔离•传染=保护•事件(防止关系)
(记)safe安全+guard保护保护措施

sagacious [] adj.聪明的,睿智的(of keen and farsighted penetration and judgment)
(类)prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton=turncoat•constancy
谨慎•大胆=聪明•傻子=变化•不变(缺乏关系)
miser•stingy=sage•judicious 吝啬鬼•小气=贤人•明智的 (人物典型行为)
sage•judgement=knave•deceive 贤哲•判断=骗子•行骗 (人物典型行为)
sage•wisdom=philanthropist•benevolence 贤哲•英明=慈善家•善行(人物典型行为)
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton 敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
constant•stalwart=judiciousness•sage 不变•坚定的=明智•贤明的(名形同义)
(反)sagacious ◆ without wisdom/puerile/folly/fatuous
睿智 ◆ 没有机智/幼稚的/愚蠢/笨拙的
(同)wise, discerning,knowledgeable, shrewd, astute, perspicacious
(例)sagacious judge of character
(记)[sag] 敏锐(参考)sagacity•n.聪慧sage•adj.睿智的.n.贤哲

salient [] adj.显著的,突出的(standing out conspicuously:prominent)
(类)salient•ignore=incomprehensible•understand 显著的不能忽略=不可理解的不能理解
subtle•ignore=salient•observe 微妙的东西容易被忽略=明显的东西容易被观察
(反)salient ◆ unconspicuous 显著的 ◆ 不明显的
(同)noticeable, arresting, conspicuous, prominent
(例)similar tot prohibition, but there are a couple of salient differences
(记)比较 silent 沉默的 把si换成sa 意思变成正相反

salmon [] n. 大马哈鱼
(类)salmon•ichthyologist=chameleon•herpetologist
大马哈鱼•鱼类学者=变色龙•爬虫学者

salubrious [] adj . 有益健康的(favorable to or promoting health or well-being)
(类)instructive•comprehension=salubrious•health
教育性的有利于理解=有益健康的有利于健康
【注:instructive:carrying a lesson • enlightening】
virulent/deleterious ◆ salubrious 有毒的/ 有害的 ◆ 有益健康的
(反)insalubrious ◆ wholesome 不健康的 ◆ 健康的
salubrious ◆ baneful/deleterious/noxious/unhealthy/ squalor/morbid
有益健康的 ◆ 有害的/有害的/有毒的/不健康的/肮脏的/病态的
insalubrity ◆ healthfulness 有碍健康 ◆ 有益健康
(同)healthful, healthy, hygienic, salutary,wholesome
(记)[salu]健康的 参考:salutary 有益的,有益健康的

salutary [] adj. 有益的,有益健康的(promoting a beneficial effect or health)
(反)salutary ◆ unhealthy/deleterious 有益健康的 ◆ 不健康的/有害的
(同)healthful, healthy, hygienic, salubrious, wholesome,beneficial

salutation [] n. 致敬,打招呼(表示欢迎和礼貌)
(反)salutation ◆ deportation 欢迎 ◆ 放逐
(记)[salu] 健康的,向别人问候健康致敬

salvage [] v.(从灾难中)抢救,海上救助
(反)salvage ◆ abandon 救助 ◆ 放弃
(例)salvaged the torpedoed vessel
(记)salv=save 救 派生:salvable•可抢救的

salve [] n. 药膏,抚慰剂v. 减轻,缓和(quiet, assuage)
(类)placebo•innocuous=salve•unctuous 镇定剂•无害的=药膏•滑的(事物典型特征)
(反)salve ◆ irritant 抚慰剂 ◆ 刺激物
(例)give him a raise in salary to salve his feelings 提高他的薪水来安抚他
(记)[salv] 救助从痛苦中解救抚慰,减轻,缓和

sanctify [] vt. 使神圣,敬神,使成为神圣之物
(反)desecrate ◆ sanctify 亵渎 ◆ 敬神
(记)sanct(神圣)参考:sanctuary 圣堂,避难所 sanctum 圣地,密室

sanctuary n. 避难所(a place of refuge and protection)
(类)sanctuary•protetion=utopia•perfection 避难所求保护=乌托邦求完美

sanction [] v. 批准, 同意,认可(to give effective or authoritative approval or consent to)
(反)dismiss ◆ sanction 开除 ◆ 批准
(同)approve,certify,endorse
(记)sanct(神圣)sanction 原指教会法令,后来转义为批准,同意

sanctimonious [] adj. 假装虔诚的(hypocritically pious)
(类)sanctimonious•devoted=unctuous•earnest 假装虔诚的•虔诚的=假殷勤•热心(褒贬)

sand [] v. 磨光 n. 沙
(类)varnish•glossy =sand•smooth 涂清漆•有光泽=磨光•光滑(行为及其结果)
sand•dune=word•sentence 沙•沙丘=词语•句子(组成关系)

sanguine [] adj. 红润的(red)充满希望的(hopeful)愉快的(cheerful)
(反)sanguine ◆ despondent/hopeless 充满希望的 ◆ 失望的/无希望的
sanguine ◆ morose 愉快的 ◆ 郁闷的
(记)sanguine(本义血)引申:血色,满面红光,当然心情好(参考)sanguinary 有血的,血
腥的

sanitation [] n.卫生,卫生设施
(类)censorship•information=sanitation•disease 审查制度•消息=卫生•疾病(防止关系)
(反)noxious ◆ sanitary 有毒的 ◆ 卫生的
【注:sanitary adj.有关卫生和清洁的 sanitary napkin 卫生巾sanitary ware 卫生瓷】

sap [] vt. 削弱(weaken)n.树液,体液,活力(bodily health and vigor)
(反) sap ◆ bolster/fortify/invigorate 削弱 ◆ 支持/ 增强/ 鼓舞
(同)attenuate, blunt, cripple, debilitate, disable, enfeeble, undermine
(记)sap (树液,活力)参考:sapless adj.缺乏活力的 sapling 树苗,小树,年轻人

sapient [] adj. 贤明的,有洞察力的(possessing or expressing great sagacity)
(反)sapient ◆ foolish 聪明 ◆ 愚蠢
(记)sap(活力)智慧有智慧的人是贤明的,有洞察力的(参考)sapience n.贤明

sarcasm [] n. 讽刺,轻蔑(cutting ironic remark; scornful remarks)
(反)sarcasm ◆ praise 讽刺 ◆ 表扬
(参考)sarcastic adj. 讽刺的,辛辣的 sardonic adj. 讽刺的,嘲笑的

sartorial [] adj. 裁缝匠的,缝工的,裁缝的
(类)tonsorial•hair=sartorial•apparel 理发的•头发=裁缝的•衣服(工作对象)
(记)谐音:萨特。联想:哲学家萨特过去的出身是裁缝。

sate [seit] vt. 满足,充足,饮食过度(satisfy to the full; satisfy to excess; cloy)
(反)sate ◆ starve 饮食过度 ◆ 饿
(同)satiate, cloy, glut, gorge, stodge, surfeit

satiate [] v. 饱足,过分满足(to satisfy fully or to excess)
(类)satiated•food=saturated•moisture 饱满的•食物=饱和的•湿度(过分关系)
(反)satiate ◆ tantalize 满足 ◆ 挑逗
(同)cloy, glut, gorge, jade, sate, stodge, surfeit
(例)tried to titillate rather than satiate his readers' interest 试图挑逗而不是满足读者的兴趣。
(记)sat (满)参考: sate v. 使心满意足 satiety n. 饱足,满足

satire [] n.讽剌作品(a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or
scorn);讽刺(trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly)
(类)panegyric•eulogize=lampoon•satirize 赞美诗•颂扬=讽刺文•讽刺(事物功用)
satire•ridicule=elegy•sorrow 讽剌作品•嘲笑=挽歌•悲哀(事物表达情感)
satire•lampoon=diligence•effort 讽刺•讽刺=勤奋•努力 (同义)
limerick•poem=lampoon•satire 打油诗•诗=讽刺文•讽刺作品 (种属)
【注:lampoon=satire(讽刺作品)specifically • a harsh satire usually directed against
an individual 嘲讽某个个人的强烈的讽刺作品】

saturate [] v. 使饱和, 浸透(full of moisture•made thoroughly wet)
(类)satiated•food=saturated•moisture 饱满的•食物=饱和的•湿度(程度)
small•minuscule=moist•saturated 小•微小=湿的•饱和的(程度)
obliterate•remove=saturated•wet 删除•除去=湿透的•湿 (同义)
saturated•wet=peeved•annoy 湿透的•弄湿=恼怒的•骚挠 (后者引起前者)
(同)soak , drench, impregnate, sodden, sop, souse, steep, waterlog
(参考)saturated adj. 饱和的,渗透的,深颜色的(类比)

saturnine [] adj. 忧郁的,阴沉的 of a gloomy or surly disposition
(类)despondent•depressed=saturnine•gloomy 意气消沉•沮丧的=忧郁的•忧伤的(同义)
(反)saturnine ◆ ovial/genial 郁闷的 ◆ 欢乐的
(同)sullen, dour, gloomy, glum, morose, sulky, surly, ugly
(记)[saturn]土星土星上天天沙尘暴,所以那里的人性格都很忧郁。

saunter [] n./ v. 闲逛,漫步(to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner:stroll)
(类)prate•speak=saunter•walk 闲谈•说=漫步•走(闲散与正常)
(同)amble,drift,linger,stroll
(例)sauntered about the streets, stopping in at various shops
(记)saun 谐音“散”;联想:散步漫步,闲逛

savanna [] n. 平原(a treeless plain especially in Florida);草原(a tropical or
subtropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth)
(反)savanna ◆ slope 平原 ◆ 斜坡
(记)本词来自佛罗里达著名的“萨瓦纳平原”。

savant [] 博学之士,学者(a person of learning)
(反)savant ◆ unlearned person 博学之士 ◆ 没有学问的人
(记)谐音“斯文的”;联想:学者当然是斯文的。

savory adj. 美味的,可口的(appetizing to the taste or smell)
(类)mellifluous•sound=savory•taste 悦耳的•声音=美味的•味道(前者修饰后者)
(反)savory ◆ noisome 味好的 ◆ 难闻的

savvy [] n. 老练,机智(practical know-how)
(反)savvy ◆ simplicity 老练,机智 ◆ 幼稚
savvy ◆ tactlessness 老练,机智 ◆ 不老练
(同)shrewd, astucious, astute, perspicacious, sagacious
(记)[sav]=[sap]智慧(参考)savant n.博学之士,大学士

sawdust [] n. 锯屑 fine particles (as of wood) made by a saw in cutting
(类)soot•combustion=sawdust•woodcutting 烟灰•燃烧=锯屑•木雕
wood•sawdust=metal•filings 木头•锯屑=金属•銼屑

scabbard [] n. 鞘 v. 插入鞘中(a sheath for a sword, dagger, or bayonet)
(类)dagger•scabbard=pistol•holster 匕首•鞘=手枪•手枪皮套
(记)scab(疤)联想:鞘由皮革做成,表面粗糙象疤。参考:scabrous 粗糙的

scads [] n. 许多,大量(a large number or quantity)
(反)scads ◆ paucity 大量 ◆ 极小量
(例)scads of money ;scads of opportunities

scale [] n. 天平,秤盘;音阶
(类)gauge•pressure=scale•weight=yardstick•length
量规•压力=天平•重量=码尺•长度•(测量工具及其对象)
color•spectrum=tone•scale 颜色•光谱=音调•音阶 (连续的前者构成后者)
【注:scale 音阶 a graduated series of musical tones ;spectrum 光谱a continuum of color】

