1.5 – Global Warming – prepar ielts video


Hello. I’m Margot Politis. Welcome to Study English, IELTS preparation. Today we’re going to look at a topic you’ve probably heard a lot about – global warming and the environment. First we’re going to look at ways of brainstorming , taking notes and developing ideas. Watch while we play some vision that contains ideas about the causes and effects of global warming …
While you watch, try to note down some of your ideas about what global warming is.
visual clip (you can play this from the website)
OK so you saw some ideas, and perhaps took some notes, during that clip. What were some of the ideas you saw?
What has caused global warming?
visual clip (you can play this from the website)
We saw gases in the air, cars, factory waste, and people cutting trees down.
So if you made those notes, you’d get an idea that these were the things causing global warming.
Now let’s listen to someone talk about the causes…
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. What else?
So what is global warming? It's the result of billions of decisions. It’s caused by decisions made by individuals – like driving big cars rather than small cars. And it’s caused by decisions made by corporations and nations, like dumping waste into the atmosphere.
Global warming is caused by about people using big cars, and people dumping waste into the atmosphere… OK, so you’ve looked at the vision, and listened to the speaker, and you’ve made notes about some of the causes of global warming. Now let’s look for some of the effects… visual clip (you can play this from the website) So after watching that, you might be thinking that global warming is having an effect on weather patterns, and on nature.
Listen to the speaker…
Nature is already responding to global warming. There have been changes in global weather patterns.
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills.
So there’s been weather changes, and changes to the ways trees, birds and butterflies behave.
So we have a list of causes, and list of effects. You might have identified those things from a text you’ve read, or from listening to someone speak. This is how you can take notes.
Once you’ve got your notes, you need to be able to link those causes and effects in sentences.
Let’s look at a couple of different ways.
The first and most basic way is just making a sequence of statements. This can sometimes be a powerful way of making a connection between things. Listen.
Heat-trapping gases are building up in the atmosphere. Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier, and butterflies are moving up hills.
From the sequence of information, we realise that birds are laying their eggs earlier because gases are making the earth warmer.
So a simple list of statements can show a cause and effect relationship. But there are other ways too. You can use the language of cause and effect. We can say:
X causes Y. Driving cars causes air pollution.
There are many other word choices as well.
Driving cars leads to air pollution.
Driving cars results in air pollution.
Notice you can also turn the sentence around…
'Air pollution is caused by driving cars'.
'Air pollution is the result of driving cars'.
'Air pollution is due to driving cars'.
Listen to an example here …
There have been changes in global weather patterns.
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills.
So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.
He’s talking about global warming.
Global warming is the result of billions of decisions.
Global warming is due to billions of decisions.
And remember we can turn the sentence around, and change the phrase: Billions of decisions cause global warming. Billions of decisions result in global warming. Billions of decisions lead to global warming. When you’re writing about causes and effects, make sure you use a variety of these kinds of phrases. There are many to choose from. You should make lists of cause and effect language, and the kinds of vocabulary you can use to describe cause and effect relationships.
Now listen to another clip.
Trees are flowering earlier. Birds are laying eggs earlier. Butterflies are moving up hills.
So what is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.
When you’re writing up your notes using cause and effect language, you’ll need to be able to follow or track the subject of the text.
Let’s look at that now.
“What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions”.
The word ‘it’ here is called a referent. We use referents to identify and track subjects through a conversation or a piece of writing.
If you repeat the subject too many times, your work will sound boring.
Listen to this:
The woman came into the room. The woman sat down. The woman drank her tea.
Look at how we use referents:
The woman came into the room. She sat down. She drank her tea.
When you are reading, you’ll need to be able to understand referents, and follow the subject through the text.
Other referents are this, that, these, those.
Here’s the clip again. Listen to the way the referents are used.
What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions.
The word it here refers to global warming.
What is global warming? Global warming is the result of billions of decisions.
And here’s another referent. What is global warming? It is the result of billions of individual decisions. You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He says: You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual. He means: You can’t manage global warming at the scale of the individual.
But notice how the subject changes here.
What is global warming? It’s the result of billions of individual decisions.
You can’t manage that at the scale of the individual.
Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level. That’s why it needs international agreements.
Managing the atmosphere has to take place at a global level.
The subject of this sentence is ‘managing the atmosphere'.
That’s why it needs international agreement.
So the 'it' here no longer refers to global warming. Now ‘it’ is referring to 'managing the atmosphere'.
That’s why managing the atmosphere needs international agreement.
When reading and writing, you must be very careful to notice when subjects change, and to be clear about which subject is being referred to. This can be quite tricky sometime.
Next time you see a paragraph, try to highlight all the referents like:
it, this, that, these, those, he, she, they.
Then try to work out what subject they are all referring back to.
It’s a great exercise, and it will help your reading, writing and speaking skills.
And that’s all for today. Hope you keep enjoying your English studies and Study English! I’ll see you next time.

你好。我是Margot Politis。欢迎学习英语,雅思备考。今天我们要看一个你可能听过很多关于的话题 - 全球变暖和环境。首先,我们将研究头脑风暴,记笔记和发展思路的方法。观看我们发挥的一些愿景,其中包含有关全球变暖的原因和影响的想法......
当你观看时,试着记下你对全球变暖是什么的一些看法。
视觉剪辑(你可以从网站上播放)
好的,所以你在那段剪辑中看到了一些想法,也许还有一些笔记。您看到的一些想法是什么?
是什么导致了全球变暖?
视觉剪辑(你可以从网站上播放)
我们看到空气中的气体,汽车,工厂废物和砍伐树木的人。
因此,如果你做了这些笔记,你会发现这些是造成全球变暖的因素。
现在让我们听听别人谈论原因......
吸热气体在大气中积聚。
吸热气体在大气中积聚。还有什么?
那么什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿决定的结果。这是由个人做出的决定造成的 - 比如驾驶大型车而不是小型车。这是由公司和国家做出的决定造成的,比如将废物倾倒到大气中。
全球变暖是由于人们使用大型汽车,以及人们将废物倾倒在大气中......好吧,所以你看了看视觉,听了演讲者,你已经记录了全球变暖的一些原因。现在让我们来看看一些效果......视觉剪辑(你可以在网站上播放)所以看完之后,你可能会认为全球变暖正在影响天气模式和自然界。
听演讲者......
大自然已经在应对全球变暖。全球天气模式发生了变化。
树木开花得更早。鸟类更早地产卵。蝴蝶正在向山上移动。
所以天气变化,树木,鸟类和蝴蝶的行为都发生了变化。
所以我们有一个原因列表和效果列表。您可能已经从您阅读的文本中识别出这些内容,或者通过倾听某人发言来识别这些内容。这是你如何做笔记。
获得笔记后,您需要能够将这些原因和效果链接到句子中。
让我们看看几种不同的方式。
第一种也是最基本的方法就是制作一系列陈述。这有时可以成为在事物之间建立联系的有效方式。听。
吸热气体在大气中积聚。树木开花得更早。鸟儿更早地产卵,蝴蝶正在向山上移动。
从信息的顺序,我们意识到鸟类正在更早地产卵,因为气体使地球变暖。
因此,简单的语句列表可以显示因果关系。但也有其他方法。您可以使用因果语言。我们可以说:
X导致Y.驾驶汽车导致空气污染。
还有许多其他单词选择。
驾驶汽车会导致空气污染。
驾驶汽车会导致空气污染。
请注意,你也可以把句子转过来......
“空气污染是由驾驶汽车引起的”。
“空气污染是驾驶汽车的结果”。
“空气污染是由于驾驶汽车”。
听一个例子......
全球天气模式发生了变化。
树木开花得更早。鸟类更早地产卵。蝴蝶正在向山上移动。
那么什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决策的结果。
他在谈论全球变暖。
全球变暖是数十亿决策的结果。
全球变暖是由数十亿的决定造成的。
请记住,我们可以改变这句话,并改变这句话:数十亿的决定导致全球变暖。数十亿的决策导致全球变暖。数十亿的决定导致全球变暖。在撰写关于原因和结果的文章时,请确保使用各种类型的短语。有很多可供选择。您应该列出因果语言,以及可用于描述因果关系的词汇类型。
现在听另一个片段。
树木开花得更早。鸟类更早地产卵。蝴蝶正在向山上移动。
那么什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决策的结果。
当您使用因果语言撰写笔记时,您需要能够跟踪或跟踪文本的主题。
我们现在来看看。
“什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决定的结果“。
这里的“它”这个词被称为指称物。我们使用所指对象通过对话或写作来识别和跟踪主题。
如果你重复主题太多次,你的工作听起来会很无聊。
听听这个:
那个女人走进了房间。那个女人坐了下来。那个女人喝了她的茶。
看看我们如何使用所指对象:
那个女人走进了房间。她坐下了。她喝了茶。
阅读时,您需要能够理解所指对象,并通过文本跟踪主题。
其他指称是这些,那些,那些。
这是剪辑了。聆听所指对象的使用方式。
什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决策的结果。
这里的词是指全球变暖。
什么是全球变暖?全球变暖是数十亿决策的结果。
这是另一个指示物。什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决策的结果。你无法按照个人的规模来管理。他说:你无法按照个人的规模来管理。他的意思是:你无法控制个人规模的全球变暖。
但请注意主题在这里如何变化。
什么是全球变暖?这是数十亿个人决策的结果。
你无法按照个人的规模来管理。
管理气氛必须在全球范围内进行。这就是它需要国际协议的原因。
管理气氛必须在全球范围内进行。
这句话的主题是“管理气氛”。
这就是它需要国际协议的原因。
所以'它'在这里不再是指全球变暖。现在'它'指的是'管理氛围'。
这就是管理大气需要国际协议的原因。
在阅读和写作时,您必须非常小心地注意到主题何时发生变化,并清楚地了解哪个主题被引用。有时这可能非常棘手。
下次看到段落时,请尝试突出显示所有指示对象:
它,这些,那些,那些,他,她,他们。
然后试着弄清楚他们所指的是什么主题。
这是一项很棒的练习,它将有助于您的阅读,写作和口语技巧。
这就是今天的一切。希望您继续享受英语学习和学习英语!我下次见。

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