scalpel [] n.手术刀(a small straight thin-bladed knife used especially in surgery)
(类)tackiness•adhesive=sharpness•scalpel
粘•粘合剂=锋利•手术刀 (事物典型特征)
scalpel•surgeon=telescope•astronomer
手术刀•外科医生=望远镜•天文学家(工具与其使用者)
(记)[scalp]头皮刮头皮手术刀 参考:skull 头骨

scan [] vt. 分析韵律(to read or mark so as to show metrical structure)
(类)scan•metrical=parse•grammatical 分析韵律•(诗的)韵律的=分析语法•语法的

list 30 scant ------- sincere
scant [] adj. 不足的,缺乏的
(反)scant ◆ considerable 缺乏的 ◆ 相当多的
scanty ◆ voluminous/profuse/ myriad 缺乏的 ◆ 丰满的/极其丰富的/无数的
【注:scanty与scant都是形容词且同义。】
(同)short, deficient, inadequate, insufficient, scanty, scarce
(例)he's fat, and scant of breath

scathing [] adj. 严厉的(bitterly severe)
(反)scathing ◆ politely/ calmly complimentary 严厉的 ◆ 礼貌的(合作)/平静地称赞的
(同)caustic, mordant, trenchant
(例)a scathing condemnation
(记)sca 谐音“死卡”+thing(事情)联想:死卡事情当然是严厉了。

schism [] n. 分裂(division, separation),不一致(discord, disharmony)
(类)schism•consensus=interruption•continuity 不一致•一致=中断•连续性 (反义)
(反)schism ◆ accord 不一致 ◆ 一致
(派)schismatic n.分裂者adj.分裂的

school [sku:l] n. 学派,鱼群
(类)school•fish=flock•birds 鱼群:鱼=鸟群:鸟

scintillate [] v. 闪烁,(谈吐)流露机智(to throw off as a spark or as sparkling flashes)
(反)scintillating ◆ dull/foolly 才气横溢的 ◆ 迟钝的/愚蠢的
(例)scintillate witticisms
(记)scintill(火花) 参考:scintillating adj.才华横溢的

scion [] n. 幼芽, 子孙(descendant, child)
(反)scion ◆ ancestor 子孙 ◆ 前辈

scission [] n. 切断,分离,分裂(a division or split in a group or union:schism)
(反)scission ◆ unification 分裂 ◆ 统一

scissor [  ] n. 剪刀
(类)pestle•grinding=scissor•cutting 乳钵,•磨=剪刀•剪(工具及其功用)
【注:干扰选项spoon: stirring 汤匙:搅动;说明:汤匙可以搅动,但这并非其最本质的功用。】
saw : carpenter = scissors : tailor 锯:木匠=剪刀:裁缝

scoff [] n. 笑柄,嘲笑 v. 嘲笑(to treat or address with derision:mock)v.狼吞虎咽
(类)scoff•derisive=bluster•loud=pontificate•pompous
嘲笑•嘲笑的=怒号•大声的=武断•高傲的(动作典型特征)
scoff•contempt=thank•gratitude 嘲笑•轻蔑=感谢•感谢(同义)
(同)scoff, jeer, gibe, fleer, sneer, flout
(例)scoffed at their concerns

scooter [] n. 滑行车,踏板车
(类)oscillation•swing=momentum•scooter 振动•秋千=动力•滑行车(后者运动需要前者)

scorch [] v. 烧焦, 烘干(sear)
(参考)scorching adj. 酷热的
(反)dampen ◆ scorch 使潮湿 ◆ 烧焦
(同)burn,parch,devastate

score [] n. 乐谱,分数
(类)director•script=conductor•score 导演•剧本=指挥•乐谱(前者根据后者展开工作)
script•drama=score•music 剧本•戏剧=乐谱•音乐(组成)
notes•score=symbols•rebus 音符•乐谱=符号•画谜(组成)

scorn [] n. 轻蔑 vt. 轻蔑,鄙视,不屑(reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy)
(类)venerable•reverence=despicable•scorn 可敬的•尊敬=可鄙的•鄙视(因果关系)
scorn•reject= disparage•ignore 鄙斥•拒斥=轻视•忽视(褒贬)
【注】后者不带感情色彩,而前者带有主观的感情色彩;
干扰:adulate •flatter谄媚•奉承(程度)
scorn:reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy
adulate:to flater or admire excessively or slavishly
(反)scorn ◆ adulate/ venerate 鄙视 ◆ 谄媚/尊敬
(同)despise, abhor, contemn, disdain, scout
(例)scorned the traditions of their ancestors 鄙视祖先的传统
scorned to reply to the charge 不屑答复这一指控

scotch [] vt. 阻碍(hinder, thwart)
(反)scotch ◆ encourage 阻碍 ◆ 鼓励

scour [] vt. 擦洗;全面检查(to go through or range over in or as if in a search)
(类)scour•wash 擦洗•洗

scowl [] vi. 皱眉(表现出不高兴)(to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure)
(类)scowl•displeasure=kiss•affection 皱眉头•不悦=亲吻•感情(动作表达情感)
(例)idioms look black as thunder, pull a face (or scowl)

scrappy [] adj. 好斗的,果敢的(quarrelsome;having an aggressive and determined spirit)
(反)scrappy ◆ timorous 好斗的 ◆ 胆小的
(同)quarrelsome, battlesome,belligerent, bellicose, contentious, militant,pugnacious

scrap [] vt. 抛弃(discard;to abandon as no longer of enough worth to retain)
(反)scrap ◆ retrieve 抛弃 ◆ 找回
(例)scrap outworn methods 抛弃陈旧的方法。
(记)scrap原义是碎屑,废料。联想:这些东西当然要抛弃了。

scrawl [] vt.乱涂, 潦草地写(to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly)
(反)scrawl ◆ write carefully 潦草地写 ◆ 仔细的写
(同)scribble
(记)[crawl]爬写出来的字像蛛蛛爬乱写

scribble [] vt. vi. 潦草地书写,乱写
(类)tinker•adjust=scribble•write=mumble•talk
笨拙的修补•调试=乱写•写=喃喃而语•说(非正常与正常关系)
(记)[scrib]写+[ble]乱写

script [] n. 手迹,手稿,剧本(the written text of a stage play, screenplay, or broadcast)
(类)script•drama=score•music 剧本•戏剧=乐谱•音乐(组成关系)
script • play = score • symphony 剧本•戏剧=乐谱•交响乐(前者是后者进行的基础)

scrupulous [] adj. 小心谨慎的,正直的(having moral integrity;painstaking)
(反)probity ◆ unscrupulousness 正直的 ◆ 不正直的
(同)upright,conscientious , painstaking, punctilious
(例)working with scrupulous care
(记)[scruple]顾及+[lous]很多顾及小心谨慎的

scrutable [] adj. 可以理解的,可以了解的(comprehensible)
(反)mysterious ◆ scrutable 神秘而不可知的 ◆ 可了解的

scrutinize [aiz] v. 仔细检查(to examine closely and minutely)
(类)observe•scrutinize=question•grill 观察•细查=询问•拷问(程度)
scrutinize•gloss=delve•skim 细查•掠过=深入研究•浏览(程度)
headstrong•advice=secretive•scrutiny刚愎的排斥别人的建议=秘密的排斥别人的审查
(反)scrutinize ◆ gloss over 细查 ◆ 马虎
scrutiny ◆ casual glance 精读 ◆ 随意一瞥
circumspect ◆ audacious 慎重的•鲁莽的 (干扰:unscrupulous行为不检点的)
(同)scrutinize, scan, inspect, examine
(例)scrutinized the hospital bill

scuff [] n. v. 拖着脚走,磨损(to become scratched, chipped, or roughened by wear)
(类)scuff•abrasion=heat•vaporization 拖着脚走•磨损=加热•蒸发(动作及其结果)
(记)象声词。谐音•斯喀~~磨鞋的声音

sculpt [] v. 雕刻(carve, sculpture)
(参考)sculptor n. 雕刻家 sculpture n. 雕刻品
(类)canvas•painter=marble•sculptor 画布•画家=大理石•雕刻家(人物及其工作对象)
statue•sculpture=ode•poem 雕像•雕刻品=颂诗•诗(种属)
author•novel=sculptor•marble 作家•小说=雕塑家•大理石(人物及其创作工作对象)
【注:chef•banquet(厨师:宴会) 是干扰选项。厨师的直接工作对象当然是食物,宴
会与厨师有关但并非厨师是主角。】

scurrilous [] adj. 说粗话的,猥亵的(using or given to coarse language containing
obscenities, abuse, or slander)
(类)scurrilous•propriety=mercurial•constancy 下流的•得体=易变的•一致(反面特征)
(同)abusive,invective,truculent,vituperative;obscene, indecent
(例)scurrilous imposters who used a religious exterior to rob poor people
a campaign filled with scurrilous charges and countercharges

scurvy [] adj. 下流的,可鄙的(disgustingly mean or contemptible:despicable)
(反)scurvy ◆ above reproach 可鄙的 ◆ 不受指责的
(同)contemptible, beggarly, cheap, despicable, mean, shabby

scythe [] n. 长柄的大镰刀,战车镰
(类)scythe•reaper=axe•woodcutter 镰刀•收割者=斧子•伐木者(人及其工具关系)

seascape n. 海景(a view of the sea), 海景画(a picture representing a scene at sea)
(类)portrait•person =seascape•ocean 肖像•人=海景画•海 (前者描述后者)

seamy [] adj. 堕落的,污秽的(degraded, sordid)
(反)seamy ◆ decent and respectable 堕落污秽的 ◆ 正派值得尊敬的

secluded [] adj. 隐僻的,隐蔽的(screened or hidden from view; sequestered;solitary)
(类)hermitage•secluded=landmark•conspicuous
隐居处•隐蔽的=路标•明显的(事物典型特征)
(同)cloistered, hermetic, recluse, seclusive, sequestered
(记)[se]分开+[clude]关闭分开关闭隔绝,隐居 参考:seclusive adj.好隐居的

secrete [] vt. 隐藏,分泌(to form and give off a secretion)
(类)frank•secretiveness=honest•theft坦白的•秘密=诚实的•偷(名词及其反面特征关系)
(反)secrete ◆ absorb 分泌 ◆ 吸收
secrete ◆ divulge 隐秘 ◆ 泄密
(记)来自secret n.秘密adj.秘密的

sedate [] adj.镇静的,安静的(keeping a quiet steady attitude) vt. 给...服镇静剂
(类)sedative•pacify=antiseptic•sterlize 镇定剂•使平静=消毒剂•使无菌(作用关系)
sedative•drowsiness=anesthetic•numbness 镇定剂•睡意=麻醉剂•麻木(因果关系)
【注:sedative n. 镇静剂 adj.(药物)镇静的】
(反)sedate ◆ roil 沉着 ◆ 激怒
sedate ◆ flighty 稳定的 ◆ 反复无常的
(同)serious, earnest, grave, sober, solemn, staid

sedentary [] adj. 久坐的,固定不动的(not migratory:settled)
(反)migratory ◆ sedentary 流动的 ◆ 静止的
peripatetic ◆ sedentary 巡游的 ◆ 不迁徙的
(记)[sed]=[sid]坐下+[entary]久坐的

seduce [] vt. 怂恿,劝说 (使不忠诚,使不服从)(to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty)
(反)seduce ◆ discourage 怂恿 ◆ 使气馁
(同)lure, allure, bait, entice, entrap, inveigle
(记)[se]分开+[duce]引导引开勾引(参考)seductive adj.诱人的,有魅力的

sedulous [] adj. 坚忍不拔的,勤勉的(diligent in application or pursuit)
(反)sedulous ◆ careless/lack of industriousness 勤勉的 ◆ 粗心的
sedulous ◆ lazy/ lack of industriousness 勤勉的 ◆ 怠惰的/不刻苦
(同)assiduous, diligent, industrious
(例)sedulous craftsmanship 勤勉的工匠sedulous student 勤勉的学生
(记)[sed]=[sid]坐下+[ulous]多…的坐的多的勤勉的(参考) sedulity 勤勉

seemly [] adj. 适宜的,恰当的,合适的 (conventionally proper;fit)
(类)ribald•seemly=labyrinthine•direct 下流的•适宜的=迷宫似的•直接的(反义)
(反)seemly ◆ uncouth/ribald/indecorous 合适的 ◆ 粗俗的/不和礼节的

segment [] n. 片断 vt. 分割(to separate into segments:give off as segments)
(反)segment ◆ make whole 分割 ◆ 使成整体

self-abasement [] n.自卑, 自谦(degradation or humiliation of oneself;especially
because of feelings of guilt or inferiority)
(反)self-abasement ◆ self-asserting 自卑 ◆ 自信(干扰self-aggrandize增大自己的势力,实力)
【注】self-aggrandizing:the act or process of making oneself greater (as in power or influence)

seminal [] adj. 有创意的,种子的,萌芽的(containing or contributing the seeds of
later development:creative, original)
(反)seminal ◆ hampering further development 萌芽的 ◆ 阻碍进一步发展
seminal ◆ derivative 有创意的 ◆ 派生的
(同)one of the most seminal of the great poets
(记)[semin]种+[al]有创见的

seminary [] n. 神学院
(类)conservatory•music=seminary•theology=observatory•astronomy
音乐学院:音乐=神学院:神学=气象台:天文学(培养场所)
seminary•theologian = conservatory•artist 神学院•神学者=音乐学校•艺术家
(记)[semin]种+[ary]培养(上帝)种子的地方神学院

sensation [] n. 感觉,知觉,轰动事件
(类)analgesic•pain=anesthetic•sensation 止痛剂•疼痛=麻醉剂•感觉(消除关系)
numb•sensation=stiff•suppleness 麻木•感觉=刚硬•柔软(缺乏关系)
numb•insensible•burnish•lustrous 麻木•无知觉的=光泽•有光泽的(人物典型特征)
bribe•incorruptible=affect/rouse•insensible 贿赂•清廉的=激起•麻木的(难以关系)
(反)sensation ◆ anesthesia 知觉 ◆ 麻木
sensation ◆ unnoticed event 轰动事件 ◆ 不知名的小事
numbness ◆ sensation 麻木 ◆ 感觉
(记)[sens]感觉(参考)sensible明智的;sensitive敏感的;sensational耸人听闻的

sensitive [] adj. 敏感的,易感的,灵敏的,感光的
(类)tactless/insensitive•offend=obstinate•preserve
不机智的/不敏感的•冒犯=顽固的•保守(人物典型行为)
insensitive•boor=mischievous•imp 感觉迟钝•粗人=调皮•小鬼(人物典型行为)
sensitization•allergic=habituation•inured 敏感•敏感的=习惯•习惯的(同义)
quixotic•idealistic=touchy•sensitive 纯想象的•想象的=敏感的•敏感的(同义)
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton 敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
tactile•touch=sentient•emotion 触觉的•触觉=情感的•情感(形名同义)
(反)sensitive ◆ numb 敏感 ◆ 麻木
insensitive ◆ tender 感觉迟钝的 ◆ 敏感的
sentimental/sentient ◆ unconscious 多愁善感的/有感觉的 ◆ 无意识的
insentient ◆ perceiving 无知觉的 ◆ 有知觉的

sentinel [] n. 哨兵,看守
(类)sentinel•watchful=epicure•discriminating 哨兵•警觉的=美食家•辨别(人物典型行为)
(记)[sent]感觉感觉者哨兵(参考)sentry哨兵,步哨

sepulchral [] adj. 坟墓的,阴深的,忧郁的(suited to or suggestive of a sepulchre)
(反)sepulchral ◆ merry 忧郁的 ◆ 欢快的
(同)mortuary
(记)谐音“赛跑车”联想:赛跑车很危险,离进坟墓不远了。

septic [] adj. 腐败的 n. 腐烂物(of, relating to, or causing putrefaction)
(反)septic ◆ free of infection 腐败的 ◆ 未被感染的

sequela [] n. 后继者, 后遗症
(反)precursor ◆ sequela 先驱 ◆ 后继者
(记)[sequ]跟随+ela后继者

sequester [] vt. 使隐退,使隔绝,分离(to set apart:segregate;seclude, withdraw)
(类)sequester•seclusion=endanger•jeopardy 分离•隔离=危及• 危险(前者造成后者)
(反)sequester ◆ permit to mingle 分离 ◆ 混合
(同)isolate,seclude
(参考)sequestrate 扣押,没收

seraph [] n. [圣经]六翼天使(one of the 6-winged angels standing in the presence of God)
(反)diabolical ◆ seraphic 恶魔的 ◆ 六翼天使的

sere [] adj.干枯的,凋萎的(being dried and withered )
(反)sere ◆ lush/damp 干枯的 ◆ 葱绿的/湿润的
(同)dry, arid, droughty, moistureless
(参考)sear灼烧

serrated [] adj. 锯齿状的
(反)serrated ◆ smooth/ without notches 锯齿状的 ◆ 平滑的/没有凹槽
serried ◆ widely separated 密集的 ◆ 广泛分开的
(参考)serried 密集的

serendipity [] n. 善于发掘新奇事物的天赋(the faculty or phenomenon of
finding valuable or agreeable things not sought for)
(类)serendipitous•effort=ineluctable•chance
靠天赋或运气获得的•努力=不可避免的•机会(缺乏关系)
【注:serendipitous :obtained or characterized by serendipity 靠天赋或运气获得的】
(记)serendipity=seven+dip=七个小矮人挖=有挖出财宝的天赋

serene [] adj. 清澈的,晴朗的,安静的(marked by or suggestive of utter calm and unruffled
repose or quietude)
(类)perturb•serenity=reassure•doubt 扰乱•平静=使安心•怀疑(前者消除后者)
disturb•serenity=intrude•privacy 扰乱•平静=侵入•隐私(消除关系)
restless•serenity=deferential•insolent 不平静的•平静=恭谨的•无礼 (反义)
(反)serenity ◆ havoc/ pandemonium/ tumult/bedlam/riot 平静 ◆ 混乱/喧嚣/骚动/混乱/骚乱
furor ◆ serenity 激情 ◆ 平静
serene ◆ tumultuous/ vociferous 平静的 ◆ 骚动的/ 喧哗的
(同)composed, easy, easygoing, placid, poised, self-composed, self-possessed, tranquil
(参考)serenity n. 晴朗,宁静

serfdom [] n. 农奴身份, 农奴境遇
(反)serfdom ◆ lord 农奴 ◆ 地主

sermon [] n. 说教,训诫,布道
(类)nitpicker•criticize=preacher•sermon=quibbler•cavil
吹毛求疵者•批评=布道者•布道=吹毛求疵者•挑剔(人物典型行为)
sermon • homiletics = argument • logic 说教•说教术=辩论•逻辑学(学科研究内容)

serpentine [] adj. 蜿蜒的在形状或移动上象蛇的,弯曲的
(类)serpentine•directness 弯曲的•直接
(记)[serpent] 蛇+ine像蛇一样弯曲

serrate [] adj. 锯齿状的(notched or toothed on the edge)
(反)serrated ◆ without notches/smooth 锯齿形的 ◆ 无凹口的/平滑的
(例)jagged peaks and serrate ridges
(记)[serr]=saw锯子+ated锯齿状的(参考)serration锯齿状;serried密集的

serried [] adj. 密集的,林立的,重重叠叠罗列的
(反)serried ◆ widely separated 密集的 ◆ 稀疏的

servile [] adj. 奴隶的,卑屈的(meanly or cravenly submissive:abject)
(类)compliant•servile=trusting•gullible 顺从的•卑屈的=信任的•受骗的(褒贬程度)
gullible•chicanery=servile•domination 易受骗的容易被欺骗=卑屈的容易被控制
imperious•servile=bellicose•peaceable 高傲的•奴性的=好斗的•和平的(反特)
impetuous•hesitate=irrepressible•servile 冲动的:犹豫=无法镇压的:顺从的(反义)
obsequious•servile=belligerent•assertive 谄媚的•卑屈的=好战的•有进取心的(褒贬程度)
(记)[serv]=slave奴隶+ile奴性的,百依百顺的 参考:serve:服务,当仆人

severe [] adj. 严格的,凶猛的(of a strict or stern bearing or manner:austere)
(类)mitigate•severe=qualify•general 减轻•剧烈的=使具有资格•一般的(消除关系)
palmy•prosperity=draconian•severity 繁荣的•繁荣=严格的•严格(形容词及其名词)
(同)ascetic, astringent, stern, austere, dour, brutal, inclement
(例)treated all the students with severe impartiality 以非常公正的态度对待所有的学生
a severe winter storm 一场严酷的冬季暴风雪
(参考)sever切断,脱离

shackle [] vt. 加枷锁,束缚(to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of
restrictions or handicaps)
(反)shackle ◆ loose/emancipate 束缚 ◆ 放松/解放
(同)fetter,impede,hamper

shadow [] vt. 遮蔽,使朦胧,预示,偷偷尾随(to follow especially secretly:trail)
(类)follow•shadow=scheme•plot =hear•eavesdrop=leave•abscond
跟随•偷偷尾随=计划•密谋=听•偷听=离开•潜逃(正常与秘密)
(反)shadowy ◆ overt 遮蔽 ◆ 公开

shallow [] 浅的,浅薄的(lacking in depth of knowledge, thought, or feeling)
(反)shallow ◆ profound 浅薄的 ◆ 深刻的
(同)shoal, superficial
(例)buried in a shallow grave 埋在浅浅的墓穴中
a shallow demagogue 一个浅薄的煽动者

shale [] n. 页岩,泥板岩
(类)shale•lode=well•aquifer 页岩•矿脉=井•蓄水层 (事物及其发源)
(参考)shell贝壳

sham [] v. 佯装 n. 伪品 adj. 虚假的(not genuine:false, feigned)
(反)debunk ◆ perpetuate to sham 揭穿真相 ◆ 永远伪装
sham ◆ genuine 虚假的 ◆ 真正的
(同)fictitious,counterfeit, artificial
(记)shame害羞去掉e佯装

shard [] n.(陶瓷器、瓦等的)破片,碎片
(类)shard•pottery=fragment•bone=crumb• bread=morsel•food
破片•陶瓷=碎骨•骨头=面包屑•面包=(食物)一口•食物(碎片与整体)

shiftless [] adj. 无计谋的,懒惰的(lacking in ambition or incentive:lazy)
(类)shiftless•ambition=ingenuous•guile 懒惰的•雄心=坦白的•诡计(缺乏关系)
(记)shift转移+less懒的动懒惰

shipshape [] adj. 井然有序的,整洁的(trim, tidy)
(类)shipshape•disarray = squalid•cleanliness 井然有序的•混乱=肮脏的•清洁(反义)

shirk [] v.逃避,规避 avoid (responsibility, work, etc.); malinger
(类)shirk•duty= parry•question=recluse•crowd
逃避•责任=躲避•问题=隐遁•人群(逃避关系)
parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk
吝啬的•小气=装病逃避•逃避(动词及其正面形容词)
hoard•miser=shirk•malinger
秘藏•守财奴=逃避•装病逃避的人 (人物典型行为)

shoal [] adj. 浅的(shallow)
(类)shoal ◆ deep 浅的 ◆ 深的
(同)shallow, superficial

shopworn [] adj. 陈旧的, 陈腐的(尤指在商店中陈列久的货物)
(反)shopworm ◆ new 陈旧的 ◆ 新的
(同)trite, clich, hackneyed, stale, timeworn
(记)shop商店+worn用旧的陈旧的,陈腐的

shrewd [] adj. 精明的, 机敏的(marked by clever discerning awareness and hardheaded
acumen)
(反)shrewd ◆ foolish/ naïve 精明的 ◆ 愚蠢的/幼稚的
(同)shrewd,sagacious,perspicacious,astute,savvy
(例)the captain was a shrewd judge of character
(参考)shrew泼妇

shrine [] n. 神殿,圣地
(类)shrine•pilgrim=peak•climber 圣地•圣地朝圣者=山顶:登山者(前者是后者的目标)

shrug [] v. 耸肩(表示冷漠、怀疑等)to lift or contract(the shoulders)especially
to express aloofness, indifference, or uncertainty
(类)shrug•indifference=blush•embarrassment=nod•agreement=bow•respect
耸肩•不关心=脸红•困窘=点头•同意=鞠躬•尊敬(动作及其表达态度)
(参考)shrub 灌木

shun [] vt. 避开, 避免(to avoid deliberately and especially habitually)
(反)haunt ◆ shun 常到 ◆ 避开(常去之地)
frequent ◆ shun 时常出入 ◆ 避开(常去之地)
【注:争议选项avoid 避免;说明:shun侧重强调避开一个习惯性长去的地方,avoid 较普通】
shun ◆ seek actively 躲避 ◆ 积极的寻找
(同)escape, avoid, elude, eschew, evade

sidereal [] adj. 恒星的(in relation to stars or constellations:astral)
(记)[sider] 星+eal星的
(类)arboreal•trees=sidereal•stars 树的•树=恒星的•恒星(形容及其名词)
fluvial•river=sidereal•star 河流的•河流=恒星的•恒星 (名词及其形容词)
star•sidereal=emotion•affective 恒星•恒星的=感情•感情的(名词及其形容词)

sidestep [] vi. 躲避打击,回避问题(avoid;bypass, evade)
(反)sidestep ◆ confront directly 回避 ◆ 正对
(例)sidestep a blow sidestep a question 躲避打击,回避问题

signal [] adj. 显著的(distinguished from the ordinary)
(反)signal ◆ unremarkable 显著的 ◆ 不明显的
(同)noticeable, conspicuous, outstanding, prominent, remarkable, salient
(记)[sign]标记+al显著的

simper [] vi. n. 假笑,傻笑(to smile in a silly manner)
(类)simper•smile=babble•talk 傻笑•笑=胡言乱语•说
(同)smirk

simpleton [] n. 笨蛋,傻子(缺乏常识)
(类)prudence•daredevil=sagacity•simpleton 谨慎•大胆=聪明•傻子(反义关系)
turncoat•constancy=simpleton•sagacity 背叛者不会不屈不挠=傻子不会聪明
sensitive•boor=sagacity•simpleton 敏感的•粗野的人=聪明•笨蛋 (人物反面特征)
(记)[simple]简单+ton人简单的人

simulate [] vt. 模拟,假装,模仿(to give or assume the appearance or effect of often
with the intent to deceive)
(反)simulation ◆ authentic article 模仿品 ◆ 真品
(记)[simul]相同+[ate]使相同假装

sin [] n. 犯罪,过失(an offense against religious or moral law)
(类)peccadillo•sin=admonishment•castigation 小错•犯罪=警告•惩罚(程度关系)
(同)evil,crime,iniquity,wrongdoing

sincere [] adj. 诚实的,正直的(honest;pure; true)
(类)authenticity•fraudulent=sincerity•hypocritical 真实性•欺诈的=真实•伪善的(反特) poseur•sincerity=recluse•gregariousness 装模作样的人•真实=隐居者•群居(缺乏)
(反)poseur ◆ sincere person 装模作样的人 ◆ 真诚的人
badinage ◆ sincere conversation 打趣 ◆ 真诚的对话
(例)had a sincere dislike for politics

list 31 sinecure-------spleen
sinecure [] n. 美差(well-paid position with little responsibility)
(反)sinecure ◆ arduous employment 美差 ◆ 艰苦的工作
(记)[sine]无+[cure]操心不操心还拿高工资美差

sinew [] n. 精力,腱,原动力,体力(solid resilient strength:power)
(类)tendinous•sinewy 腱的•腱(形名同义)
(反)sinew ◆ weakness 强健 ◆ 虚弱
(例)astonishing intellectual sinew and clarity
(记)[si]=[see]看到+[new]新的出新精力,原动力

singe [] v. 烧焦, 烤焦(to burn superficially or lightly • scorch)
(类)singe•incinerate=erode•destruction 烧焦•烧成灰烬=腐蚀•毁灭(程度)

sinuous [] adj. 迂回的,复杂的(winding; intricate, complex)
(反)sinuous ◆ direct 蜿蜒的 ◆ 直接的
(同)winding, convoluted, flexuous, meandering, serpentine, tortuous
(记)[sinu]弯曲+ous弯曲的

sip [] vt. 啜饮(to drink in small quantities)
(类)sip•drink=mince•walk 啜饮•喝酒=碎步走•行走(动作小与正常)
swill/quaff•sip=gobble•nibble=stride•mince
痛饮•啜饮=狼吞虎咽•一点一点地咬=迈大步走•碎步走(动作小与大)
ruthless•mercy = insipid•flavor 无情•仁慈=没有味道的•滋味
(反)swill ◆ sip 痛饮 ◆ 啜饮
(参考)insipid乏味的;sipid味道好的

siren [] n. 塞壬;海妖之一,用歌声诱惑海员,使船只在岛屿周围触礁沉没
(类)siren•unresist=juggernaut•unstop
海妖•无法抗拒的=压倒性力量•无法阻止的(事物典型特征)
siren•sound=beacon•light 汽笛发出声音=灯塔发出光亮
siren•heard=light•seen 警报•被听见=光•被看见(事物及其感知方式)
(例)a slinky siren of the silent screen era

skeleton [] n. 骨架,骨骼,提纲(a usually rigid supportive or protective structure or
framework of an organism)
(类)skeleton•animal= framing•building 骨架•动物=框架•房屋

skeptic [] n. 怀疑者,怀疑论者,无神论者(a doubting or incredulous person)
(类)penitent•obdurate=skeptic•credulous 悔过者•顽固的=怀疑者•轻信的(反特)
(反)votary ◆ skeptic 信徒 ◆ 怀疑者
credence ◆ skeptic 信任 ◆ 怀疑
skepticism ◆ conviction 怀疑论 ◆ 确信
(例)people of long experience are often skeptics
(参考)sceptical怀疑的

skimp [] v. 节省花费,吝啬(provide scantily;live very economically)
(类)parsimonious•skimp=malingering•shirk 吝啬的•吝啬=装病逃避•逃避(形动同义)
(同)scrimp, scrape, screw, spare, stint
(参考)skimpy adj. 吝啬的,太少的

skirmish [] n. 小冲突(a minor fight in war usually incidental to larger movements)
(类)skirmish•insignificance= duel•formality 小冲突•微不足道=决斗•正式的

skirt [] vt. 回避,绕…走(to avoid especially because of difficulty or fear of controversy)
(反)skirt ◆ seek/face 回避 ◆ 寻求/面对
skirt ◆ pass the center directly 绕走 ◆ 穿过中央

skit [] n. 滑稽短剧(a satirical or humorous story or sketch)
(类)skit•play=anecdote•narrative 滑稽短剧•戏剧=小故事•记叙文(名词短与正常)
vignette•scene=skit•drama 小场景•场景=滑稽短剧•戏剧(名词短与正常)

slack [] adj. 松弛的,缓慢的(not tight or taut)
(类)slacken•tension= blunt•sharpness 松弛•紧张=钝的•锐利
(反)slack ◆ taut 松弛的 ◆ 拉紧的

slab [] n. 厚片(a broad, flat, thick piece)
(反)slab ◆ sliver 厚片 ◆ 细片

slake [] vt. 消除,平息(quench),使满足,解渴(satisfy as thirst)
(类)gratify•desire=slake•thirst= satiate•hunger
使满足•欲望=解渴•口渴=饱足•饥饿(行为及其消除对象)
(例)He will slake your curiosity
(记)[s]+lake一湖水解渴

slant [] n. v.(使)倾斜,倾向,偏见(to interpret or present in line with a special interest:angle)
(反)slant ◆ assert without bias 偏见 ◆ 没有偏见的断言
(例)stories slanted toward youth
accused the media of slanting the news against the president

slate [] n. 石板,候选人(提名)名单(a tablet used for writing on)
(类)roster•personnel=slate•candidate 花名册记录职员=候选人名单记录候选人
(记) [slat]板条+e石板古希腊选举在石板上刻上候选人名单

slew [] v.(使)旋转n. 大量,许多(a large number)
(反) slew ◆ paucity/ limited quantity 大量 ◆ 缺乏/ 限量
(例)a slew of books

slight [] adj. 纤细的, 轻微的(TRIVIAL), 少量的(SCANTY)
(反)grievous ◆ slight 严重的 ◆ 轻微的(lacking in strength or substance)
prodigious ◆ slight 巨大的 ◆ 微小的(small of its kind or in amount)
ponderous ◆ slight 笨重的 ◆ 纤细的(not stout or massive in body)
massive ◆ slight 大量的 ◆ 少量的(small of its kind or in amount)

slight [] n. vt. 轻蔑,怠慢,冷漠(to treat with disdain or indifference)
(类)celebration•lament=slight•show respect 庆祝•悲叹=轻蔑•表示敬意(反义)
(反)cosset ◆ slight 宠爱 ◆ 冷漠
slight ◆ show respect to 轻蔑 ◆ 表示敬意
(同)neglect, discount, disregard, forget, ignore, overlook

sling [] n. (支撑伤臂或伤手的)吊带,三角巾
(类)splint•immobilize=sling•support(干扰sieve•flow)夹板用来固定=吊带用来支撑
(例)He had to keep his broken arm in a sling. 他不得不把断胳膊固定在吊带上。

slink [  ] v. 溜走(to go or move stealthily or furtively)
(同)sneak, creep, gumshoe, lurk, pussyfoot, shirk, skulk, slide, ||snake, steal

slippery [] adj. 滑的(causing or tending to slide or fall;unstable),狡猾的(tricky)
(类)dingy•glisten=slippery•adhere 暗黑的不反光=滑溜的不粘附(反面特征)
splint•mobility=ballast•instability =purchase•slippery
夹板•可动性=压载物•不稳定=紧握•光滑(动作与消除对象)
duct•convey=splint•immobilize 管道•运输=夹板•使固定(物品及其功能)
slippery•elude=alluring•entice (容易关系)狡猾的•逃脱=迷人的•诱惑
(同)slick, lubricious, unstable; tricky
(参考)slipper 拖鞋

slipshod [] adj. 粗心的,邋遢的(careless, slovenly)
(反)assiduous ◆ slipshod 勤勉的 ◆ 草率的
slipshod ◆ painstaking 漫不经心的 ◆ 艰苦的
(同)slovenly,careless,messy,raunchy,sloppy, unkempt, unneat, untidy

sloppy [] adj.邋遢的,不整洁的(slovenly, careless)
(反)natty ◆ sloppy 整洁的 ◆ 不整洁的
(同)slovenly, careless, messy, slipshod, unkempt, unneat, untidy
(例)a sloppy dresser
(记)[slop]溅出,弄脏+[py]邋遢的,不整洁的

sloth [] n. 怠惰,懒惰(disinclination to action or labor • indolence)
(类)rakish• restraint=slothful• assiduity放荡的•抑制=偷懒的•刻苦 (名形反义)
(反)sloth ◆ industry 懒惰 ◆ 勤奋
(同)idleness, indolence, slouch, sluggishness
(例)a bland sloth-provoking summer day

slouch [] n. 懒惰无能的人 v. 懒散(to sit, stand, or walk with an awkward, drooping,
excessively relaxed posture)
(反)slouch ◆ stand erect 没精打采地站着 ◆ 笔直地站着

slovenly [] adj. 懒散的, 不修边幅的(untidy; careless in work habits; slipshod)
(类) indulged•adherent=slovenly•dapper 放纵的•关联的=邋遢的•衣冠楚楚的(反义)
【注:adherent:adj.connected or associated with especially by contract 靠契约联系在一起的n. a follower of a leader, party, or profession 信徒,追随者】
(反)slovenly ◆ tidy/ natty/ dapper 邋遢的 ◆ 整洁的
(同)slovenly, careless, disheveled, slipshod, sloppy, unkempt, untidy

sluggard [] n. 懒鬼, 游手好闲的人(an habitually lazy person)
(类)rapscallion•mischievous=sluggard•lazy 流氓•为害的=懒鬼•懒惰 (正特)
(例)a sluggard who wanted to sleep all day
(记)slug一种行动缓慢的虫儿+gard懒鬼

sluggish [] adj. 行动迟缓的,缓慢的,迟钝的(indolent,torpid;slow to respond;markedly
slow in movement, flow, or growth)
(反)alacrity ◆ sluggish 敏捷 ◆ 迟缓的
(同)lethargic,slumberous,stupid,torpid;slow

slumber [] n. v. 睡眠,沉睡状态(sleep;a light sleep)
(反)slumber ◆ awake 睡眠 ◆ 醒
(参考)slumberous 昏昏欲睡的

slur [] vt. 使模糊, 含糊的发音(obscure;to pronounce indistinctly)
(类)slur•speech= smudge•writing 模糊•说话=弄脏•字迹
(反)slur ◆ pronounce clearly 含糊的发音 ◆ 清晰的发音
(同)malign, defame, denigrate, smear
(参考)blur弄脏,变模糊

sly [] adj. 狡猾的,诡密的,不坦率(lacking in straightforwardness and candor•dissembling)
(反)sly ◆ artless/ ingenuous 不坦率 ◆ 朴实的/ 诚实的
(同)artful, astute, crafty, cunning, foxy, guileful, subtle, tricky
(例)crazy like a fox, cunning as a fox (or serpent), sly as a fox

smarmy [] adj. 虚情假意的(revealing by a smug, ingratiating, or false earnestness)
(反)smarmy ◆ earnest 虚情假意的 ◆ 真挚的
(同)sleek,glossy, polished
(例)a tone of smarmy self-satisfaction
(记)smarm(= to smear 涂抹,掩饰)

smart [] vi. 刺痛,快速反应(to cause or be the cause or seat of a sharp poignant pain)
(类)smart•pain=grieve•sorrow 刺痛•痛苦=伤心•悲伤(动名同义)
(反)smart ◆ soothe 刺痛 ◆ 抚慰
(例)gave him a slap that was hard enough to smart

smart 2 [] adj. 整洁的(neat,trim)聪明的,潇洒的(stylish or elegant in dress or appearance)
(反)tatty ◆ smart 衣衫褴褛的 ◆ 整洁的

smattering [] n. 一知半解,浅薄的知识(superficial piecemeal knowledge)
(反) erudite ◆ smattering of knowledge 博学的 ◆ 一知半解

smirk [] v.假笑,得意地笑(to smile in an affected or smug manner • simper)
(类)smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=冷笑•嘲笑(动作与表达的心理)
(同)simper,smirkle
(例)smirking children imitating their teacher

smother [] vt. 窒息,压抑(to suffocate (another))
(类)smother•choke 窒息•窒息(同义)

smug [] adj. 自满的,沾沾自喜的(highly self-satisfied)
(类)smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=冷笑•嘲笑(动作与表达的心理)
primp•vain=gloat•smug 打扮•虚荣的=心满意足•自满的(动作与表达的心理)
(同)complacent, self-complacent, self-contented, self-pleased, self-satisfied

smuggle [] v. 走私,私运(to import or export secretly and in violation of the law)
(类)collude•cooperate=smuggle•convey 勾结•合作=走私•运输(动作秘密与正常)
smuggler•import= embezzler•appropriate 走私者•运输=盗用公款者•挪用
smuggler•tariff=stowaway•fare 走私犯•关税=偷渡者•费用
(反)smuggle ◆ transport openly 走私 ◆ 公开运输
(例)smuggling weapons into the country

snare [] v. 诱捕(to trap with or as if with a snare)n. 陷井
(反)snare ◆ boo 诱捕 ◆ 用嘘声轰赶
(参考)ensnare 使入圈套

snarl [] vi. n. 缠结,咆哮
(类)exoneration•blame=disentangle•snarl 免除责任•责备=松开•纠缠(反义)
(反)disentangle ◆ snarl 解开纠结 ◆ 纠缠
snarler ◆ coo 狂吠 ◆ 咕咕声 snarler n. 咆哮的人, 狂吠的动物
(参考)snarled纠缠不清的;gnarl节疤

sneer [] n. 冷笑,嘲笑 vt. 轻蔑(to laugh with facial contortions that express scorn or contempt)
(类)smirk•smugness=sneer•derision 得意地笑•自满=轻蔑•嘲笑(动作表达心理)
wince•pain=pout•displeasure 畏缩•痛苦=撅嘴•不愉快( 动作与反映的心理)
(同)leer,scoff, flout, gibe, gird, jest, quip(at), scout(at)
(例)sneered haughtily at the beggar

snobbish [] adj. 势利的(snobby)
(类)attentive•officious=refined•snobbish 留意的•多管闲事的=优雅的•过于讲究的 (程度)
(例)a snobbish group of jet-set sophisticates
(参考)snob势利的人

snub [] v. 冷落,不理睬 ,轻蔑(to treat with contempt or neglect)
(类)dissemble•honesty=snub•politeness 掩饰•诚实=冷落•礼貌(动名反义)
snub•disdain=double-cross•disloyalty 冷落•蔑视=欺骗出卖•不忠实(动名同义)
(反)court ◆ snub 向…献殷勤 ◆ 冷落

soak [] v. 浸泡,渗透(to permeate so as to wet, soften, or fill thoroughly)
(类)soaking•wet/damp=exuberant•happy=frigid•cool
湿透的•潮湿的=非常高兴的•高兴的=严寒的•凉爽的(程度)
castigation•reproof=soaking•damp 强烈责背•谴责=湿透的•潮湿的(程度)
(同)drench, saturate, sodden, sop, souse, steep, wet, deluge
(例)soak a sponge with water 用水浸透海绵
Rain soaked her to the skin 雨把她给淋透了。
(参考)soaked 湿透的

sober [] adj. 节制的,严肃的,朴素的(abstemious; unhurried, calm; serious)
(反)sober ◆ frivolous/puckish 严肃的 ◆ 轻佻的/淘气的
sumptuousness ◆ sobriety 奢华的 ◆ 朴素的
flippancy ◆ sobriety 轻率 ◆ 严肃
(参考)sobriety节制,清醒

sodden [] adj. 浑身湿透的,浸过酒的(heavy with or as if with moisture or water)
(类)marsh•sodden=desert•arid 沼泽•湿透的=沙漠•干燥的(事物典型特征)
moist•sodden=surprised•astonished 潮湿的•湿透的=吃惊的•震惊的(程度)
(反)sodden ◆ desiccated 湿透的 ◆ 干燥的
(同)wet, drenched, saturated, soaked
(例)the sodden ground

solace [] n. v. 安慰. 慰藉(alleviation of grief or anxiety)
(类)solace•grief=pacification•anger 安慰•忧愁=平息•忿怒(行为及其消除对象)
(同)comfort, cheer, console
(参考)console安慰

solder [] v. 焊接,焊合(to unite or make whole by solder)
(反)breach ◆ solder 弄出裂口 ◆ 焊合
(例)A friendship soldered by common interests.

solemnity [] n. 严肃, 一本正经(seriousness;gravity)
(反)jest ◆ solemnity 玩笑 ◆ 严肃
(例)the solemnity of his words

solicitous [] adj. 热切的,挂念的(worried,concerned)
(反)solicitous ◆ unconcerned 挂念的 ◆ 不关心的
solicitude ◆ indifference 关怀 ◆ 冷漠
(同)eager, anxious, ardent, avid, impatient, keen
(例)a solicitous inquiry about his health
(记)solicit恳求+[ous]挂念的

solidify [] v.(使)凝固, (使)坚固
(反)pulverize ◆ solidify 粉碎 ◆ 巩固
(同)harden , concrete, congeal
(参考)solidarity团结,一致; solidity坚固

soliloquy [] n. 独白(talking to oneself ;a dramatic monologue)
(类)soliloquy•play= aria•opera 独白•戏剧=咏叹调•歌剧(种属)

solitude [] n. 孤独, 偏僻处,隐居处(state of being alone or remote from society)
(类)recluse•solitude=toady•favor 隐遁者•孤单=献媚者•好感 (人物典型特征)
(同)solitude, isolation, seclusion
(记)soli 唯一 参考:solitary孤独的,隐士;soliloquy独白;solo独唱

solvent [] adj. 有偿付能力的(able to pay all legal debts)有溶解力的n. 溶剂
(类)solvent•dissolve=coagulant•clot/thicken 溶剂•溶解=凝结剂•凝结/变浓(物品作用)
caustic•burn=solvent•dissolve 腐蚀性的•灼烧=可溶解的•溶解 (事物典型特征)
regimen•health=budget•solvency 养生法保证健康=预算保证偿付能力
(反)solvent ◆ precipitant 溶解的 ◆ 沉淀的
bankruptcy ◆ solvency 破产 ◆ 偿付能力
insolvency ◆ ability to pay one’s debts 无偿付能力 ◆ 有偿付能力
(记)[solve] 溶化,解决(参考)solvency 溶解力, 还债能力

somatic [] adj. 肉体的(relating to the the body; physical)
(反)somatic ◆ nonphysical 肉体的 ◆ 非身体的
(同)bodily, carnal, corporal, corporeal, physical

somber [] adj. 昏暗的,阴森的,忧郁的(gloomy; dismal or depressing)
(反)cherubic ◆ somber 天真可爱的 ◆ 阴沉忧郁的
droll ◆ somber 好笑的 ◆ 忧郁的
adulation ◆ somber affection 热烈的赞扬 ◆ 低沉的感情

somnolence [] n. 想睡,瞌睡,嗜睡
(类)ennui•enthusiastic=somnolence•alert 倦怠•热心的=困倦的状态•警惕的 (名形反义)
insomnia•sleep=dyslexia•read 失眠•睡觉=诵读困难•阅读(难以)
(记)[somn]睡+[olent]多多睡的(参考)insomnia失眠

sonata [] n. 奏鸣曲
(类)dessert•meal=epilogue•play=coda•sonata
餐后甜点•一餐=尾声•表演=终结句•奏鸣曲(前者是后者结束部分)
(记)[son]声音+[ata表示音乐的后缀]奏鸣曲 参考:cantata清唱剧

sonnet [] n. 十四行诗
(类)sonnet•poet=symphony•composer 十四行诗•诗人=交响乐•作曲家(作者与作品)
sonnet•verse monger=painting•daubster 十四行诗•拙劣诗人=油画•笨画匠
sonnet•poem=denim•fabric 十四行诗•诗=粗斜纹棉布•织品(种属)
biography•nonfiction = sonnet•poem 自传•非虚构=十四行诗•诗(种属)
(干扰:aria•opera 咏叹调是歌剧中的一种演唱方式,并不是歌剧的一种。)

soothe [] vt. 缓和,使安静,安慰(to ease or relieve (pain, for example))
(反)vex ◆ soothe 使烦恼 ◆ 安慰
smart ◆ soothe 刺痛 ◆ 抚慰
(同)calm, allay, balm, compose, lull, tranquilize
(记)斜音“酥” ~~~让僵硬的变酥安慰,缓和

sop [] n. 有安慰作用的东西(a conciliatory or propitiatory bribe, gift, or gesture)v.浸湿,湿透(to
wet thoroughly:soak)
(类)sop•conciliatory=subsidy•supportive
有安慰作用的东西•安抚的=津贴•有支持作用的(事物典型特征)
sopping•dampen=frigid•cool 浑身湿透的•使潮湿=寒冷的•使冷 (程度)

sophism [] n.诡辩 (看似有道理实际上无效)
(类)sophism•reasoning=counterfeit•money 诡辩•推理=赝品假钱•钱(假与正常)
(同)fallacy,deception,delusion, sophistry,speciousness, spuriousness
(记)[soph]智慧(参考)sophistry诡辩; sophisticated老于事故的,精密的

sophistication [] n. 诡辩;久经世故,精明
(类)ingenue•sophistication=cynic•trustfulness
天真无邪的少女•世故=愤世嫉俗者•信赖(人物与反面属性)
(反)politic ◆ unsophisticated 圆滑的 ◆ 不世故的
bucolic ◆ sophisticated 质朴的 ◆ 精明的

soporific [] adj. 催眠的,懒惰的,昏昏沉沉的 n. 安眠药
(类)soporific•sleep=vaccinating•immunity 安眠药•睡眠=预防接种•免疫性(前者导致后者)
soporific•alertment=analgesic•pain 催眠的•警醒=止痛药•疼痛(药物及其消除对象)
(反)soporific ◆ stimulant 安眠药 ◆ 兴奋剂
soporific ◆ /exhilarating 催眠的 ◆ 令人兴奋的
vitality ◆ soporific 活力 ◆ 安眠药
soporific ◆ exhilarating/invigorating/ provocative
昏昏欲睡的 ◆ 令人兴奋的/精神充沛的/刺激的
(记)[sopor] 昏睡(参考)soporous酣睡的

sordid [] adj. 肮脏的,不干净的,卑鄙的(base,vile; dirty, filthy)
(反)sordid ◆ wholesome 肮脏的 ◆ 卫生的
sordid ◆ noble 卑鄙的 ◆ 高尚的

sound [] adj. 健康的,强壮的,有效的,合理的
(类)ramshackle•soundness=garbled•clarity 摇摇欲坠的•坚固=混淆•清楚(形动反义)
(反)decrepit ◆ sound 衰老的 ◆ 强壮的
tenable ◆ unsound (主张)站的住脚的 ◆ 不合理的
(同)healthy,whole,stable,valid

sparse [] adj. 稀疏的,薄的(not thickly grown or settled)
(反)sparse ◆ copious/ rife 稀疏的 ◆ 丰富的/非常多的
(同)meager,poor, scant, scanty

spartan [] adj. 简朴的,刻苦的(lacking luxury and comfort;sternly disciplined)
(类)imperial•significant=spartan•austere 至尊的•重要的=简朴的•简朴的(程度)
(反)spartan ◆ sybaritic/indulgent/luxuriant/luxurious/sumptuous/voluptuous
简朴的 ◆ 奢侈逸乐的/放纵的/奢华的/奢华的/奢华的/奢侈逸乐的
spartan ◆ opulent 简朴的、节约的 ◆ 丰富的,富裕的
(记)sparta(斯巴达),希腊城邦,以简朴刻苦的态度处世

spat [] n. 小争吵(a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst)
(类)cabal•association=spat•quarrel 阴谋小集团•协会=小争吵•吵架(小与正常)

spate [] n. 泛滥,洪水;大量(sudden flood; a large number or amount)
(反)spate ◆ dearth 大量 ◆ 缺乏
spate ◆ trickling flow 洪水 ◆ 滴流
(同)flood, deluge,torrent
(记)s+pa+te(谐音:水沛的)→水很丰沛→洪水,泛滥

specific [] n. 特效药 adj. 特有的,独特的(special, distinctive, or unique)
(反)generic ◆ specific 一般的,普遍的 ◆ 特有的,独特的
(记)参考:specify指定,详细说明

specious [] adj.似是而非的(having a false look of truth or genuineness)
(类)specious•genuineness=illusory•reality 似是而非•真实=幻觉的•现实(前者缺乏后者)
(反)specious ◆ valid 似是而非的 ◆ 真实有效的
(同)false, erroneous, inaccurate, incorrect, unsound, sophistic

speck [] n. 小点,斑点,少量(a very small amount:bit)
(类)mite•creature=speck•amount 螨虫•动物=少量•数量(小或少与正常)
(记)peck 啄食,吃一点点(参考)peccadillo小过失

spectator [] n. 观众,目击者,旁观者(one who looks on or watches)
(类)epicure•discriminating=spectator•watching美食家•有识别力的=观众•观看的(正特)
(记)spect(看)+ator→看客→旁观者

spectrum [] n.光,光谱(colored band produced when a beam of light passed through a
prism)
(类)color•spectrum=tone•scale 颜色•光谱=音调•音阶(事物及其组合体)
(记)spect(看)+um→看到的颜色→光谱

speculate [] vi. 深思,推测(to meditate on or ponder a subject:reflect)
(反)conjecture ◆ restrain from the speculation 猜测 ◆ 不采取猜测

spendthrift [] n. 挥霍者(a person who spends improvidently or wastefully)
(类)craven•hero=parsimonious•spendthrift 懦夫•英雄=吝啬的•挥霍无度的(反义)
miser•parsimonious=spendthrift•prodigal 吝啬鬼•吝啬的=浪费的人•挥霍的(正特)
(反)spendthrift ◆ miser 浪费的人 ◆ 吝啬鬼
(同)prodigal, profligate, squanderer, unthrift, wastrel
(例)A spendthrift lost his estate through gambling.
(记)spend花费+thrift节约把节约的钱都花掉挥霍者

spent [] adj. 精疲力竭的,失去效用的(drained of energy or effectiveness:exhausted)
(类)precarious•stability=spent•efficacy 不稳定的•稳定性=失去效用的•功效 (缺乏)
(例)a spent arrow 强弩之末

spindly [] adj.细长的,纤弱的(frail or flimsy in appearance or structure)
(类)limber•flexibility=spindly•frailty 柔软的•弹性=纤弱的•脆弱
(参考)spindle 仿锤,形状细长

spiny [] adj. 多刺的,棘手的(abounding with difficulties or annoyances:thorny)
(反)spiny ◆ smooth 多刺的 ◆ 光滑的
(记)来自spine脊骨,隆起,刺 参考:spineless无脊椎的,没有骨气的

spire [] n. 教堂的尖塔,尖顶(the upper tapering part of something; pinnacle)
(类)spire•church=minaret•mosque 尖顶•教堂=尖塔•清真寺(前者是后者顶部的建筑)

spleen [] n.脾,脾气,怒气,怨恨(feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed)
(反)spleen ◆ good will 怨恨 ◆ 善意
(同)malice, despite,grudge, maliciousness

list 32 splint ---------submerge
splint [] n.(固定断骨的)夹板,托板(material or a device used to protect and immobilize
a body part),薄木片(a thin piece split or broken off lengthwise;sliver)
(类)splint•mobility=ballast•instability=purchase•slippery=lubricant•friction
夹板•灵活性=压舱物•不稳定=紧握•光滑(前者消除后者)
splint•immobilize=duct•convey 夹板•使不能移动=输送管•输送(事物及其功用)
buttress•edifice=splint•limb 扶壁•大厦=夹板•四肢(事物及其作用对象)
crumb•bread=splint•wood 面包屑•面包=木片•木头(事物及其特殊状态)

spoke [] n.(车轮上)幅条,阻碍物(any of the small radiating bars inserted in the hub
of a wheel to support the rim)
(类)spoke•hub=radius•center 幅条•毂,中心=半径•中心(前者从后者辐射出去)

spontaneous [] adj. 自发的,本能的(acting without apparent thought or eliberation)
(类)juggernaut•unstoppable=extemporization•spontaneous
摧毁一切的强大力量•无法阻止的=即席演说•自发的(人物典型特征)
【注:boast•dishonest 自夸•不诚实的 自夸是一种态度,诚实是一种品质,两者无必然因果联系】
(反)spontaneous ◆ premeditated 一时冲动的 ◆ 预先考虑的
(同)automatic, impulsive, instinctive, unmeditated, unpremeditated
(例)spontaneous burst of applause

spoof [] n. 轻松幽默的模仿(a light humorous parody)
(类)ode•poetry=spoof•parody 颂诗•诗=轻松幽默的模仿•滑稽模仿(种属)
【注:parody :a feeble or ridiculous imitation 拙劣或滑稽的模仿】
nicety•distinction=spoof•parody 细微差别:差别=轻松幽默的模仿:滑稽模仿(种属)
(记)比较:spoon匙;spool卷轴

sporadic [] adj. 偶尔发生的,零星发生的(occurring occasionally)
(反)chronic ◆ sporadic 习惯性的 ◆ 零星发生的
sporadic ◆ regular 偶发性的 ◆ 有规则的
sporadic ◆ frequent 零星的 ◆ 频繁的
(同)infrequent, few, occasional
(记)spor(=sper分散)→分散的→零星发生的 参考:disperse分散

sprain [] n. 扭伤,扭筋(to injure by a sudden or severe twist)
(类)sprain•injure=cold•contagion 扭伤•伤害=感冒•传染病(种属)
(同)turn, twist, wrench
(例)He sprained her ankle 她扭伤了脚踝。
(记)由rain联想:雨天路滑,容易扭伤。

sprightly [] adj.愉快的,活泼的(marked by a gay lightness and vivacity)
(类)dodder•unsteady=cavort•sprightly 蹒跚•不稳的=腾跃•活泼地(动作特征)
(反)hangdog ◆ sprightly 沮丧的 ◆ 愉快的
(同)lively,spirited alert, animate, keen, vivacious
(记)spring+brightly明快的春天愉快的,活泼的

spur [] vt. 刺激,激励,用马刺刺
(反)deter ◆ spur 制止 ◆ 激励
(同)urge, exhort, goad, prod, prompt, propel

spurious [] adj. 假的,伪造的(false;forged)
(反)spurious ◆ genuine 假的 ◆ 真实的
(同)apocryphal, unauthentic, ungenuine
(例)they had bought a spurious painting.他们买了一幅假画。
(记)容易混淆puerile青春期的,幼稚的

spurn [] v. 拒绝,摈弃(to reject with disdain or contempt:scorn)
(反)spurn ◆ welcome willingly 摈弃 ◆ 欣然欢迎
spurn ◆ court/crave/embrace 摈弃 ◆ 追求, 渴望, 拥抱
spurned ◆ beloved 摈弃的 ◆ 心爱的
(同)decline, disapprove, refuse, reject, reprobate, repudiate

squabble [] n. 争论,口角,小争吵(a noisy altercation or minor quarrel)
(类)squabble•dispute/quarrel =foible•failing 小争吵•争论=小缺点•缺点 (小和正常)
tiff•squabble=foible•failing 小争吵•争吵=小缺点•缺点 (小和正常)
【注:foible:a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior|| tiff:a petty quarrel
squabble除了表示小争吵外还可表示正常的争吵a noisy altercation】
(同)spat,tiff,quarrel

squalid [] adj. 污秽的,肮脏的(marked by filthiness from neglect or poverty)
(反)squalid ◆ pristine 污秽的 ◆ 纯净的,未遭毁坏的
squalid ◆ salubrious 肮脏的 ◆ 有益健康的
squalid ◆ immaculate 肮脏的 ◆ 纯净的
splendor ◆ squalor 壮丽 ◆ 肮脏
(同)dirty, black, foul, impure, nasty, soily

squall [] n.小骚乱 狂风,暴风雪,哇哇叫声(a short-lived commotion)
(类)squall•commotion=flash•illumination 短时骚乱•骚动=闪现,一瞬间•照明(短与正常)

squander [] vt. 浪费,使分散(to spend extravagantly or foolishly:dissipate)
(类)proctor•supervise=prodigal•squander 学监•监督=浪费者•浪费(正面特征)
【注:proctor :supervisor, monitor; specifically• one appointed to supervise students
(as at an examination) 监督者,尤其是被任命监督学生的人,如考试中的监考者。】
(反)squander ◆ conserve/husband 浪费 ◆ 保存/节俭
(记)s+quan(谐音“款”=钱)→撕钱→浪费

squat [] adj. 敦实的,矮壮结实的(marked by disproportionate shortness or thickness)
(反) squat ◆ tall and thin 矮状结实的 ◆ 又高又瘦的
(记)原义“蹲”谐音“敦”→敦实的

squint [] v. 斜视(to look or peer with eyes partly closed)
(类)squint•eye=pucker•mouth 斜视•眼=噘嘴•嘴巴 (人物器官及其特殊形态)
(记)squi(谐音“私窥”)→私下里窥视→斜着眼看
区别:quaint离奇有趣的;acquaintance熟人

squelch [] n. v. 压制,镇压(to completely suppress:quell)
(反)squelch ◆ foment/ kindle 压制 ◆ 煽动/激发
(同)squash, quell
(记)squelch,squash,quell等词都有可能是拟声词。

stabilize [] v. 稳定(to make stable, steadfast, or firm)
(反)stability ◆ inconstancy 稳定性 ◆ 反复无常
stabilize ◆ fluctuate 稳定 ◆ 波动

stagnant [] adj. 不流动的,停滞的,不活泼的(not flowing in a current or stream)
(反)stagnant ◆ flowing 停滞的 ◆ 流动的
(同)static, immobile, stationary
(记)[stagn]=stand+ant不动的

staid [] adj. 稳重的,沉着的(marked by settled sedateness and often prim self-restraint)
(反)staid ◆ jaunty 沉重的 ◆ 轻快的
puckish ◆ staid 淘气的 ◆ 严肃的
(记)stay的过去式
(同)sober, grave

stalemate [] n. 和棋局面,僵局(a drawn contest:deadlock)
(类)clog•drainage=stalemate•negotiations 阻塞防碍排水=僵局阻碍谈判
(记)stale(陈腐的)

stalk [] v. 暗中追踪(to pursue quarry or prey stealthily)
(类)collude•cooperate=stalk•follow=infiltrate•enter
串通•合作=暗中追踪•跟随=秘密潜入•进入
grazing•foragers=stalking•hunter 放牧•放牧者= 暗中追踪•追踪捕猎者

stalwart [] adj.健壮的,坚定的(marked by outstanding strength and vigor)
(类)constant•stalwart=judiciousness•sage 坚决的•坚定的=明智的•贤明的 (同义)
(反)lank ◆ stalwart 瘦弱的 ◆ 健壮的
timorous ◆ stalwart 胆怯的 ◆ 意志坚定的
(同)strong,stout,sturdy,tenacious,tough,steadfast

stamina [] n. 体力,耐力(staying power, endurance)
(反)stamina ◆ frailty 耐力 ◆ 脆弱
(记)stamina-"斯塔姆"(荷兰队后卫)以体力、耐力好著称
(同)strength,tolerance,endurance,toleration

stammer [] v.口吃,结巴(to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking•halt)
(类)falter•act=stammer•speak 踌躇•行动=口吃•说(行为及其特征方式)
stammer•halting=drone•monotonous
结巴的说•犹豫=单调地说•单调的(行为典型特征)

stanza [] n.(诗)节,段(a division of a poem consisting of a series of lines)
(类)ballad•stanza=novel•chapter 歌谣•诗节=小说•章节 (部分与整体关系)
stanza•line=volume•issue=concert•program 诗节•诗句=合订本•期=音乐会•节目
【注• volume • a series of issues of a periodical】
stanza•poem/poetry=act•opera=movement•symphony=paragraph• prose
诗节•诗=幕•歌剧 =乐章•交响乐=段落•散文(部分与整体关系)
(记)stan(站住)+za=诗停住的地方=(诗)节,段
(同)strophe

startle [] vt. 使大吃一惊 n. 吃惊(to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously)
(反)startle ◆ lull 使大吃一惊 ◆ 使平静(干扰:appease, reconcile平息,安抚)
【注】lull:soothe or calm 是从一种惊讶,恐惧的情绪中平静下来。而appease,reconcile带有安抚
的意味,多指使人从愤怒、悲痛、烦恼等情绪的安静下来。
(同)frighten,alarm,fright,scare

static [] adj. 静态的,呆板的,停滞的(a lack of movement, animation, or progression)
(类)static•move=pliable•inflexible 静态的•移动=顺从的•固执的
(反)motility ◆ stasis 运动性 ◆ 停滞
stasis ◆ period of change 稳定 ◆ 改变期间
(同)immobile,stagnant,stationary

stature [] n. 身高, 身材(natural height in an upright position)
(类)stature•tall=sound•loud 身材高大=声音宏亮(事物及其修饰)
(记)stat 站 + ure(状态) 联想:站着展示身高,身材
辨别:status 地位,身份 statute 法令,条例

steadfast [] adj. 坚定的,忠诚的(firm in belief, determination, or adherence:loyal)
(反)capricious ◆ steadfast 善变的 ◆ 坚定的
(记)stead + fast紧的,耐久的)
(同)faithful,constant,abiding,inflexible

stealth [] n. 秘密行动,鬼祟(the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly)
(类)caprice•whimsical=stealth•furtive=discontent•unsatisfied
反复无常•反复无常的=秘密行动•偷偷摸摸的=不满•不满足的(名形同义)
(记)steal(偷)+th

steep [] vt. vi. 浸,泡(to cover with or plunge into a liquid)
(反)steep ◆ parch 浸湿 ◆ 烤干
(同)saturate, soak, immerse
(记)常用义:陡峭的

stench [] n.臭气,恶臭v.(使)发恶臭(to emit a strong offensive odor:stink)
(类)stench•nose=din•ear 臭气•鼻子=喧闹•耳朵(感观及其感知的对象)

stencil [] n.(用以刻写文字、图案的)模版 v.用模版刻写
(类)stencil•lettering=pattern•sewing 模版•刻出的字母=纸样•缝纫物

stentorian [] adj.声音宏亮的(extremely loud)
(类)audible•stentorian=discernable•obvious/ manifest
听得见的• 声音宏亮的=可辨别的•明显的(程度)
(反)stentorian ◆ faint 哄亮的 ◆ 微弱的
(同)earsplitting, raucous, strident,stentorious

sterile [] adj. 不毛的(unproductive of vegetation)无菌的(free from living organisms and
especially microorganisms)
(类)impeccable•flaw=sterile•germ/ bacteria
没有缺点的•错误,缺点=无菌的•细菌(缺乏关系)
plain•austere=clean•sterile 朴素的•简朴的=洁净的•无菌的(同义)
(反)verdant ◆ sterile 青翠的 ◆ 不毛的
sterilize ◆ contaminate 杀菌 ◆ 污染
(同)barren,impotent, infecund, infertile
(类)sterilization•microorganisms=deforestation•trees
杀菌•微生物=采伐森林•树木(前者去除后者)

stickler [] n.坚持细节之人,一丝不苟的人(one who insists on exactness or
completeness in the observance of something)
(类)stickler•exacting =pedagogue•indoctrinate
一丝不苟者•苛求的=教师•灌输(人物典型行为)
stickler•exacting=defeatist•resigned
坚持细节之人• 苛求的=悲观主义者•听天由命的
stickler•derelict=poseur•unaffected
一丝不苟的人不会玩忽职守=装模做样的人不自然
(记)stickle(固执己见)+er stick(粘住引申为坚持)+ler

stiff [] adj. 僵硬的;呆板的(lacking in suppleness or responsiveness)
(类)numb•sensation=stiff•suppleness 麻木的•感觉=僵硬的•柔软性(缺乏关系)
(反)suppleness ◆ stiffness/rigidness 柔软 ◆ 坚硬
(同)immalleable, impliable, incompliant, rigid, obstinate

stifle [] vt. 抑制, 使窒息(to withhold from circulation or expression:repress; to kill by
depriving of oxygen :suffocate)
(反)stifle ◆ foment/foster ◆ stifle 抑制 ◆ 煽动/鼓励
(同)suppress,suffocate

stigma [] n. 耻辱,污名(a mark of shame or discredit:stain)
(反)stigma ◆ mark of esteem 耻辱 ◆ 尊敬的标志
(同)stain, blur, brand, slur, spot
(记)stigmatize vt. 污蔑、玷污

stilted [] adj. 夸张的,高傲的;不自然的(pompous, lofty ;formal, stiff)
(同)bombastic, genteel, affected, mincing, pretentious
(记)stilt(高跷) + ed

stint [] v. 吝惜,节省(to be sparing or frugal)
(反)lavish ◆ stint 浪费 ◆ 节省
(同)scrimp, pinch, skimp, spare
(记)区别:stink (n. 臭味,臭气)

stingy [] adj. 小气的,吝啬的(not generous or liberal)stingy
(类)miser•stingy= loner•solitary=sage•judicious
吝啬鬼•吝啬的=孤独地人•孤独的=贤人•明智的 (人物典型行为)
(反)generosity ◆ stinginess 慷慨 ◆ 小气
generously ◆ stingily 慷慨地 ◆ 吝啬地
(同)mingy, miserly,niggard,parsimonious,penurious

stipple [] v.点画,点描,点刻(to engrave by means of dots and flicks)
(类)stipple•dot=striate•band 点描•点=加条纹•条带(动作及其对象关系)
(记)stip(点)+ple=用点刻画
(同)speckle, dot, freckle, speck

stipulate []v.(作为合约的条件)规定;按合同要求(to lay down as a condition of an
agreement; require by contract)
(类)request•command=propose•stipulate 请求•命令=提议•规定(呈请与下达的关系)
(反)stipulation ◆ tacit requirement 约定 ◆ 默认的要求
(记)stip(点)+ulate→点名,讲定(条件)

stitch [] n. 一针,缝线(a single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing)
(类)tile•mosaic=stitch•sampler 瓷砖•马赛克=针脚•刺绣样品(前者组成后者)

stock [] n. 库存,储备 adj. 存货的,常备的,普通的(commonly used or brought forward)
(类)census•population=inventory•stock 人口普查(调查)人口=存货清单(清点)库存
(反)stock ◆ unique 普通的 ◆ 独特的
(同)supply, inventory, store,reserve, hoard ;standard

stockade [] n. 栅栏,围栏(an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes)
(类)stockade•enclosure=pillar•support 栅栏用来围绕=柱子用来支撑

stodgy [] adj. 平庸的,乏味的(boring, dull)非常守旧的(extremely old-fashioned:
hideboucd)
(类)stodgy•conservative=mad•exited=mawkish•sentimental
非常守旧的•保守的=疯狂的•激动的=令人作呕的•感性的(程度)
(反)stodgy ◆ exciting 乏味的 ◆ 令人兴奋的
(同)dull, dreary, humdrum, monotonous, pedestrian

stoke [] v. 添加燃料,司炉,激起(to poke or stir up (as a fire):supply with fuel)
(类)stoke•fuel=irrigate•water 添加燃料• 燃料= 灌溉•水 (利用)

stoic [] adj. 禁欲的,坚忍的,冷静的(not showing passion)n.坚忍克己的人
(类)stoic•perturb=avaricious•satisfy 冷静的•扰乱=贪婪的•满足 (不容易被)
(反)stoic ◆ flinch 坚忍 ◆ 畏缩
(记)来源中古英语 stoic[斯多葛派学者],主张坚忍克己
(同)apathetic,dull,impassive, phlegmatic, stolid

stolid [] adj. 无动于衷的,感情麻木的(expressing little or no sensibility:unemotional)
(反)stolid ◆ excitable 感情麻木的 ◆ 易兴奋的

stomach v.吃得下,容忍(to bear without overt reaction or resentment)
(反)stomach ◆ refuse to tolerate 容忍 ◆ 不能容忍
(同)abide, bear,brook, endure, swallow, tolerate

stonewall v. 拒绝(合作)(to refuse to comply or cooperate with)
(反)stonewall ◆ cooperate fully

stouthearted adj. 刚毅的,大胆的(having a stout heart or spirit:stubborn)
(反)pusillanimous ◆ stouthearted 胆小的 ◆ 大胆的
(记)stout(勇敢的,坚决的)+heart(心)+ed
(同)brave , bold, courageous, dauntless, intrepid,valiant

stratagem [] n.谋略,策略(a cleverly contrived trick or scheme for gaining an end)
(类)stratagem•deceive=concession•placate 计谋•欺骗=让步•安抚 (手段目的)
(同)trick ,artifice, device, feint, ploy, wile

strait [] n. 海峡(a comparatively narrow passageway connecting two large bodies of water)
(类)isthmus•land=strait•water 地峡•陆地=海峡•海水 (连接关系)

stratify [] v. 使层化,使分成各种等级(to divide into classes, castes, or social strata)
(反)stratify ◆ homogenize 区分等级 ◆ 使等同
(记)stratum(层:地层,生物组织层,社会阶层)复数为strata

stray [] adj. 离群的,迷途的,偶然的 vi.离群,迷途,偏离(separated from the group or the
main body;to wander from company, restraint, or proper limits)
(类)digressive•(topic/subject)=stray•group
离题的•(话题/主题)=离群的•团体(动作及其相关对象)
(同)deviate, digress, depart, divagate, diverge, wander

strength [] n. 力量,强度,浓度(degree of potency of effect or of concentration)
(类)slacken•tautness=dilute•strength
放松(减轻)紧张度=稀释(减轻)浓度 (动作及其减少结果)
(同)power, potency, sinew

striate [] vt. 加条纹(to mark with striations or striae)
(类)stipple•dot=striate•band 点画•点=加条纹•条带 (动作及其对象关系)
striated•groove=dappled•spot 有条痕的•凹槽=有斑点的•斑点(形名同义)
(同)streak, stripe

stricture [] n. 严厉谴责,束缚(an adverse criticism•censure;restriction)
(反)eulogy ◆ stricture 颂词 ◆ 责难
(记)strict(严格的)+ure
(同)animadversion, aspersion, obloquy

stride [] v. 迈大步走,跨过(to move with or as if with long steps)
(类)quaff•sip=stride•mince 大口地喝•啜饮=迈大步走•碎步走(大和小)

strident [] adj. 刺耳的,高声喧哗的(sound harsh, insistent, and discordant)
(类)stridency•sound=acridity•odor=garishness•appearance
刺耳•声音=辛辣•气味=艳丽•外表(前者都对感官进行了刺激)
(同)harsh, grating, raucous, stridulous

strike [] v. 冲制(奖牌)(to form by stamping, printing, or punching)
(类)strike•medal=mint•coin 冲制•奖牌=铸造•硬币(动作及其加工对象)

stringent [] adj. 绷紧的,严厉的,缺钱的(tight, constricted)
(反)stringent ◆ lax 绷紧的 ◆ 松弛的
(记)string(线,细绳)+ent→用绳子绷紧的
(同)rigid, draconian,ironhanded, rigorous, strict

strip [] v. 脱衣,剥夺(to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from)
(反)bedeck ◆ strip 穿衣打扮 ◆ 脱衣
(区别)stripe n. 条纹,斑纹;类型
(同)denude, disrobe, unclothe, undress

strut [] vi. 趾高气扬地走(to walk with a pompous and affected air)n. 支柱,压杆(a structural
piece designed to resist pressure in the direction of its length)
(类)strut•walk=pontificate•speak
趾高气扬地走•走=傲慢自大地说•说 (行为及其特征方式)
strut•wing=buttress•wall= guy•pylon
支柱•机翼=扶壁•墙壁=支索• 铁塔(前者支持后者)
(同)prance,swagger

studio [] n. 工作室,画室,摄影室(the working place of a sculptor or photographer)
(类)studio•artist=laboratory•scientist
画室•艺术家=实验室•科学家(人及其活动场所)

stultify [] vt. 使无效,抑制(to have a dulling or inhibiting effect on)使显得愚笨
(反)stultify ◆ stir/excite 抑制 ◆ 激起/刺激
stultifying ◆ exciting/stirring 抑制的 ◆ 使人激动的/激动人心的
(同)stagnate, stifle, trammel
(记)stult(=stupid愚蠢的)+ify→使愚蠢,使无效

stupor [] n. 迟钝,麻痹,无知觉(a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended
sense or sensibility)
(类)stupor•alert=despair•hopeful 麻痹•警惕的=绝望•有希望的(反义)

stun [] vt. 使晕倒,使发愣(to make senseless or dizzy by:daze)
(派)stunning adj. 极富魅力的

stunt [] v.阻碍(成长)(to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of)
(类)obstruct•progress=stunt•growth 延缓进步=阻碍成长
(反)nurture ◆ stunt 抚育 ◆ 阻碍生长
(同)dwarf, suppress

sturdy [] adj. 强健的,健全的(marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor)
(反)decrepit ◆ sturdy 衰老的 ◆ 强健的
(同)strong,stalwart,stout,tenacious,tough

stygian [] adj. 漆黑的,幽暗的,地狱的(extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding)
(类)stygian•dark=abysmal•low 漆黑的•黑=极深的•低的(程度)
(同)hellish,infernal,gloomy

stylus [] n. 铁笔(an instrument for writing, marking, or incising)
(类)stylus•mark=lamp•illumination 铁笔•标记=灯•照明 (工具及其用途)
stylus•engraving=shield•protecting 铁笔•雕刻=防护物,盾•保护(工具及其作用)

stymie [] v. 阻碍(to present an obstacle to•stand in the way of)
(反)stymie ◆ abet/ foster/ promote 阻碍 ◆ 协助/ 促进

subdue [] vt. 征服;压制;减轻(to conquer and bring into subjection•vanquish;
to bring under control especially by an exertion of the will • curb;to reduce the intensity or degree of)
(类)impervious•damaged=indomitable•subdued
无法伤害的•被损坏的=无法征服的•被征服的(反义)
(反)subdue ◆ burgeon/inflame 压制、抑制 ◆ 快速发展/激起
subdued ◆ unruly 屈服的 ◆ 不服管教的
flamboyant ◆ subdued 艳丽的 ◆ 柔和的
indomitable ◆ easily subdued 不屈的 ◆ 容易屈服的
(同)conquer,crush,defeat,subjugate,vanquish

subject [] n. 臣民,受支配的人 vt.使屈从于…,使隶属
(反)potentate ◆ subject 统治者 ◆ 臣民
(同)citizen,national

subjugate [] vt. 征服,镇压(to bring under control and governance as a subject)
(类)blur•definition=subjugate•independence 使模糊•清晰度=使屈服•独立(反义)
(反)subjugation ◆ liberation 征服 ◆ 解放
enfranchise ◆ subjugate 解放 ◆ 镇压
(同)conquer , crush, defeat, subdue, vanquish

sublime [] adj. 崇高的,庄严的(lofty, grand, or exalted in expression or manner)
(反)sublime ◆ base/despicable 崇高的 ◆ 卑鄙的/可鄙的
sublime ◆ ridiculous/furtive 庄严的 ◆ 可笑的/鬼鬼祟祟的
sublime ◆ worthless 崇高的 ◆ 无益的
(同)grand, exalted, lofty, superb

subliminal [] adj.下意识的,潜在意识的(below the threshold of conscious perception)
(反)subliminal ◆ at a perceptible level 下意识的 ◆ 直觉的,可觉察到的

submerge [] vt. 浸没,淹没 vi. 潜入水中(to cover or overflow with water)
(类)bend•rigid=submerge•buoyant=dissolve•insoluble
弯曲•刚硬的=淹没•上浮的=溶解•不溶的
(反)submerge•water=inter•earth 潜入水中=埋藏在泥土里
(记)sub(下面)+merge(吞没)=淹没
(同)deluge,douse,immerse,inundate,overwhelm

list 33 submissive -------- taut
submissive [] adj. 服从的,顺从的,恭顺的(submitting to others)
(类)insubordinate•submissive=capricious•deliberate
不顺从的•顺从的=多变•深思熟虑的(反面特征)
(同)tame, domestic, domesticated, subdued

subordinate [] adj. 下级的,附属的(inferior)次要的(secondary)顺从的
(submissive to or controlled by authority) n. 下属
(反)principal ◆ subordinate 首要的 ◆ 次要的
(记)sub (在…之下) +ordin(=order次序)→顺序排在下面→下级的
(同)dependent, secondary, subject, under

subpoena [] n.(法律)传票(a writ commanding a person designated in it to appear in
court under a penalty for failure)v. 传讯
(类)lien•claim=subpoena•command 留置权是一种法律权力=传票是一种法律命令
subpoena•witness=conscript•soldier 传讯证人=招募士兵(招集)
(记)sub(在…下面)+ poena(=penalty 惩罚)→传讯

subservient [] a. 奉承的,屈从的(obsequiously submissive)
(类)willfulness•headstrong=subservience•fawning 任性•任性的=奉承•奉承的
(同)menial, obeisant, obsequious, servile

subside [] vi. 下陷,下沉(to let oneself settle down :sink;to sink or fall to the bottom)
(反)subside ◆ promote (地位)下降 ◆ 提升
subside ◆ withhold pressure 下沉 ◆ 抗压
(记)sub(下面)+side(=sit坐)→坐下去→下陷
(同)abate, die, lull, wane

subsidiary [] adj. 次要的;辅助的(of secondary importance)
(反)preponderant ◆ subsidiary 重要的 ◆ 次要的
(记)sub[在…下] + sidiary